Before the Windrush

BookBefore the Windrush

Before the Windrush

Race Relations in 20th-Century Liverpool

2014

March 31st, 2014

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Long before the arrival of the ‘Empire Windrush’ after the Second World War, Liverpool was widely known for its polyglot population, its boisterous ‘sailortown’ and cosmopolitan profile of transients, sojourners and settlers. Regarding Britain as the mother country, ‘coloured’ colonials arrived in Liverpool for what they thought to be internal migration into a common British world. What they encountered, however, was very different. Their legal status as British subjects notwithstanding, ‘coloured’ colonials in Liverpool were the first to discover: ‘There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack’. Despite the absence of significant new immigration, despite the high levels of mixed dating, marriages and parentage, and despite pioneer initiatives in race and community relations, black Liverpudlians encountered racial discrimination, were left marginalized and disadvantaged and, in the aftermath of the Toxteth riots of 1981, the once proud ‘cosmopolitan’ Liverpool stood condemned for its ‘uniquely horrific’ racism. ‘Before the Windrush’ is a fascinating study that enriches our understanding of how the empire ‘came home’. By drawing attention to Liverpool’s mixed population in the first half of the twentieth century and its approach to race relations, this book seeks to provide historical context and perspective to debates about Britain’s experience of empire in the twentieth century.

'… a pioneering study of race relations in twentieth-century Liverpool, based on a wealth of primary sources and written with clarity. The general treatment is chronological, from the early 1900s to the Toxteth riots in 1981.   ...This book is more than a contribution to the city’s history: it should be read by people responsible for shaping the country’s future race relations.'
Northern History

https://global.oup.com/academic/product/9781846319679?cc=us

About The Author

John Belchem is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Liverpool, author of Irish, Catholic and Scouse: The History of the Liverpool-Irish, 1800–1940 (LUP, 2007) and editor of Liverpool 800: Character, Culture, History (LUP, 2006).

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Section TitlePagePrice
Cover 1
Half-title 4
Title page 6
Copyright page 7
Contents 10
List of illustrations 11
List of tables 13
List of abbreviations 14
Acknowledgements 16
Preface 18
Introduction 24
Chapter 1 40
Chapter 2 62
Chapter 3 102
Chapter 4 144
Chapter 5184
Chapter 6 220
Chapter 7 248
Chapter 8 274
Sources consulted 302
Index309