Hunter Gatherer Research

The Chabu hunter-gatherers of the highland forests of Southwestern Ethiopia

Hunter Gatherer Research (2017), 3, (2), 323–352.

Abstract

A paucity of ethnographic data exists on the Chabu hunter-gatherers of Southwestern Ethiopia. Multiple linguistic studies have been conducted because some believe their language is a linguistic isolate, but they are relatively ‘new’ to the ethnographic record. Based on six months’ ethnographic fieldwork and reviews of existing literature, the paper provides an ethnographic introduction of the Chabu ecology, subsistence, settlement, demography, social organisation and contemporary issues threatening their lives and livelihoods. The paper aims to encourage new field research with the Chabu, increase the international awareness of the Chabu, and motivate some to assist with their threatened situation.

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Alemayehu Debelo 2010. An exploratory study of the Chab People in Mangeshi and Andracha Districts, Southwestern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus Illubabor Bethel Synod Development and Social Service commission. Unpublished report. An exploratory study of the Chab People in Mangeshi and Andracha Districts, Southwestern Ethiopia Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra 1991. A sketch of Shabo grammar. In Bender, ML (ed) Proceedings of the fourth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Bayreuth: Helmut Buske Verlag: 371–387. Proceedings of the fourth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium 371 387 Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra 1995. Brief phonology of Shabo (Mekeyir). In Nicolaï, R & Rottland, F (eds) Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Nice: Köppe Verlag:29–37. Brief phonology of Shabo (Mekeyir) Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium 29 37 Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra 2010. Šabo language. In Uhlig, S & Bausi, A (eds) Encyclopaedia Aethiopica. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz:436–437. Šabo language Encyclopaedia Aethiopica 436 437 Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra & Unseth, P 1989. Toward the classification of Shabo (Mikeyir). In Bender, ML (ed) Topics in Nilo-Saharan linguistics. Hamburg: Helmut Buske:405–418. Toward the classification of Shabo (Mikeyir) Topics in Nilo-Saharan linguistics 405 418 Google Scholar

Bender, ML 1977. The Surma language group: a preliminary report. Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 7:11–21. The Surma language group: a preliminary report Studies in African Linguistics 7 11 21 Google Scholar

Bender, ML 1983. Majang Phonology and Morphology. In Bender, ML (ed) Nilo-Saharan Language Studies. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, African Studies Center:114–147. Majang Phonology and Morphology Nilo-Saharan Language Studies 114 147 Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 1990. The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters. Current Anthropology 31:189–196. The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters Current Anthropology 31 189 196 Google Scholar

Cronk, L 1989. From hunters to herders: subsistence change as a reproductive strategy among the Mukogodo. Current Anthropology 30(2):224–234. From hunters to herders: subsistence change as a reproductive strategy among the Mukogodo Current Anthropology 30 224 234 Google Scholar

Dira, SJ & Hewlett, BS 2016. Learning to spear hunt among Ethiopian Chabu adolescent hunter-gatherers. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Japan: Springer:71–81. Learning to spear hunt among Ethiopian Chabu adolescent hunter-gatherers Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives 71 81 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Ehret, C 1982. Linguistic inferences of early Bantu history. In Ehret, C & Posnansky, M (eds) The archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African history. Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press:57–65. Linguistic inferences of early Bantu history The archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African history 57 65 Google Scholar

Ehret, C 1995. Do Krongo and Shabo belong in Nilo-Saharan? In Nicolaï, R & Rottland, F (eds) Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Nice: Köppe Verlag:24–29. Do Krongo and Shabo belong in Nilo-Saharan? Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium 24 29 Google Scholar

Freeman, D & Pankhurst, A (eds) 2003. Peripheral people: the excluded minorities of Ethiopia. Asmara: Red Sea Press. Peripheral people: the excluded minorities of Ethiopia Google Scholar

Freeman, M 1967. An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo. Arctic 30:154–175. An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo Arctic 30 154 175 Google Scholar

Fleming, HC 1991. Shabo: Presentation of data and preliminary classification. In Bender, ML (ed) Proceedings of the fourth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Bayreuth: Helmut Buske Verlag:389–402. Shabo: Presentation of data and preliminary classification 389 402 Google Scholar

González-Ruibal, A 2014. An archaeology of resistance: materiality and time in an African borderland. Lanham & Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield. An archaeology of resistance: materiality and time in an African borderland Google Scholar

González Ruibal, A, Ayán Vila, XM & Falquina Aparicio, Á 2013. Cultura material y etnicidad. Observaciones etnoarqueológicas en la región de Gambela (Etiopía). Materialidades. Perspectivas en Cultura material 1: 57–116. Cultura material y etnicidad. Observaciones etnoarqueológicas en la región de Gambela (Etiopía). Materialidades Perspectivas en Cultura material 1 57 116 Google Scholar

González-Ruibal, A, Marin Suarez, C, Sánchez-Elipe, M, Lesur, J & Martinez Barrio, C 2014. Late hunters of western Ethiopia: the sites of Ajilak (Gambela), c. AD 1000–1200. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 49(1):64–101. Late hunters of western Ethiopia: the sites of Ajilak (Gambela), c. AD 1000–1200 Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 49 64 101 Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS 1991. Intimate fathers: the nature and context of Aka Pygmy parental infant care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Intimate fathers: the nature and context of Aka Pygmy parental infant care Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS (ed) 2014. Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies Google Scholar

Hewlett, BL 2016. Innovation, processes of learning, and modes of cultural transmission among the Chabu adolescent forager-farmers of Ethiopia. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Japan: Springer:203–215. Innovation, processes of learning, and modes of cultural transmission among the Chabu adolescent forager-farmers of Ethiopia Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives 203 215 Google Scholar

James, W 1988. The listening ebony: moral knowledge, religion, and power among the Uduk of Sudan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The listening ebony: moral knowledge, religion, and power among the Uduk of Sudan Google Scholar

Kelly, R 2013. The lifeways of hunter-gatherers: the foraging spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The lifeways of hunter-gatherers: the foraging spectrum Google Scholar

Kibebe Tsehay Taye 2015. Documentation and grammatical description of Chabu. PhD thesis. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University. Google Scholar

Lee, RB & Daly, R 2004. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers Google Scholar

Levine, D 1974. Greater Ethiopia: the evolution of a multiethnic society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Greater Ethiopia: the evolution of a multiethnic society Google Scholar

Lewis, J & Woodburn, J 2007. Report on hunter-gatherer societies in South and Southwest Ethiopia. Final narrative for Chrestensen Fund, Grant 22556680. Unpublished. Report on hunter-gatherer societies in South and Southwest Ethiopia Google Scholar

Morris, B 1982. Forest traders: a socio-economic study of the Hill Pandaram. New Jersey: Athlone Press. Forest traders: a socio-economic study of the Hill Pandaram Google Scholar

Pagani, L, Kivisild, T, Tarekegn, A, Ekong, R, Plaster, C, Romero, IR, Ayub, Q, Mehdi, SQ, Thomas, MG, Luiselli, D, Bekele, E, Bradman, N, Balding, DJ & Tyler-Smith, C 2012. Ethiopian genetic diversity reveals linguistic stratification and complex influences on the Ethiopian gene pool. The American Society of Human Genetics 91:83–96. Ethiopian genetic diversity reveals linguistic stratification and complex influences on the Ethiopian gene pool The American Society of Human Genetics 91 83 96 Google Scholar

Sato, H 2014. The foraging lifestyle in the African tropical rainforest. In Hewlett, BS (ed) Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers:165–187. The foraging lifestyle in the African tropical rainforest Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies 165 187 Google Scholar

Schnoebelen, T 2009. (Un)classifying Shabo. In Austin, PK, Bond, O, Charette, M, Nathan, D & Sells, P (eds) Proceedings of conference on language documentation & linguistic theory 2. London: SOAS:275–284. (Un)classifying Shabo Proceedings of conference on language documentation & linguistic theory 2 275 284 Google Scholar

Stauder, J 1972. The Majangir: ecology and society of a Southwest Ethiopian people. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Majangir: ecology and society of a Southwest Ethiopian people Google Scholar

Stiles, D 1981. Hunters of the northern East African coast: origins and historical processes. Africa 51(4):848–862. Hunters of the northern East African coast: origins and historical processes Africa 51 848 862 Google Scholar

Stiles, D 1982. A history of the hunting peoples of the northern East Africa coast: ecological and socio-economic considerations. Paideuma 28:165–174. A history of the hunting peoples of the northern East Africa coast: ecological and socio-economic considerations Paideuma 28 165 174 Google Scholar

Tadesse W & Masresha, F 2012. Forests of Sheka: ecological, social, legal and economic dimensions of recent landuse/landcover changes: overview and synthesis. In Tadesse W & Masresha, F (eds) The Forests of Sheka. Addis Ababa, MELCA:1–20 Forests of Sheka: ecological, social, legal and economic dimensions of recent landuse/landcover changes: overview and synthesis The Forests of Sheka 1 20 Google Scholar

Turton, D 2002. 1986. A problem of domination at the periphery: the Kwegu and the Mursi. In Donham, D & James, W (eds) The southern marches of Imperial Ethiopia: essays in history and social anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:148–171. A problem of domination at the periphery: the Kwegu and the Mursi The southern marches of Imperial Ethiopia: essays in history and social anthropology 148 171 Google Scholar

Turton, ER 1975. Bantu, Galla, and Somali migration in the Horn of Africa: a reassessment of the Juba/Tana area. Journal of African History 16(4):519–537. Bantu, Galla, and Somali migration in the Horn of Africa: a reassessment of the Juba/Tana area Journal of African History 16 519 537 Google Scholar

UNESCO 2012. Sheka Forest. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/biosphere-reserves/africa/ethiopia/sheka-forest/. Google Scholar

Unseth, P 1984. Shabo (Mekeyir): A first discussion of classification and vocabulary. In Language Mecellanea 11. Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University. Unpublished manuscript. Shabo (Mekeyir): A first discussion of classification and vocabulary Language Mecellanea 11 Google Scholar

Walsh, M 1990. The Degere: forgotten hunter-gatherers of the East African coast. Cambridge Anthropology 14(3):68–81. The Degere: forgotten hunter-gatherers of the East African coast Cambridge Anthropology 14 68 81 Google Scholar

Yoshida, S 2008. Searching for a way out of social discrimination: a case study of the Manjo through the 2002 incident in Kaffa. Nile-Ethiopian Studies 12:47–60. Searching for a way out of social discrimination: a case study of the Manjo through the 2002 incident in Kaffa Nile-Ethiopian Studies 12 47 60 Google Scholar

Alemayehu Debelo 2010. An exploratory study of the Chab People in Mangeshi and Andracha Districts, Southwestern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus Illubabor Bethel Synod Development and Social Service commission. Unpublished report. An exploratory study of the Chab People in Mangeshi and Andracha Districts, Southwestern Ethiopia Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra 1991. A sketch of Shabo grammar. In Bender, ML (ed) Proceedings of the fourth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Bayreuth: Helmut Buske Verlag: 371–387. Proceedings of the fourth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium 371 387 Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra 1995. Brief phonology of Shabo (Mekeyir). In Nicolaï, R & Rottland, F (eds) Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Nice: Köppe Verlag:29–37. Brief phonology of Shabo (Mekeyir) Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium 29 37 Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra 2010. Šabo language. In Uhlig, S & Bausi, A (eds) Encyclopaedia Aethiopica. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz:436–437. Šabo language Encyclopaedia Aethiopica 436 437 Google Scholar

Anbessa Teferra & Unseth, P 1989. Toward the classification of Shabo (Mikeyir). In Bender, ML (ed) Topics in Nilo-Saharan linguistics. Hamburg: Helmut Buske:405–418. Toward the classification of Shabo (Mikeyir) Topics in Nilo-Saharan linguistics 405 418 Google Scholar

Bender, ML 1977. The Surma language group: a preliminary report. Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 7:11–21. The Surma language group: a preliminary report Studies in African Linguistics 7 11 21 Google Scholar

Bender, ML 1983. Majang Phonology and Morphology. In Bender, ML (ed) Nilo-Saharan Language Studies. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, African Studies Center:114–147. Majang Phonology and Morphology Nilo-Saharan Language Studies 114 147 Google Scholar

Bird-David, N 1990. The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters. Current Anthropology 31:189–196. The giving environment: another perspective on the economic system of gatherer-hunters Current Anthropology 31 189 196 Google Scholar

Cronk, L 1989. From hunters to herders: subsistence change as a reproductive strategy among the Mukogodo. Current Anthropology 30(2):224–234. From hunters to herders: subsistence change as a reproductive strategy among the Mukogodo Current Anthropology 30 224 234 Google Scholar

Dira, SJ & Hewlett, BS 2016. Learning to spear hunt among Ethiopian Chabu adolescent hunter-gatherers. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Japan: Springer:71–81. Learning to spear hunt among Ethiopian Chabu adolescent hunter-gatherers Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives 71 81 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Ehret, C 1982. Linguistic inferences of early Bantu history. In Ehret, C & Posnansky, M (eds) The archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African history. Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press:57–65. Linguistic inferences of early Bantu history The archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African history 57 65 Google Scholar

Ehret, C 1995. Do Krongo and Shabo belong in Nilo-Saharan? In Nicolaï, R & Rottland, F (eds) Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Nice: Köppe Verlag:24–29. Do Krongo and Shabo belong in Nilo-Saharan? Fifth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium 24 29 Google Scholar

Freeman, D & Pankhurst, A (eds) 2003. Peripheral people: the excluded minorities of Ethiopia. Asmara: Red Sea Press. Peripheral people: the excluded minorities of Ethiopia Google Scholar

Freeman, M 1967. An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo. Arctic 30:154–175. An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo Arctic 30 154 175 Google Scholar

Fleming, HC 1991. Shabo: Presentation of data and preliminary classification. In Bender, ML (ed) Proceedings of the fourth Nilo-Saharan linguistics colloquium. Bayreuth: Helmut Buske Verlag:389–402. Shabo: Presentation of data and preliminary classification 389 402 Google Scholar

González-Ruibal, A 2014. An archaeology of resistance: materiality and time in an African borderland. Lanham & Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield. An archaeology of resistance: materiality and time in an African borderland Google Scholar

González Ruibal, A, Ayán Vila, XM & Falquina Aparicio, Á 2013. Cultura material y etnicidad. Observaciones etnoarqueológicas en la región de Gambela (Etiopía). Materialidades. Perspectivas en Cultura material 1: 57–116. Cultura material y etnicidad. Observaciones etnoarqueológicas en la región de Gambela (Etiopía). Materialidades Perspectivas en Cultura material 1 57 116 Google Scholar

González-Ruibal, A, Marin Suarez, C, Sánchez-Elipe, M, Lesur, J & Martinez Barrio, C 2014. Late hunters of western Ethiopia: the sites of Ajilak (Gambela), c. AD 1000–1200. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 49(1):64–101. Late hunters of western Ethiopia: the sites of Ajilak (Gambela), c. AD 1000–1200 Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 49 64 101 Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS 1991. Intimate fathers: the nature and context of Aka Pygmy parental infant care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Intimate fathers: the nature and context of Aka Pygmy parental infant care Google Scholar

Hewlett, BS (ed) 2014. Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies Google Scholar

Hewlett, BL 2016. Innovation, processes of learning, and modes of cultural transmission among the Chabu adolescent forager-farmers of Ethiopia. In Terashima, H & Hewlett, BS (eds) Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives. Japan: Springer:203–215. Innovation, processes of learning, and modes of cultural transmission among the Chabu adolescent forager-farmers of Ethiopia Social learning and innovation in contemporary hunter-gatherers: evolutionary and ethnographic perspectives 203 215 Google Scholar

James, W 1988. The listening ebony: moral knowledge, religion, and power among the Uduk of Sudan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The listening ebony: moral knowledge, religion, and power among the Uduk of Sudan Google Scholar

Kelly, R 2013. The lifeways of hunter-gatherers: the foraging spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The lifeways of hunter-gatherers: the foraging spectrum Google Scholar

Kibebe Tsehay Taye 2015. Documentation and grammatical description of Chabu. PhD thesis. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University. Google Scholar

Lee, RB & Daly, R 2004. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers Google Scholar

Levine, D 1974. Greater Ethiopia: the evolution of a multiethnic society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Greater Ethiopia: the evolution of a multiethnic society Google Scholar

Lewis, J & Woodburn, J 2007. Report on hunter-gatherer societies in South and Southwest Ethiopia. Final narrative for Chrestensen Fund, Grant 22556680. Unpublished. Report on hunter-gatherer societies in South and Southwest Ethiopia Google Scholar

Morris, B 1982. Forest traders: a socio-economic study of the Hill Pandaram. New Jersey: Athlone Press. Forest traders: a socio-economic study of the Hill Pandaram Google Scholar

Pagani, L, Kivisild, T, Tarekegn, A, Ekong, R, Plaster, C, Romero, IR, Ayub, Q, Mehdi, SQ, Thomas, MG, Luiselli, D, Bekele, E, Bradman, N, Balding, DJ & Tyler-Smith, C 2012. Ethiopian genetic diversity reveals linguistic stratification and complex influences on the Ethiopian gene pool. The American Society of Human Genetics 91:83–96. Ethiopian genetic diversity reveals linguistic stratification and complex influences on the Ethiopian gene pool The American Society of Human Genetics 91 83 96 Google Scholar

Sato, H 2014. The foraging lifestyle in the African tropical rainforest. In Hewlett, BS (ed) Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers:165–187. The foraging lifestyle in the African tropical rainforest Hunter-gatherers of Congo Basin: cultures, histories, and biology of African Pygmies 165 187 Google Scholar

Schnoebelen, T 2009. (Un)classifying Shabo. In Austin, PK, Bond, O, Charette, M, Nathan, D & Sells, P (eds) Proceedings of conference on language documentation & linguistic theory 2. London: SOAS:275–284. (Un)classifying Shabo Proceedings of conference on language documentation & linguistic theory 2 275 284 Google Scholar

Stauder, J 1972. The Majangir: ecology and society of a Southwest Ethiopian people. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Majangir: ecology and society of a Southwest Ethiopian people Google Scholar

Stiles, D 1981. Hunters of the northern East African coast: origins and historical processes. Africa 51(4):848–862. Hunters of the northern East African coast: origins and historical processes Africa 51 848 862 Google Scholar

Stiles, D 1982. A history of the hunting peoples of the northern East Africa coast: ecological and socio-economic considerations. Paideuma 28:165–174. A history of the hunting peoples of the northern East Africa coast: ecological and socio-economic considerations Paideuma 28 165 174 Google Scholar

Tadesse W & Masresha, F 2012. Forests of Sheka: ecological, social, legal and economic dimensions of recent landuse/landcover changes: overview and synthesis. In Tadesse W & Masresha, F (eds) The Forests of Sheka. Addis Ababa, MELCA:1–20 Forests of Sheka: ecological, social, legal and economic dimensions of recent landuse/landcover changes: overview and synthesis The Forests of Sheka 1 20 Google Scholar

Turton, D 2002. 1986. A problem of domination at the periphery: the Kwegu and the Mursi. In Donham, D & James, W (eds) The southern marches of Imperial Ethiopia: essays in history and social anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:148–171. A problem of domination at the periphery: the Kwegu and the Mursi The southern marches of Imperial Ethiopia: essays in history and social anthropology 148 171 Google Scholar

Turton, ER 1975. Bantu, Galla, and Somali migration in the Horn of Africa: a reassessment of the Juba/Tana area. Journal of African History 16(4):519–537. Bantu, Galla, and Somali migration in the Horn of Africa: a reassessment of the Juba/Tana area Journal of African History 16 519 537 Google Scholar

UNESCO 2012. Sheka Forest. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/biosphere-reserves/africa/ethiopia/sheka-forest/. Google Scholar

Unseth, P 1984. Shabo (Mekeyir): A first discussion of classification and vocabulary. In Language Mecellanea 11. Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University. Unpublished manuscript. Shabo (Mekeyir): A first discussion of classification and vocabulary Language Mecellanea 11 Google Scholar

Walsh, M 1990. The Degere: forgotten hunter-gatherers of the East African coast. Cambridge Anthropology 14(3):68–81. The Degere: forgotten hunter-gatherers of the East African coast Cambridge Anthropology 14 68 81 Google Scholar

Yoshida, S 2008. Searching for a way out of social discrimination: a case study of the Manjo through the 2002 incident in Kaffa. Nile-Ethiopian Studies 12:47–60. Searching for a way out of social discrimination: a case study of the Manjo through the 2002 incident in Kaffa Nile-Ethiopian Studies 12 47 60 Google Scholar

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Author details

Dira, Samuel Jilo

Hewlett, Barry S

Dira, Samuel Jilo

Hewlett, Barry S