Town Planning Review

Civic-led public space: favourable conditions for the management of community gardens

Town Planning Review (2018), 89, (6), 575–595.

Abstract

Public space is increasingly developed and managed by actors other than local governments, ranging from citizens to corporations. This article investigates the role of local citizens as managers of five community gardens in the Netherlands. It aims to unravel conditions required for such civic-led initiatives to thrive in the management phase. Our in-depth interviews with volunteers revealed three important conditions for maintaining these gardens: (1) fully connected cooperation with a ‘fun factor’, (2) strong neighbourhood involvement, and (3) lively places of encounter. Overarching these conditions is the need for a flexible and resilient organisation structure to respond to changing circumstances.

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ADAMS, D. and TIESDELL, S. (2013), Shaping Places: Urban Planning, Design and Development, London, Routledge. Shaping Places: Urban Planning, Design and Development Google Scholar

BELL, S., FOX-KÄMPER, R., KESHAVARZ, N., BENSON, M., CAPUTO, S., NOORI, S. and VOIGT, A. (eds) (2016), Urban Allotment Gardens in Europe, New York, Routledge. Urban Allotment Gardens in Europe Google Scholar

BERDING, U., HAVEMANN, A., PEGELS, J. and PERETHALER, B. (2010), Stadträume in Spannungsfeldern: Plätze, Parks und Promenaden im Schnittbereich öffentlichter und privater Aktivitäten, Detmold, Rohn Verlag. Stadträume in Spannungsfeldern: Plätze, Parks und Promenaden im Schnittbereich öffentlichter und privater Aktivitäten Google Scholar

BOOGERS, M. and VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. (2012), Meer doen met doe-democratie: Nieuwe coproducties voor een veerkrachtig lokaal bestuur, Tilburg, Tilburg School of Politics and Public Administration. Meer doen met doe-democratie: Nieuwe coproducties voor een veerkrachtig lokaal bestuur Google Scholar

BRANDSEN, T., VAN DE DONK, W. and PUTTERS, K. (2005), ‘Griffins or chameleons? Hybridity as a permanent and inevitable characteristic of the third sector’, International Journal of Public Administration, 28, 749–65. Griffins or chameleons? Hybridity as a permanent and inevitable characteristic of the third sector International Journal of Public Administration 28 749 65 Google Scholar

BRAUN, E., ESHUIS, J. and KLIJN, E. H. (2014), ‘The effectiveness of place brand communication’, Cities, 41, 64–70. The effectiveness of place brand communication Cities 41 64 70 Google Scholar

CARMONA, M. (2015), ‘Re-theorising contemporary public space: a new narrative and a new normative’, Journal of Urbanism, 8, 373–405. Re-theorising contemporary public space: a new narrative and a new normative Journal of Urbanism 8 373 405 Google Scholar

COWIE, P. (2017), ‘Performing planning: understanding community participation in planning through theatre’, Town Planning Review, 88, 401–21. Performing planning: understanding community participation in planning through theatre Town Planning Review 88 401 21 Google Scholar

CRESWELL, J. W. (2013), Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches, Los Angeles, SAGE. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches Google Scholar

DAVY, B. (2014), ‘Polyrational property: rules for the many uses of land’, International Journal of the Commons, 8, 472–92. Polyrational property: rules for the many uses of land International Journal of the Commons 8 472 92 Google Scholar

DEKKER, P., DEN RIDDER, J. and SCHNABEL, P. (2011), Continu onderzoek burgerperspectieven 2011, The Hague, Social and Cultural Planning Office. Continu onderzoek burgerperspectieven 2011 Google Scholar

DE MAGALHÃES, C. (2010), ‘Public space and the contracting-out of publicness: a framework for analysis’, Journal of Urban Design, 15, 559–74. Public space and the contracting-out of publicness: a framework for analysis Journal of Urban Design 15 559 74 Google Scholar

DE MAGALHÃES, C. and CARMONA, M. (2006), ‘Innovations in the management of public space: reshaping and refocusing governance’, Planning Theory and Practice, 7, 289–303. Innovations in the management of public space: reshaping and refocusing governance Planning Theory and Practice 7 289 303 Google Scholar

DENTERS, S., TONKENS, E., VERHOEVEN, I. and BAKKER, J. (2012), Burgers maken hun buurt, The Hague, Platform31. Burgers maken hun buurt Google Scholar

DE WILDE, M., HURENKAMP, M. and TONKENS, E. (2014), ‘Flexible relations, frail contacts and failing demands: how community groups and local institutions interact in local governance in the Netherlands’, Urban Studies, 51, 3365–82. Flexible relations, frail contacts and failing demands: how community groups and local institutions interact in local governance in the Netherlands Urban Studies 51 3365 82 Google Scholar

DONAHUE, J. D. and ZECKHAUSER, R. J. (2008) ‘Public–private collaboration’, in R. E. Goodin, M. Moran and M. Rein, The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 496–528. Public–private collaboration The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy 496 528 Google Scholar

EIZENBERG, E. (2016), From the Ground Up: Community Gardens in New York City and the Politics of Urban Transformation, New York, Routledge. From the Ground Up: Community Gardens in New York City and the Politics of Urban Transformation Google Scholar

FRANZEN, A., HOBMA, F., DE JONGE, H. and WIGMANS, G. (eds) (2011), Management of Urban Development Processes: Governance, Design and Feasibility, Amsterdam, Techne Press. Management of Urban Development Processes: Governance, Design and Feasibility Google Scholar

GEHL, J. (2011), Life between Buildings: Using Public Space, Copenhagen, The Danish Architecture Press. Life between Buildings: Using Public Space Google Scholar

HAYDEN-SMITH, R. (2014), Sowing the Seeds of Victory: American Gardening Programs of World War I, Jefferson, NC, McFarland Books. Sowing the Seeds of Victory: American Gardening Programs of World War I Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2010), Making Better Places: The Planning Project in the Twenty-First Century, London, Palgrave. Making Better Places: The Planning Project in the Twenty-First Century Google Scholar

HEURKENS, E. (2012), Private Sector-Led Urban Development Projects: Management, Partnerships and Effects in the Netherlands and the UK, Delft, AB+E. Private Sector-Led Urban Development Projects: Management, Partnerships and Effects in the Netherlands and the UK Google Scholar

HOU, J. (2010), Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities, London, Routledge. Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities Google Scholar

HOYT, L. M. (2003), The Business Improvement District: An Internationally Diffused Approach to Revitalization, Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Business Improvement District: An Internationally Diffused Approach to Revitalization Google Scholar

IGALLA, M. and VAN MEERKERK, I. (2015), ‘De duurzaamheid van burgerinitiatieven: een empirische verkenning’, Bestuurswetenschappen, 69, 25–53. De duurzaamheid van burgerinitiatieven: een empirische verkenning Bestuurswetenschappen 69 25 53 Google Scholar

KANE, J., PATAPAN, H. and ’T HART, P. (eds) (2009), Dispersed Democratic Leadership: Origins, Dynamics and Implications, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Dispersed Democratic Leadership: Origins, Dynamics and Implications Google Scholar

KARRE, P. M. (2011), Heads and Tails, Both Sides of the Coin: An Analysis of Hybrid Organizations in the Dutch Waste Management Sector, The Hague, Eleven Publishing. Heads and Tails, Both Sides of the Coin: An Analysis of Hybrid Organizations in the Dutch Waste Management Sector Google Scholar

KAYDEN, J. S. (2000), Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience, New York, John Wiley & Sons. Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience Google Scholar

KISBY, B. (2010), ‘The Big Society: power to the people?’, Political Quarterly, 81, 484–91. The Big Society: power to the people? Political Quarterly 81 484 91 Google Scholar

KOHN, M. (2004), Brave New Neighborhoods: The Privatization of Public Space, New York, Routledge. Brave New Neighborhoods: The Privatization of Public Space Google Scholar

LAVEN, J., VAN DER HAM, S., VEELDERS, S. and KARSSENBERG, H. (eds) (2017), The City at Eye Level in the Netherlands, Wageningen, Blauwdruk. The City at Eye Level in the Netherlands Google Scholar

LECLERCQ, E. (2018), Privatisation of the Production of Public Space, Delft, Delft University of Technology. Privatisation of the Production of Public Space Google Scholar

LINDNER, C. and ROSA, B. (eds) (2017), Deconstructing the High Line: Post-industrial Urbanism and the Rise of the Elevated Park, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press. Deconstructing the High Line: Post-industrial Urbanism and the Rise of the Elevated Park Google Scholar

LOFLAND, L. H. (1973), A World of Strangers: Order and Action in Urban Public Space, New York, Basic Books. A World of Strangers: Order and Action in Urban Public Space Google Scholar

LOUGHRAN, K. (2014), ‘Parks for profit: the High Line, growth machines, and the uneven development of urban public spaces’, City and Community, 13, 49–68. Parks for profit: the High Line, growth machines, and the uneven development of urban public spaces City and Community 13 49 68 Google Scholar

LOWNDES, V., PRATCHETT, L. and STOKER, G. (2006), ‘Diagnosing and remedying the failings of official participation schemes: the CLEAR framework’, Social Policy and Society, 5, 281–91. Diagnosing and remedying the failings of official participation schemes: the CLEAR framework Social Policy and Society 5 281 91 Google Scholar

MEIJER, M. (2018), Community-Led, Government-Fed and Informal: Exploring Planning from Below in Depopulating Regions across Europe, Nijmegen, Radboud University. Community-Led, Government-Fed and Informal: Exploring Planning from Below in Depopulating Regions across Europe Google Scholar

NEEDHAM, B. (2014), Dutch Land Use Planning: The Principles and the Practice, Farnham, Ashgate. Dutch Land Use Planning: The Principles and the Practice Google Scholar

NETTLE, C. (2014), Community Gardening as Social Action, New York, Routledge. Community Gardening as Social Action Google Scholar

OSBORNE, D. and GAEBLER, T. (1992), Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector, New York, Addison-Wesley. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector Google Scholar

PESTOFF, V. A. (1992), ‘Third sector and co-operative services: an alternative to privatization’, Journal of Consumer Policy, 15, 21–45. Third sector and co-operative services: an alternative to privatization Journal of Consumer Policy 15 21 45 Google Scholar

RHODES, R. A. W. (1997), Understanding Governance, Buckingham, Open University Press. Understanding Governance Google Scholar

ROSOL, M. (2010), ‘Public participation in post-Fordist urban green space governance: the case of community gardens in Berlin’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34, 548–63. Public participation in post-Fordist urban green space governance: the case of community gardens in Berlin International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34 548 63 Google Scholar

SALAMON, L. M. and ANHEIER, H. K. (1992), ‘In search of the non-profit sector I: the questions of definitions’, International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 3, 125–51. In search of the non-profit sector I: the questions of definitions International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 3 125 51 Google Scholar

SCHMID, H. (2009), ‘The contingencies of non-profit leadership’, in Kane et al. (eds), 193–210. The contingencies of non-profit leadership 193 210 Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, S. and NÉMETH, J. (2010), ‘Space, place and the city: emerging research on public space design and planning’, Journal of Urban Design, 15, 453–57. Space, place and the city: emerging research on public space design and planning Journal of Urban Design 15 453 57 Google Scholar

SHYE, S. (2010), ‘The motivation to volunteer: a systemic quality of life theory’, Social Indicators Research, 98, 183–200. The motivation to volunteer: a systemic quality of life theory Social Indicators Research 98 183 200 Google Scholar

SMITH, N. and COWEN, D. (2007), ‘Suburban Manhattan’, in J. Hammet and K. Hammet (eds), The Suburbanization of New York: Is the World’s Greatest City Becoming Just Another Town? New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 33–41. Suburban Manhattan The Suburbanization of New York: Is the World’s Greatest City Becoming Just Another Town? 33 41 Google Scholar

STEVENS, Q. (2009), ‘“Broken” public spaces in theory and practice’, Town Planning Review, 80, 371–92. “Broken” public spaces in theory and practice Town Planning Review 80 371 92 Google Scholar

TONKISS, F. (2013), ‘Austerity urbanism and the makeshift city’, City, 17, 312–24. Austerity urbanism and the makeshift city City 17 312 24 Google Scholar

UITERMARK, J. (2015), ‘Longing for Wikitopia: the study and politics of self-organization’, Urban Studies, 52, 2301–12. Longing for Wikitopia: the study and politics of self-organization Urban Studies 52 2301 12 Google Scholar

VAN DEN BERG, L., BRAUN, E. and VAN DER MEER, J. (1997), ‘The organizing capacity of metropolitan regions’, Environment and Planning C, 15, 253–72. The organizing capacity of metropolitan regions Environment and Planning C 15 253 72 Google Scholar

VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. M. F., HENDRIKS, F. and OUDE VRIELINK, M. J. (2010), Burgerschap in een doe-democratie, The Hague, Nicis Institute. Burgerschap in een doe-democratie Google Scholar

VAN HOEK, M. M. and WIGMANS, G. (2011), ‘Management of urban development’, in Franzen et al. (eds), 53–77. Management of urban development 53 77 Google Scholar

VAN MELIK, R. (2008), Changing Public Space: The Redevelopment of Dutch City Squares, Utrecht, Utrecht University. Changing Public Space: The Redevelopment of Dutch City Squares Google Scholar

VAN MELIK, R. and PIJPERS, R. (2017), ‘Older people’s self-selected places of encounter in urban aging environments in the Netherlands’, City & Community, 16, 284–303. Older people’s self-selected places of encounter in urban aging environments in the Netherlands City & Community 16 284 303 Google Scholar

VAN MELIK, R. and VAN DER KRABBEN, E. (2016), ‘Co-production of public space: policy translations from New York City to the Netherlands’, Town Planning Review, 87, 139–58. Co-production of public space: policy translations from New York City to the Netherlands Town Planning Review 87 139 58 Google Scholar

VAN ’T VERLAAT, J. and WIGMANS, G. (2011), ‘Urban area development’, in Franzen et al. (eds), 77–93. Urban area development 77 93 Google Scholar

VERBA, S., SCHLOZMAN, K. L. and BRADY, H. E. (1995), Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics, Google Scholar

VERHEUL, W. J. (2017), ‘Placemaking and the discourse of the public space’, in Laven et al. (eds), 234–44. Placemaking and the discourse of the public space 234 44 Google Scholar

WEBSTER, C. (2007), ‘Property rights, public space and urban design’, Town Planning Review, 78, 81–101. Property rights, public space and urban design Town Planning Review 78 81 101 Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1995), The Cultures of Cities, Oxford, Blackwell. The Cultures of Cities Google Scholar

ADAMS, D. and TIESDELL, S. (2013), Shaping Places: Urban Planning, Design and Development, London, Routledge. Shaping Places: Urban Planning, Design and Development Google Scholar

BELL, S., FOX-KÄMPER, R., KESHAVARZ, N., BENSON, M., CAPUTO, S., NOORI, S. and VOIGT, A. (eds) (2016), Urban Allotment Gardens in Europe, New York, Routledge. Urban Allotment Gardens in Europe Google Scholar

BERDING, U., HAVEMANN, A., PEGELS, J. and PERETHALER, B. (2010), Stadträume in Spannungsfeldern: Plätze, Parks und Promenaden im Schnittbereich öffentlichter und privater Aktivitäten, Detmold, Rohn Verlag. Stadträume in Spannungsfeldern: Plätze, Parks und Promenaden im Schnittbereich öffentlichter und privater Aktivitäten Google Scholar

BOOGERS, M. and VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. (2012), Meer doen met doe-democratie: Nieuwe coproducties voor een veerkrachtig lokaal bestuur, Tilburg, Tilburg School of Politics and Public Administration. Meer doen met doe-democratie: Nieuwe coproducties voor een veerkrachtig lokaal bestuur Google Scholar

BRANDSEN, T., VAN DE DONK, W. and PUTTERS, K. (2005), ‘Griffins or chameleons? Hybridity as a permanent and inevitable characteristic of the third sector’, International Journal of Public Administration, 28, 749–65. Griffins or chameleons? Hybridity as a permanent and inevitable characteristic of the third sector International Journal of Public Administration 28 749 65 Google Scholar

BRAUN, E., ESHUIS, J. and KLIJN, E. H. (2014), ‘The effectiveness of place brand communication’, Cities, 41, 64–70. The effectiveness of place brand communication Cities 41 64 70 Google Scholar

CARMONA, M. (2015), ‘Re-theorising contemporary public space: a new narrative and a new normative’, Journal of Urbanism, 8, 373–405. Re-theorising contemporary public space: a new narrative and a new normative Journal of Urbanism 8 373 405 Google Scholar

COWIE, P. (2017), ‘Performing planning: understanding community participation in planning through theatre’, Town Planning Review, 88, 401–21. Performing planning: understanding community participation in planning through theatre Town Planning Review 88 401 21 Google Scholar

CRESWELL, J. W. (2013), Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches, Los Angeles, SAGE. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches Google Scholar

DAVY, B. (2014), ‘Polyrational property: rules for the many uses of land’, International Journal of the Commons, 8, 472–92. Polyrational property: rules for the many uses of land International Journal of the Commons 8 472 92 Google Scholar

DEKKER, P., DEN RIDDER, J. and SCHNABEL, P. (2011), Continu onderzoek burgerperspectieven 2011, The Hague, Social and Cultural Planning Office. Continu onderzoek burgerperspectieven 2011 Google Scholar

DE MAGALHÃES, C. (2010), ‘Public space and the contracting-out of publicness: a framework for analysis’, Journal of Urban Design, 15, 559–74. Public space and the contracting-out of publicness: a framework for analysis Journal of Urban Design 15 559 74 Google Scholar

DE MAGALHÃES, C. and CARMONA, M. (2006), ‘Innovations in the management of public space: reshaping and refocusing governance’, Planning Theory and Practice, 7, 289–303. Innovations in the management of public space: reshaping and refocusing governance Planning Theory and Practice 7 289 303 Google Scholar

DENTERS, S., TONKENS, E., VERHOEVEN, I. and BAKKER, J. (2012), Burgers maken hun buurt, The Hague, Platform31. Burgers maken hun buurt Google Scholar

DE WILDE, M., HURENKAMP, M. and TONKENS, E. (2014), ‘Flexible relations, frail contacts and failing demands: how community groups and local institutions interact in local governance in the Netherlands’, Urban Studies, 51, 3365–82. Flexible relations, frail contacts and failing demands: how community groups and local institutions interact in local governance in the Netherlands Urban Studies 51 3365 82 Google Scholar

DONAHUE, J. D. and ZECKHAUSER, R. J. (2008) ‘Public–private collaboration’, in R. E. Goodin, M. Moran and M. Rein, The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 496–528. Public–private collaboration The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy 496 528 Google Scholar

EIZENBERG, E. (2016), From the Ground Up: Community Gardens in New York City and the Politics of Urban Transformation, New York, Routledge. From the Ground Up: Community Gardens in New York City and the Politics of Urban Transformation Google Scholar

FRANZEN, A., HOBMA, F., DE JONGE, H. and WIGMANS, G. (eds) (2011), Management of Urban Development Processes: Governance, Design and Feasibility, Amsterdam, Techne Press. Management of Urban Development Processes: Governance, Design and Feasibility Google Scholar

GEHL, J. (2011), Life between Buildings: Using Public Space, Copenhagen, The Danish Architecture Press. Life between Buildings: Using Public Space Google Scholar

HAYDEN-SMITH, R. (2014), Sowing the Seeds of Victory: American Gardening Programs of World War I, Jefferson, NC, McFarland Books. Sowing the Seeds of Victory: American Gardening Programs of World War I Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2010), Making Better Places: The Planning Project in the Twenty-First Century, London, Palgrave. Making Better Places: The Planning Project in the Twenty-First Century Google Scholar

HEURKENS, E. (2012), Private Sector-Led Urban Development Projects: Management, Partnerships and Effects in the Netherlands and the UK, Delft, AB+E. Private Sector-Led Urban Development Projects: Management, Partnerships and Effects in the Netherlands and the UK Google Scholar

HOU, J. (2010), Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities, London, Routledge. Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities Google Scholar

HOYT, L. M. (2003), The Business Improvement District: An Internationally Diffused Approach to Revitalization, Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Business Improvement District: An Internationally Diffused Approach to Revitalization Google Scholar

IGALLA, M. and VAN MEERKERK, I. (2015), ‘De duurzaamheid van burgerinitiatieven: een empirische verkenning’, Bestuurswetenschappen, 69, 25–53. De duurzaamheid van burgerinitiatieven: een empirische verkenning Bestuurswetenschappen 69 25 53 Google Scholar

KANE, J., PATAPAN, H. and ’T HART, P. (eds) (2009), Dispersed Democratic Leadership: Origins, Dynamics and Implications, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Dispersed Democratic Leadership: Origins, Dynamics and Implications Google Scholar

KARRE, P. M. (2011), Heads and Tails, Both Sides of the Coin: An Analysis of Hybrid Organizations in the Dutch Waste Management Sector, The Hague, Eleven Publishing. Heads and Tails, Both Sides of the Coin: An Analysis of Hybrid Organizations in the Dutch Waste Management Sector Google Scholar

KAYDEN, J. S. (2000), Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience, New York, John Wiley & Sons. Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience Google Scholar

KISBY, B. (2010), ‘The Big Society: power to the people?’, Political Quarterly, 81, 484–91. The Big Society: power to the people? Political Quarterly 81 484 91 Google Scholar

KOHN, M. (2004), Brave New Neighborhoods: The Privatization of Public Space, New York, Routledge. Brave New Neighborhoods: The Privatization of Public Space Google Scholar

LAVEN, J., VAN DER HAM, S., VEELDERS, S. and KARSSENBERG, H. (eds) (2017), The City at Eye Level in the Netherlands, Wageningen, Blauwdruk. The City at Eye Level in the Netherlands Google Scholar

LECLERCQ, E. (2018), Privatisation of the Production of Public Space, Delft, Delft University of Technology. Privatisation of the Production of Public Space Google Scholar

LINDNER, C. and ROSA, B. (eds) (2017), Deconstructing the High Line: Post-industrial Urbanism and the Rise of the Elevated Park, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press. Deconstructing the High Line: Post-industrial Urbanism and the Rise of the Elevated Park Google Scholar

LOFLAND, L. H. (1973), A World of Strangers: Order and Action in Urban Public Space, New York, Basic Books. A World of Strangers: Order and Action in Urban Public Space Google Scholar

LOUGHRAN, K. (2014), ‘Parks for profit: the High Line, growth machines, and the uneven development of urban public spaces’, City and Community, 13, 49–68. Parks for profit: the High Line, growth machines, and the uneven development of urban public spaces City and Community 13 49 68 Google Scholar

LOWNDES, V., PRATCHETT, L. and STOKER, G. (2006), ‘Diagnosing and remedying the failings of official participation schemes: the CLEAR framework’, Social Policy and Society, 5, 281–91. Diagnosing and remedying the failings of official participation schemes: the CLEAR framework Social Policy and Society 5 281 91 Google Scholar

MEIJER, M. (2018), Community-Led, Government-Fed and Informal: Exploring Planning from Below in Depopulating Regions across Europe, Nijmegen, Radboud University. Community-Led, Government-Fed and Informal: Exploring Planning from Below in Depopulating Regions across Europe Google Scholar

NEEDHAM, B. (2014), Dutch Land Use Planning: The Principles and the Practice, Farnham, Ashgate. Dutch Land Use Planning: The Principles and the Practice Google Scholar

NETTLE, C. (2014), Community Gardening as Social Action, New York, Routledge. Community Gardening as Social Action Google Scholar

OSBORNE, D. and GAEBLER, T. (1992), Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector, New York, Addison-Wesley. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector Google Scholar

PESTOFF, V. A. (1992), ‘Third sector and co-operative services: an alternative to privatization’, Journal of Consumer Policy, 15, 21–45. Third sector and co-operative services: an alternative to privatization Journal of Consumer Policy 15 21 45 Google Scholar

RHODES, R. A. W. (1997), Understanding Governance, Buckingham, Open University Press. Understanding Governance Google Scholar

ROSOL, M. (2010), ‘Public participation in post-Fordist urban green space governance: the case of community gardens in Berlin’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34, 548–63. Public participation in post-Fordist urban green space governance: the case of community gardens in Berlin International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34 548 63 Google Scholar

SALAMON, L. M. and ANHEIER, H. K. (1992), ‘In search of the non-profit sector I: the questions of definitions’, International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 3, 125–51. In search of the non-profit sector I: the questions of definitions International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 3 125 51 Google Scholar

SCHMID, H. (2009), ‘The contingencies of non-profit leadership’, in Kane et al. (eds), 193–210. The contingencies of non-profit leadership 193 210 Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, S. and NÉMETH, J. (2010), ‘Space, place and the city: emerging research on public space design and planning’, Journal of Urban Design, 15, 453–57. Space, place and the city: emerging research on public space design and planning Journal of Urban Design 15 453 57 Google Scholar

SHYE, S. (2010), ‘The motivation to volunteer: a systemic quality of life theory’, Social Indicators Research, 98, 183–200. The motivation to volunteer: a systemic quality of life theory Social Indicators Research 98 183 200 Google Scholar

SMITH, N. and COWEN, D. (2007), ‘Suburban Manhattan’, in J. Hammet and K. Hammet (eds), The Suburbanization of New York: Is the World’s Greatest City Becoming Just Another Town? New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 33–41. Suburban Manhattan The Suburbanization of New York: Is the World’s Greatest City Becoming Just Another Town? 33 41 Google Scholar

STEVENS, Q. (2009), ‘“Broken” public spaces in theory and practice’, Town Planning Review, 80, 371–92. “Broken” public spaces in theory and practice Town Planning Review 80 371 92 Google Scholar

TONKISS, F. (2013), ‘Austerity urbanism and the makeshift city’, City, 17, 312–24. Austerity urbanism and the makeshift city City 17 312 24 Google Scholar

UITERMARK, J. (2015), ‘Longing for Wikitopia: the study and politics of self-organization’, Urban Studies, 52, 2301–12. Longing for Wikitopia: the study and politics of self-organization Urban Studies 52 2301 12 Google Scholar

VAN DEN BERG, L., BRAUN, E. and VAN DER MEER, J. (1997), ‘The organizing capacity of metropolitan regions’, Environment and Planning C, 15, 253–72. The organizing capacity of metropolitan regions Environment and Planning C 15 253 72 Google Scholar

VAN DE WIJDEVEN, T. M. F., HENDRIKS, F. and OUDE VRIELINK, M. J. (2010), Burgerschap in een doe-democratie, The Hague, Nicis Institute. Burgerschap in een doe-democratie Google Scholar

VAN HOEK, M. M. and WIGMANS, G. (2011), ‘Management of urban development’, in Franzen et al. (eds), 53–77. Management of urban development 53 77 Google Scholar

VAN MELIK, R. (2008), Changing Public Space: The Redevelopment of Dutch City Squares, Utrecht, Utrecht University. Changing Public Space: The Redevelopment of Dutch City Squares Google Scholar

VAN MELIK, R. and PIJPERS, R. (2017), ‘Older people’s self-selected places of encounter in urban aging environments in the Netherlands’, City & Community, 16, 284–303. Older people’s self-selected places of encounter in urban aging environments in the Netherlands City & Community 16 284 303 Google Scholar

VAN MELIK, R. and VAN DER KRABBEN, E. (2016), ‘Co-production of public space: policy translations from New York City to the Netherlands’, Town Planning Review, 87, 139–58. Co-production of public space: policy translations from New York City to the Netherlands Town Planning Review 87 139 58 Google Scholar

VAN ’T VERLAAT, J. and WIGMANS, G. (2011), ‘Urban area development’, in Franzen et al. (eds), 77–93. Urban area development 77 93 Google Scholar

VERBA, S., SCHLOZMAN, K. L. and BRADY, H. E. (1995), Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics, Google Scholar

VERHEUL, W. J. (2017), ‘Placemaking and the discourse of the public space’, in Laven et al. (eds), 234–44. Placemaking and the discourse of the public space 234 44 Google Scholar

WEBSTER, C. (2007), ‘Property rights, public space and urban design’, Town Planning Review, 78, 81–101. Property rights, public space and urban design Town Planning Review 78 81 101 Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S. (1995), The Cultures of Cities, Oxford, Blackwell. The Cultures of Cities Google Scholar

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