Town Planning Review

Capturing development value, principles and practice: why is it so difficult?

Town Planning Review (2019), 90, (4), 359–381.

Abstract

Land prices have risen significantly in England over the last two decades, generating debate about how far ‘unearned increments’, particularly those arising with planning permission, can and should be taxed for the public good. In principle, taxing such increases should be easy, although experience suggests otherwise. Taxing them, like any other tax, should be judged by how much is raised together with three welfare criteria: do they promote a more efficient use of resources; achieve more equitable outcomes; and comply with taxation principles of revenue raising, fairness and administrative competence. The paper discusses the two main UK mechanisms: unhypothecated national taxation and negotiated local contributions for infrastructure and affordable housing, assessing how far they have met these requirements. Finally, the paper considers how the current system might be modified better to achieve the desired outcomes and whether there is a case for more fundamental reform.

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References

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BARKER, K. (2014), Housing: Where’s the Plan?, London, London Publishing Partnership. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. A. (2003), Planning by Consent: The Origins and Nature of British Development Control, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

BRAMLEY, G. (2003), ‘Planning regulation and land supply in a market system’, in T. O’Sullivan and K. Gibb (eds), Housing Economics and Public Policy, Oxford, Blackwell, 193–217. Google Scholar

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CAMPBELL, H. (2010), ‘Just planning: the art of situated ethical judgment’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26, 92–106. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. and MARSHALL, R. (2006), ‘Towards justice in planning: a reappraisal’, European Planning Studies, 14, 239–52. Google Scholar

CHESHIRE, P. C., NATHAN, M. and OVERMAN, H. G. (2014), Urban Economics and Urban Policy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar. Google Scholar

CIVITAS (2018), Reform of the Land Compensation Rules: How Much Could It Save on the Cost of a Public-Sector Housebuilding Programme?, London, Civitas. Google Scholar

COLEMAN, C., CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2012), ‘Development appraisal in practice: some evidence from the planning system’, Journal of Property Research, 30, 1–22. Google Scholar

COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE LEVY REVIEW GROUP (chair Liz Peace) (2016), A New Approach to Developer Contributions, London, Community Infrastructure Levy Review Group. Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H. (2018), Local Authority Land Acquisition in Germany and the Netherlands: Are There Lessons for Scotland? (Land Lines Discussion Paper 6), Inverness, Scottish Land Commission, https://landcommission.gov.scot/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/LANDLINES-Land-Value-Capture-Tony-Crook-Nov-2018.pdf (accessed 20 March 2019). Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., HENNEBERRY, J. M. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2016), Planning Gain: Providing Infrastructure and Affordable Housing, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., HENNEBERRY, J. M. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2018a), Second Memorandum of Evidence to House of Commons Select Committee on Housing, Communities and Local Government on Land Value Capture, http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/housin-communities-and-local-government-committee/land-valuecapture/written/79512.html (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

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CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2013), ‘Fit for planning? An evaluation of the application of development viability appraisal models in the UK planning system’, Environment and Planning B, 40, 3–22. Google Scholar

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DUNNING, R., LORD, A., KESKIN, B. and BUCK, M. (2019), ‘Is there a relationship between planning culture and the value of planning gain? Evidence from England’, Town Planning Review, 90, 453–71. Google Scholar

EVANS, A. W. (2004), Economics and Land Use Planning, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

FAINSTEIN, S. S. (2010), The Just City, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. Google Scholar

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GILES, C. (2018), ‘Should there be a ringfenced tax to fund the NHS?’, Financial Times, 9 January, 3. Google Scholar

GOTTLIEB, A. (2016), The Dream of Enlightenment, London, Allen Lane. Google Scholar

GRANT, M. (1992), ‘The planning balance in the 1990s: betterment again?’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, 67, 67–83. Google Scholar

HILBER, C. and VERMEULEN, W. (2010), The Impact of Restricting Housing Supply on House Prices, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

HILBER, C. and VERMEULEN, W. (2016), ‘The impact of supply constraints on house prices in England’, Economic Journal, 126, 358–405. Google Scholar

HOUSE OF COMMONS HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SELECT COMMITTEE (2018), Land Value Capture, Tenth Report of Session 2017–19 (House of Commons Paper HC 766), London, UK Parliament. Google Scholar

HOUSE OF COMMONS HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SELECT COMMITTEE (2019), High Streets and Town Centres in 2030, Eleventh Report of Session 2017–19 (House of Commons Paper HC 1010), London, UK Parliament. Google Scholar

IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) (2018), United Kingdom: Staff Concluding Statement of the 2018 Article IV Mission, Washington DC, IMF, https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2018/09/17/United-Kingdom-Staff-Concluding-Statement-of-the-2018-Article-IV-Mission (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

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KLEVEN, H. J. (2014), ‘How can Scandinavians tax so much?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28, 77–98. Google Scholar

LETWIN, O. (2018), Independent Review of Build Out: Final Report (CM Paper 9720), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

LORD, A., DUNNING, R., DOCKERILL, B., CARRO, A., BURGESS, G., CROOK, A., WATKINS, C. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2018), The Incidence, Value and Delivery of Planning Obligations in England in 2016–17, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P. (2019), ‘The taxing problems of land value capture, planning obligations and viability tests: some reasonable models?’, Town Planning Review, 90, 429–51. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P., STREET, E. and WYATT, P. (2016), ‘Governing calculative practices: an investigation of development viability modelling in the English planning system’, Urban Studies, 53, 2363–79. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018a), Government Response to Supporting Housing Delivery through Developer Contributions, London, MHCLG. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018b), National Planning Policy Framework (Cm 9680), London, MHCLG. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018c), The New Towns Act 1981 (Local Authority Oversight) Regulations, London, MHCLG. Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF WORKS AND PLANNING (1942), Expert Committee on Compensation and Betterment (final report), Cmnd Paper 6386 (chair Lord Uthwatt), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

MIRRLEES, J., ADAM, S., BESLEY, T., BLUNDELL, R., BOND, S., CHOTE, R., GAMMIE, M., JOHNSON, P., MYLES, G. and POTERBA, J. M. (2011), Tax by Design, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

MONK, S., PEARCE, B. J. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (1996), ‘Land-use planning, land supply and house prices’, Environment & Planning A, 28, 495–511. Google Scholar

MONK, S. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (1999), ‘Evaluating the economic impact of planning controls in the UK: some implications for housing’, Land Economics, 75, 74–93. Google Scholar

NEEDHAM, B. (2000), ‘Land taxation, development charges and the effects on land-use’, Journal of Property Research, 17, 241–57. Google Scholar

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RYAN-COLLINS, J., LLOYD, T. and MACFARLANE, L. (2017), Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing, London, Zed Books. Google Scholar

SANDEL, M. (2009), Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do?, London, Allen Lane. Google Scholar

SAYCE, S., CROSBY, N., GARSIDE, P., HARRIS, R. and PARSA, A. (2017), Viability and the Planning System: The Relationship between Economic Viability Testing, Land Values and Affordable Housing in London, Cirencester, Royal Agricultural University. Google Scholar

SECRETARY OF STATE FOR MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2019), Independent Report on Build Out Rates and Permitted Development (written ministerial statement), HCWS 1408, https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-statements/?page=1&max=20&questiontype=AllQuestions&house=commons%2clords&uin=1408 (accessed 14 March 2019). Google Scholar

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SHELTER (2017), Financing the Infrastructure and New Homes of the Future: The Case for Enabling Acquiring Authorities to Purchase Land for Strategic Development under a Special CPO Compensation Code, London, Shelter. Google Scholar

SKABURSKIS, A. (1992), ‘An empirical estimation of the price effects of development impact fees’, Urban Studies, 29, 653–67. Google Scholar

SMITH, S. (2015), Taxation: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

TEMPLE, W. (1942), Christianity and the Social Order, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. Google Scholar

TRAVERS, T. and WHITEHEAD, C. (forthcoming), Understanding Development Contributions and Property Taxation, London, Berkeley Homes. Google Scholar

UNIVERSITY OF READING, THREE DRAGONS, SMITHS GORE and DAVID LOCK ASSOCIATES (2017), The Value, Impact and Delivery of the Community Infrastructure Levy (report of study), London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (1984), ‘The rationale for government intervention’, in H. Dunkerley (ed.), Urban Land Policy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 217–25. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2017), ‘Breaking down the barriers to housing’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, 13, OP26–OP39. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. and MONK, S. (2004), Does Spatial Planning Increase Value and Welfare?, London, Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

WOLFF, J. (2008), ‘Social justice and public policy: a view from political philosophy’, in G. Craig, T. Burchardt and D. Gordon (eds), Social Justice & Public Policy, Bristol, Policy Press, 17–31. Google Scholar

AUBREY, T. (2018), Gathering the Windfall: How Changing Land Law Can Unlock England’s Housing Supply Potential, London, Centre for Progressive Capitalism. Google Scholar

BARKER, K. (2014), Housing: Where’s the Plan?, London, London Publishing Partnership. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. A. (2003), Planning by Consent: The Origins and Nature of British Development Control, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

BRAMLEY, G. (2003), ‘Planning regulation and land supply in a market system’, in T. O’Sullivan and K. Gibb (eds), Housing Economics and Public Policy, Oxford, Blackwell, 193–217. Google Scholar

CALAVITA, N. and MALLACH, A. (2010), Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective: Affordable Housing, Social Inclusion and Land Value Recapture, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. (2010), ‘Just planning: the art of situated ethical judgment’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26, 92–106. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. and MARSHALL, R. (2006), ‘Towards justice in planning: a reappraisal’, European Planning Studies, 14, 239–52. Google Scholar

CHESHIRE, P. C., NATHAN, M. and OVERMAN, H. G. (2014), Urban Economics and Urban Policy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar. Google Scholar

CIVITAS (2018), Reform of the Land Compensation Rules: How Much Could It Save on the Cost of a Public-Sector Housebuilding Programme?, London, Civitas. Google Scholar

COLEMAN, C., CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2012), ‘Development appraisal in practice: some evidence from the planning system’, Journal of Property Research, 30, 1–22. Google Scholar

COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE LEVY REVIEW GROUP (chair Liz Peace) (2016), A New Approach to Developer Contributions, London, Community Infrastructure Levy Review Group. Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H. (2018), Local Authority Land Acquisition in Germany and the Netherlands: Are There Lessons for Scotland? (Land Lines Discussion Paper 6), Inverness, Scottish Land Commission, https://landcommission.gov.scot/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/LANDLINES-Land-Value-Capture-Tony-Crook-Nov-2018.pdf (accessed 20 March 2019). Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., HENNEBERRY, J. M. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2016), Planning Gain: Providing Infrastructure and Affordable Housing, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., HENNEBERRY, J. M. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2018a), Second Memorandum of Evidence to House of Commons Select Committee on Housing, Communities and Local Government on Land Value Capture, http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/housin-communities-and-local-government-committee/land-valuecapture/written/79512.html (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., WHITEHEAD, C. M. E., WATKINS, C. A., LORD, A., DUNNING, R. and BURGESS, G. (2018b), First Memorandum of Evidence to House of Commons Select Committee on Housing, Communities and Local Government on Land Value Capture, http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/housing-communities-and-local-governmentcommittee/land-value-capture/written/79473.html (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

CROSBY, N. (2019), ‘Development viability assessment and the provision of affordable housing: a game of “pass the parcel”?’, Town Planning Review, 90, 407–28. Google Scholar

CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2013), ‘Fit for planning? An evaluation of the application of development viability appraisal models in the UK planning system’, Environment and Planning B, 40, 3–22. Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1979), Peacetime History: Environmental Planning, Volume III: New Towns Policy, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1980), Peacetime History: Environmental Planning 1939–1969, Volume IV: Land Values, Compensation and Betterment, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DUNNING, R., LORD, A., KESKIN, B. and BUCK, M. (2019), ‘Is there a relationship between planning culture and the value of planning gain? Evidence from England’, Town Planning Review, 90, 453–71. Google Scholar

EVANS, A. W. (2004), Economics and Land Use Planning, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

FAINSTEIN, S. S. (2010), The Just City, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. Google Scholar

GERALD EVE (1992), The Relationship between House Prices and Land Supply, London, Department of the Environment. Google Scholar

GILES, C. (2018), ‘Should there be a ringfenced tax to fund the NHS?’, Financial Times, 9 January, 3. Google Scholar

GOTTLIEB, A. (2016), The Dream of Enlightenment, London, Allen Lane. Google Scholar

GRANT, M. (1992), ‘The planning balance in the 1990s: betterment again?’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, 67, 67–83. Google Scholar

HILBER, C. and VERMEULEN, W. (2010), The Impact of Restricting Housing Supply on House Prices, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

HILBER, C. and VERMEULEN, W. (2016), ‘The impact of supply constraints on house prices in England’, Economic Journal, 126, 358–405. Google Scholar

HOUSE OF COMMONS HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SELECT COMMITTEE (2018), Land Value Capture, Tenth Report of Session 2017–19 (House of Commons Paper HC 766), London, UK Parliament. Google Scholar

HOUSE OF COMMONS HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SELECT COMMITTEE (2019), High Streets and Town Centres in 2030, Eleventh Report of Session 2017–19 (House of Commons Paper HC 1010), London, UK Parliament. Google Scholar

IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) (2018), United Kingdom: Staff Concluding Statement of the 2018 Article IV Mission, Washington DC, IMF, https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2018/09/17/United-Kingdom-Staff-Concluding-Statement-of-the-2018-Article-IV-Mission (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

INGRAM, G. K. and HONG, Y.-H. (2012), Value Capture and Land Policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Google Scholar

KLEVEN, H. J. (2014), ‘How can Scandinavians tax so much?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28, 77–98. Google Scholar

LETWIN, O. (2018), Independent Review of Build Out: Final Report (CM Paper 9720), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

LORD, A., DUNNING, R., DOCKERILL, B., CARRO, A., BURGESS, G., CROOK, A., WATKINS, C. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2018), The Incidence, Value and Delivery of Planning Obligations in England in 2016–17, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P. (2019), ‘The taxing problems of land value capture, planning obligations and viability tests: some reasonable models?’, Town Planning Review, 90, 429–51. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P., STREET, E. and WYATT, P. (2016), ‘Governing calculative practices: an investigation of development viability modelling in the English planning system’, Urban Studies, 53, 2363–79. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018a), Government Response to Supporting Housing Delivery through Developer Contributions, London, MHCLG. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018b), National Planning Policy Framework (Cm 9680), London, MHCLG. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018c), The New Towns Act 1981 (Local Authority Oversight) Regulations, London, MHCLG. Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF WORKS AND PLANNING (1942), Expert Committee on Compensation and Betterment (final report), Cmnd Paper 6386 (chair Lord Uthwatt), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

MIRRLEES, J., ADAM, S., BESLEY, T., BLUNDELL, R., BOND, S., CHOTE, R., GAMMIE, M., JOHNSON, P., MYLES, G. and POTERBA, J. M. (2011), Tax by Design, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

MONK, S., PEARCE, B. J. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (1996), ‘Land-use planning, land supply and house prices’, Environment & Planning A, 28, 495–511. Google Scholar

MONK, S. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (1999), ‘Evaluating the economic impact of planning controls in the UK: some implications for housing’, Land Economics, 75, 74–93. Google Scholar

NEEDHAM, B. (2000), ‘Land taxation, development charges and the effects on land-use’, Journal of Property Research, 17, 241–57. Google Scholar

OECD (ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT) (2018), OECD Data: Tax of Property, https://data.oecd.org/tax/tax-on-property.htm (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

RAWLS, J. (1971), A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Google Scholar

RYAN-COLLINS, J., LLOYD, T. and MACFARLANE, L. (2017), Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing, London, Zed Books. Google Scholar

SANDEL, M. (2009), Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do?, London, Allen Lane. Google Scholar

SAYCE, S., CROSBY, N., GARSIDE, P., HARRIS, R. and PARSA, A. (2017), Viability and the Planning System: The Relationship between Economic Viability Testing, Land Values and Affordable Housing in London, Cirencester, Royal Agricultural University. Google Scholar

SECRETARY OF STATE FOR MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2019), Independent Report on Build Out Rates and Permitted Development (written ministerial statement), HCWS 1408, https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-statements/?page=1&max=20&questiontype=AllQuestions&house=commons%2clords&uin=1408 (accessed 14 March 2019). Google Scholar

SEN, A. (2009), The Idea of Justice, London, Penguin Books. Google Scholar

SHELTER (2017), Financing the Infrastructure and New Homes of the Future: The Case for Enabling Acquiring Authorities to Purchase Land for Strategic Development under a Special CPO Compensation Code, London, Shelter. Google Scholar

SKABURSKIS, A. (1992), ‘An empirical estimation of the price effects of development impact fees’, Urban Studies, 29, 653–67. Google Scholar

SMITH, S. (2015), Taxation: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

TEMPLE, W. (1942), Christianity and the Social Order, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. Google Scholar

TRAVERS, T. and WHITEHEAD, C. (forthcoming), Understanding Development Contributions and Property Taxation, London, Berkeley Homes. Google Scholar

UNIVERSITY OF READING, THREE DRAGONS, SMITHS GORE and DAVID LOCK ASSOCIATES (2017), The Value, Impact and Delivery of the Community Infrastructure Levy (report of study), London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (1984), ‘The rationale for government intervention’, in H. Dunkerley (ed.), Urban Land Policy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 217–25. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2017), ‘Breaking down the barriers to housing’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, 13, OP26–OP39. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. and MONK, S. (2004), Does Spatial Planning Increase Value and Welfare?, London, Royal Town Planning Institute. Google Scholar

WOLFF, J. (2008), ‘Social justice and public policy: a view from political philosophy’, in G. Craig, T. Burchardt and D. Gordon (eds), Social Justice & Public Policy, Bristol, Policy Press, 17–31. Google Scholar

AUBREY, T. (2018), Gathering the Windfall: How Changing Land Law Can Unlock England’s Housing Supply Potential, London, Centre for Progressive Capitalism. Google Scholar

BARKER, K. (2014), Housing: Where’s the Plan?, London, London Publishing Partnership. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. A. (2003), Planning by Consent: The Origins and Nature of British Development Control, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

BRAMLEY, G. (2003), ‘Planning regulation and land supply in a market system’, in T. O’Sullivan and K. Gibb (eds), Housing Economics and Public Policy, Oxford, Blackwell, 193–217. Google Scholar

CALAVITA, N. and MALLACH, A. (2010), Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective: Affordable Housing, Social Inclusion and Land Value Recapture, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. (2010), ‘Just planning: the art of situated ethical judgment’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26, 92–106. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. and MARSHALL, R. (2006), ‘Towards justice in planning: a reappraisal’, European Planning Studies, 14, 239–52. Google Scholar

CHESHIRE, P. C., NATHAN, M. and OVERMAN, H. G. (2014), Urban Economics and Urban Policy, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar. Google Scholar

CIVITAS (2018), Reform of the Land Compensation Rules: How Much Could It Save on the Cost of a Public-Sector Housebuilding Programme?, London, Civitas. Google Scholar

COLEMAN, C., CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2012), ‘Development appraisal in practice: some evidence from the planning system’, Journal of Property Research, 30, 1–22. Google Scholar

COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE LEVY REVIEW GROUP (chair Liz Peace) (2016), A New Approach to Developer Contributions, London, Community Infrastructure Levy Review Group. Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H. (2018), Local Authority Land Acquisition in Germany and the Netherlands: Are There Lessons for Scotland? (Land Lines Discussion Paper 6), Inverness, Scottish Land Commission, https://landcommission.gov.scot/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/LANDLINES-Land-Value-Capture-Tony-Crook-Nov-2018.pdf (accessed 20 March 2019). Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., HENNEBERRY, J. M. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2016), Planning Gain: Providing Infrastructure and Affordable Housing, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., HENNEBERRY, J. M. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2018a), Second Memorandum of Evidence to House of Commons Select Committee on Housing, Communities and Local Government on Land Value Capture, http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/housin-communities-and-local-government-committee/land-valuecapture/written/79512.html (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

CROOK, A. D. H., WHITEHEAD, C. M. E., WATKINS, C. A., LORD, A., DUNNING, R. and BURGESS, G. (2018b), First Memorandum of Evidence to House of Commons Select Committee on Housing, Communities and Local Government on Land Value Capture, http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/housing-communities-and-local-governmentcommittee/land-value-capture/written/79473.html (accessed 4 November 2018). Google Scholar

CROSBY, N. (2019), ‘Development viability assessment and the provision of affordable housing: a game of “pass the parcel”?’, Town Planning Review, 90, 407–28. Google Scholar

CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2013), ‘Fit for planning? An evaluation of the application of development viability appraisal models in the UK planning system’, Environment and Planning B, 40, 3–22. Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1979), Peacetime History: Environmental Planning, Volume III: New Towns Policy, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1980), Peacetime History: Environmental Planning 1939–1969, Volume IV: Land Values, Compensation and Betterment, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DUNNING, R., LORD, A., KESKIN, B. and BUCK, M. (2019), ‘Is there a relationship between planning culture and the value of planning gain? Evidence from England’, Town Planning Review, 90, 453–71. Google Scholar

EVANS, A. W. (2004), Economics and Land Use Planning, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

FAINSTEIN, S. S. (2010), The Just City, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. Google Scholar

GERALD EVE (1992), The Relationship between House Prices and Land Supply, London, Department of the Environment. Google Scholar

GILES, C. (2018), ‘Should there be a ringfenced tax to fund the NHS?’, Financial Times, 9 January, 3. Google Scholar

GOTTLIEB, A. (2016), The Dream of Enlightenment, London, Allen Lane. Google Scholar

GRANT, M. (1992), ‘The planning balance in the 1990s: betterment again?’, Journal of Planning and Environment Law, 67, 67–83. Google Scholar

HILBER, C. and VERMEULEN, W. (2010), The Impact of Restricting Housing Supply on House Prices, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

HILBER, C. and VERMEULEN, W. (2016), ‘The impact of supply constraints on house prices in England’, Economic Journal, 126, 358–405. Google Scholar

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Author details

Crook, A. D. H. (Tony)

Whitehead, Christine