Town Planning Review

Change in the political economy of land value capture in England

Town Planning Review (2019), 90, (4), 339–358.

Abstract

Variations in the character, performance and impact of policies and practices to capture land value for the community are usually examined by analysing experience in different countries. Such international comparative research is cross-sectional and does not cover the evolving relations between systems of land value capture and the economies, polities and societies within which they are set. This paper examines the relations in England between the extant political economy and supporting ideologies, and the distinctive forms of land value capture that they produced. It traces the shift from a top-down, strategic approach in an era of corporatist government before 1979 to the subsequent extension and consolidation of bottom-up practice set within the context of neo-liberalism. The analysis highlights the evolution of the idea of land value capture and the policies and practices associated with it, especially the contestation that informed such changes.

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References

ALLMENDINGER, P. and TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2000), ‘New Labour, new planning? The trajectory of planning in Blair’s Britain’, Urban Studies, 37, 1379–402. Google Scholar

AMODU, T. (2006), ‘The transformation of planning agreements as regulatory instruments in land-use planning in the twentieth century’ (unpublished PhD thesis), London School of Economics and Political Science, http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/2401/1/U615350.pdf (accessed 1 October 2018). Google Scholar

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BLYTH, M. (2002), Great Transformations: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. and HUXLEY, M. (2012), ‘1909 and all that: reflections on the Housing, Town Planning, Etc. Act 1909’, Planning Perspectives, 27, 267–83. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H., ELLIS, H., GLADWELL, C. and HENNEBERRY, J. (2000), ‘Planning obligations, planning practice and land-use outcomes’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 27, 759–75. Google Scholar

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CAMPBELL, J. L. (1998), ‘Institutional analysis and the role of ideas in political economy’, Theory and Society, 27, 377–409. Google Scholar

CARSTENSEN, M. B.and SCHMIDT, V. A. (2016), ‘Power through, over and in ideas: conceptualizing ideational power in discursive institutionalism’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23, 318–37. Google Scholar

CHERRY, G. (1996), Town Planning in Britain since 1900, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

CHESHIRE, P. and SHEPPARD, S. (2004), The Introduction of Price Signals into Land Use Planning Decision-Making: A Proposal (Research Papers in Environmental and Spatial Analysis, no. 89), LSE, Department of Geography and Environment, London. Google Scholar

CLAWSON, M. and HALL, P. (1973), Planning and Urban Growth: An Anglo-American Comparison, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar

COLEMAN, C., CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2013), ‘Development appraisal in practice: some evidence from the planning system’, Journal of Property Research, 30, 144–65. Google Scholar

CORKINDALE, J. (2004), The Land Use Planning System: Evaluating Options for Reform (Hobart Paper 148), Institute of Economic Affairs, London. Google Scholar

COX, K. (1984), Adversary Politics and Land: The Conflict over Land and Property Policy in Post-war Britain, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

CROOK, A., DUNNING, R., FERRARI, E., HENNEBERRY, J., WATKINS, C., BURGESS, G., LYALL GRANT, F., MONK, S., WHITEHEAD, C. and ROWLEY, S. (2010), The Incidence, Value and Delivery of Planning Obligations in England in 2007–08 (final report), March 2010, Department for Communities and Local Government, London. Google Scholar

CROOK, A., HENNEBERRY, J., ROWLEY, S., SMITH, R. and WATKINS, C. (2008), Valuing Planning Obligations in England: Update Study for 2005–06 (final report), July 2008, Department for Communities and Local Government, London. Google Scholar

CROOK, A., HENNEBERRY, J., ROWLEY, S., WATKINS, C. and WELLS, J. (2006), Valuing Planning Obligations in England (final report), May 2006, Department for Communities and Local Government, London. Google Scholar

CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2013), ‘Fit for planning? An evaluation of the application of development viability appraisal models in the UK planning system’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40, 3–22. Google Scholar

CROSBY, N. and WYATT, P. (2016), ‘Financial viability appraisals for site-specific planning decisions in England’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 34, 1716–33. Google Scholar

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CULLINGWORTH, J. (1980), Environmental Planning 1939–1969, Volume IV: Land Values, Compensation and Betterment, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Planning Policy Statement 12 (PPS12): Local Spatial Planning, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2010), Planning Policy Statement 3 (PPS3): Housing, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2012), National Planning Policy Framework, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), Research Newsletter 1998/99, Land Use Planning and Minerals, Land Instability and Waste Planning, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2001), Planning Obligations: Delivering a Fundamental Change (DETR consultation document), London, DETR. Google Scholar

EVANS, A. (2003a), ‘The development of urban economics in the twentieth century’, Regional Studies, 37, 521–29. Google Scholar

EVANS, A. (2003b), ‘Shouting very loudly: economics, planning and politics’, Town Planning Review, 74, 195–212. Google Scholar

FITZPATRICK, T. (2016), ‘The sixth giant? Environmental policy and the Labour government, 1945–1951’, Journal of Social Policy, 45, 65–82. Google Scholar

GRUBE, D. and VAN ACKER, E. (2017), ‘Rhetorically defining a social institution: how leaders have framed same-sex marriage’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 52, 183–98. Google Scholar

HALL, P. A. (1993), ‘Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: the case of economic policymaking in Britain’, Comparative Politics, 25, 275–96. Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2005), A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

HAY, C. (2006), ‘Constructivist institutionalism’, in R. A. W. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (eds), Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 56–74. Google Scholar

HAY, C. and FARRALL, S. (2011), ‘Establishing the ontological status of Thatcherism by gauging its “periodisability”: towards a “cascade theory” of public policy radicalism’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 13, 439–58. Google Scholar

HENNEBERRY, J. (2016), ‘Development viability’, in A. D. H. Crook, J. Henneberry and C. Whitehead (eds), Planning Gain: Providing Infrastructure and Affordable Housing, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, 115–39. Google Scholar

HENNEBERRY, J. and GOODCHILD, B. (1996), ‘Impact fees and the financial structure of development’, Journal of Property Finance, 7, 7–27. Google Scholar

HMG (HER MAJESTY’S GOVERNMENT) (1974), Community Ownership of Land: White Paper, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

HMG (HER MAJESTY’S GOVERNMENT) (2018), Viability, https://www.gov.uk/guidance/viability (accessed 20 March 2019). Google Scholar

HOUSE OF COMMONS, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE (2006), Planning Gain Supplement, Fifth Report of Session 2005–2006, HC 1024-I, London, TSO, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmcomloc/1024/1024i.pdf (accessed 2 April 2019). Google Scholar

JESSOP, B., BONNETT, K., BROMLEY, S. and LING, T. (1988), Thatcherism: A Tale of Two Nations, Cambridge, Polity. Google Scholar

KONING, E. A. (2016), ‘The three institutionalisms and institutional dynamics: understanding endogenous and exogenous change’, Journal of Public Policy, 36, 639–64. Google Scholar

LEIPOLD, S. and WINKEL, G. (2017), ‘Discursive agency: (re-)conceptualizing actors and practices in the analysis of discursive policymaking’, Policy Studies Journal, 45, 510–34. Google Scholar

LEUNIG, T. (2011), ‘Land auctions will help give us the homes we need’, Local Government Chronicle, https://www.lgcplus.com/briefings/services/housing/planning/land-auctions-will-helpgive-us-the-homes-we-need/5026985.article (accessed 27 March 2019). Google Scholar

LEVI-FAUR, D. (2005), ‘The global diffusion of regulatory capitalism’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 598, 12–32. Google Scholar

LICHFIELD, N. and DARIN-DRABKIN, H. (1980), Land Policy in Planning, London, George Allen & Unwin. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P. (2017), ‘The calculative turn in land value capture: lessons from the English planning system’, Land Use Policy, 63, 122–29. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P., WYATT, P. and COLEMAN, C. (2013), ‘Fit for policy? Some evidence on the application of development viability models in the United Kingdom planning system’, Town Planning Review, 84, 495–521. Google Scholar

MANTON, K. (2006), ‘The Labour Party and the land question, 1919–51’, Historical Research, 79, 247–69. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018), National Planning Policy Framework, London, TSO. Google Scholar

MONK, S. and CROOK, T. (2016), ‘International experience’, in Crook et al. (eds), 227–68. Google Scholar

MORAN, M. (2003), The British Regulatory State: High Modernism and Hyper-innovation, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2003), Contributing to Sustainable Communities: A New Approach to Planning Obligations (consultation study), 6 November, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2004), Contributing to Sustainable Communities: A New Approach to Planning Obligations (statement by the ODPM), House of Commons and House of Lords, 30 January. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005), Planning Obligations (Circular 05/2005), Norwich, TSO. Google Scholar

PECK, J. (2010), Constructions of Neoliberal Reason, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

PECK, J. and TICKELL, A. (2002), ‘Neoliberalizing space’, Antipode, 34, 380–404. Google Scholar

POLANYI, K. (1957), ‘The economy as instituted process’, in K. Polanyi, C. Arensberg and H. Pearson (eds), Trade and Market in the Early Empires, New York, The Free Press, 243–70. Google Scholar

PREST, A. (1981), The Taxation of Urban Land, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

RICS (ROYAL INSTITUTION OF CHARTERED SURVEYORS) (2012), Financial Viability in Planning (guidance note), 1st edn (GN94/2012), August 2012, London, RICS. Google Scholar

ROSS, F. (2013), ‘Bringing political identity into discursive and ideational analysis: welfare reform in Britain and the United States’, British Politics, 8, 51–78. Google Scholar

SAYCE, S., CROSBY, N., GARSIDE, P., HARRIS, R. and PARSA, A. (2017), Viability and the Planning System: The Relationship between Economic Viability Testing, Land Values and Affordable Housing in London, Cirencester, Royal Agricultural University, http://www.henley.ac.uk/files/pdf/schools/rep/Viability_and_the_Planning_System_Research_January_2017.pdf (accessed 27 January 2017). Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2008), ‘Discursive institutionalism: the explanatory power of ideas and discourse’, Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 303–26. Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2010), ‘Taking ideas and discourse seriously: explaining change through discursive institutionalism as the fourth “new institutionalism”’, European Political Science Review, 2, 1–25. Google Scholar

SUTCLIFFE, A. (1988), ‘Britain’s first town planning Act: a review of the 1909 achievement’, Town Planning Review, 59, 289–303. Google Scholar

TICHELAR, M. (1997), ‘Socialists, Labour and the land: the response of the Labour Party to the land campaign of Lloyd George before the First World War’, Twentieth Century British History, 8, 127–44. Google Scholar

TICHELAR, M. (2003), ‘The conflict over property rights during the Second World War: the Labour Party’s abandonment of land nationalization’, Twentieth Century British History, 14, 165–88. Google Scholar

TICHELAR, M. (2008), ‘Labour and the land: from municipalization to the Land Commission, 1951–1971’, Twentieth Century British History, 19, 314–43. Google Scholar

UTHWATT COMMITTEE (1941), The Final Report of the Expert Committee on Compensation and Betterment (Cmd 6368), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

WEILER, P. (2008), ‘Labour and the land: from municipalization to the Land Commission, 1951–1971’, Twentieth Century British History, 19, 314–43. Google Scholar

WEILER, P. (2013), ‘Labour and the land: the making of the Community Act, 1976’, Contemporary British History, 27, 389–420. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. (2016), ‘The economics of development value and planning gain’, in Crook et al. (eds), 20–36. Google Scholar

WIDMAIER, W. (2016), ‘The power of economic ideas – through, over and in – political time: the construction, conversion and crisis of the neoliberal order in the US and UK’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23, 338–56. Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2000), ‘New Labour, new planning? The trajectory of planning in Blair’s Britain’, Urban Studies, 37, 1379–402. Google Scholar

AMODU, T. (2006), ‘The transformation of planning agreements as regulatory instruments in land-use planning in the twentieth century’ (unpublished PhD thesis), London School of Economics and Political Science, http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/2401/1/U615350.pdf (accessed 1 October 2018). Google Scholar

BIBBY, P., BRINDLEY, P., DUNNING, R., McLEAN, A., HENNEBERRY, J. and TUBRIDY, D. (2018), The Exercise of Permitted Development Rights in England since 2010 (RICS research report), May 2018, London. Google Scholar

BLYTH, M. (2002), Great Transformations: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. and HUXLEY, M. (2012), ‘1909 and all that: reflections on the Housing, Town Planning, Etc. Act 1909’, Planning Perspectives, 27, 267–83. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H., ELLIS, H., GLADWELL, C. and HENNEBERRY, J. (2000), ‘Planning obligations, planning practice and land-use outcomes’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 27, 759–75. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. and HENNEBERRY, J. (2005), ‘Planning obligations, the market orientation of planning and planning professionalism’, Journal of Property Research, 22, 37–59. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, J. L. (1998), ‘Institutional analysis and the role of ideas in political economy’, Theory and Society, 27, 377–409. Google Scholar

CARSTENSEN, M. B.and SCHMIDT, V. A. (2016), ‘Power through, over and in ideas: conceptualizing ideational power in discursive institutionalism’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23, 318–37. Google Scholar

CHERRY, G. (1996), Town Planning in Britain since 1900, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

CHESHIRE, P. and SHEPPARD, S. (2004), The Introduction of Price Signals into Land Use Planning Decision-Making: A Proposal (Research Papers in Environmental and Spatial Analysis, no. 89), LSE, Department of Geography and Environment, London. Google Scholar

CLAWSON, M. and HALL, P. (1973), Planning and Urban Growth: An Anglo-American Comparison, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar

COLEMAN, C., CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2013), ‘Development appraisal in practice: some evidence from the planning system’, Journal of Property Research, 30, 144–65. Google Scholar

CORKINDALE, J. (2004), The Land Use Planning System: Evaluating Options for Reform (Hobart Paper 148), Institute of Economic Affairs, London. Google Scholar

COX, K. (1984), Adversary Politics and Land: The Conflict over Land and Property Policy in Post-war Britain, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

CROOK, A., DUNNING, R., FERRARI, E., HENNEBERRY, J., WATKINS, C., BURGESS, G., LYALL GRANT, F., MONK, S., WHITEHEAD, C. and ROWLEY, S. (2010), The Incidence, Value and Delivery of Planning Obligations in England in 2007–08 (final report), March 2010, Department for Communities and Local Government, London. Google Scholar

CROOK, A., HENNEBERRY, J., ROWLEY, S., SMITH, R. and WATKINS, C. (2008), Valuing Planning Obligations in England: Update Study for 2005–06 (final report), July 2008, Department for Communities and Local Government, London. Google Scholar

CROOK, A., HENNEBERRY, J., ROWLEY, S., WATKINS, C. and WELLS, J. (2006), Valuing Planning Obligations in England (final report), May 2006, Department for Communities and Local Government, London. Google Scholar

CROSBY, N., McALLISTER, P. and WYATT, P. (2013), ‘Fit for planning? An evaluation of the application of development viability appraisal models in the UK planning system’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40, 3–22. Google Scholar

CROSBY, N. and WYATT, P. (2016), ‘Financial viability appraisals for site-specific planning decisions in England’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 34, 1716–33. Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. (1975), Environmental Planning 1939–1969, Volume I: Reconstruction and Land Use Planning 1939–1947, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. (1980), Environmental Planning 1939–1969, Volume IV: Land Values, Compensation and Betterment, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2008), Planning Policy Statement 12 (PPS12): Local Spatial Planning, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2010), Planning Policy Statement 3 (PPS3): Housing, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2012), National Planning Policy Framework, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), Research Newsletter 1998/99, Land Use Planning and Minerals, Land Instability and Waste Planning, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2001), Planning Obligations: Delivering a Fundamental Change (DETR consultation document), London, DETR. Google Scholar

EVANS, A. (2003a), ‘The development of urban economics in the twentieth century’, Regional Studies, 37, 521–29. Google Scholar

EVANS, A. (2003b), ‘Shouting very loudly: economics, planning and politics’, Town Planning Review, 74, 195–212. Google Scholar

FITZPATRICK, T. (2016), ‘The sixth giant? Environmental policy and the Labour government, 1945–1951’, Journal of Social Policy, 45, 65–82. Google Scholar

GRUBE, D. and VAN ACKER, E. (2017), ‘Rhetorically defining a social institution: how leaders have framed same-sex marriage’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 52, 183–98. Google Scholar

HALL, P. A. (1993), ‘Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: the case of economic policymaking in Britain’, Comparative Politics, 25, 275–96. Google Scholar

HARVEY, D. (2005), A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

HAY, C. (2006), ‘Constructivist institutionalism’, in R. A. W. Rhodes, S. Binder and B. Rockman (eds), Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 56–74. Google Scholar

HAY, C. and FARRALL, S. (2011), ‘Establishing the ontological status of Thatcherism by gauging its “periodisability”: towards a “cascade theory” of public policy radicalism’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 13, 439–58. Google Scholar

HENNEBERRY, J. (2016), ‘Development viability’, in A. D. H. Crook, J. Henneberry and C. Whitehead (eds), Planning Gain: Providing Infrastructure and Affordable Housing, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, 115–39. Google Scholar

HENNEBERRY, J. and GOODCHILD, B. (1996), ‘Impact fees and the financial structure of development’, Journal of Property Finance, 7, 7–27. Google Scholar

HMG (HER MAJESTY’S GOVERNMENT) (1974), Community Ownership of Land: White Paper, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

HMG (HER MAJESTY’S GOVERNMENT) (2018), Viability, https://www.gov.uk/guidance/viability (accessed 20 March 2019). Google Scholar

HOUSE OF COMMONS, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE (2006), Planning Gain Supplement, Fifth Report of Session 2005–2006, HC 1024-I, London, TSO, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmcomloc/1024/1024i.pdf (accessed 2 April 2019). Google Scholar

JESSOP, B., BONNETT, K., BROMLEY, S. and LING, T. (1988), Thatcherism: A Tale of Two Nations, Cambridge, Polity. Google Scholar

KONING, E. A. (2016), ‘The three institutionalisms and institutional dynamics: understanding endogenous and exogenous change’, Journal of Public Policy, 36, 639–64. Google Scholar

LEIPOLD, S. and WINKEL, G. (2017), ‘Discursive agency: (re-)conceptualizing actors and practices in the analysis of discursive policymaking’, Policy Studies Journal, 45, 510–34. Google Scholar

LEUNIG, T. (2011), ‘Land auctions will help give us the homes we need’, Local Government Chronicle, https://www.lgcplus.com/briefings/services/housing/planning/land-auctions-will-helpgive-us-the-homes-we-need/5026985.article (accessed 27 March 2019). Google Scholar

LEVI-FAUR, D. (2005), ‘The global diffusion of regulatory capitalism’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 598, 12–32. Google Scholar

LICHFIELD, N. and DARIN-DRABKIN, H. (1980), Land Policy in Planning, London, George Allen & Unwin. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P. (2017), ‘The calculative turn in land value capture: lessons from the English planning system’, Land Use Policy, 63, 122–29. Google Scholar

McALLISTER, P., WYATT, P. and COLEMAN, C. (2013), ‘Fit for policy? Some evidence on the application of development viability models in the United Kingdom planning system’, Town Planning Review, 84, 495–521. Google Scholar

MANTON, K. (2006), ‘The Labour Party and the land question, 1919–51’, Historical Research, 79, 247–69. Google Scholar

MHCLG (MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2018), National Planning Policy Framework, London, TSO. Google Scholar

MONK, S. and CROOK, T. (2016), ‘International experience’, in Crook et al. (eds), 227–68. Google Scholar

MORAN, M. (2003), The British Regulatory State: High Modernism and Hyper-innovation, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2003), Contributing to Sustainable Communities: A New Approach to Planning Obligations (consultation study), 6 November, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2004), Contributing to Sustainable Communities: A New Approach to Planning Obligations (statement by the ODPM), House of Commons and House of Lords, 30 January. Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005), Planning Obligations (Circular 05/2005), Norwich, TSO. Google Scholar

PECK, J. (2010), Constructions of Neoliberal Reason, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

PECK, J. and TICKELL, A. (2002), ‘Neoliberalizing space’, Antipode, 34, 380–404. Google Scholar

POLANYI, K. (1957), ‘The economy as instituted process’, in K. Polanyi, C. Arensberg and H. Pearson (eds), Trade and Market in the Early Empires, New York, The Free Press, 243–70. Google Scholar

PREST, A. (1981), The Taxation of Urban Land, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

RICS (ROYAL INSTITUTION OF CHARTERED SURVEYORS) (2012), Financial Viability in Planning (guidance note), 1st edn (GN94/2012), August 2012, London, RICS. Google Scholar

ROSS, F. (2013), ‘Bringing political identity into discursive and ideational analysis: welfare reform in Britain and the United States’, British Politics, 8, 51–78. Google Scholar

SAYCE, S., CROSBY, N., GARSIDE, P., HARRIS, R. and PARSA, A. (2017), Viability and the Planning System: The Relationship between Economic Viability Testing, Land Values and Affordable Housing in London, Cirencester, Royal Agricultural University, http://www.henley.ac.uk/files/pdf/schools/rep/Viability_and_the_Planning_System_Research_January_2017.pdf (accessed 27 January 2017). Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2008), ‘Discursive institutionalism: the explanatory power of ideas and discourse’, Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 303–26. Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2010), ‘Taking ideas and discourse seriously: explaining change through discursive institutionalism as the fourth “new institutionalism”’, European Political Science Review, 2, 1–25. Google Scholar

SUTCLIFFE, A. (1988), ‘Britain’s first town planning Act: a review of the 1909 achievement’, Town Planning Review, 59, 289–303. Google Scholar

TICHELAR, M. (1997), ‘Socialists, Labour and the land: the response of the Labour Party to the land campaign of Lloyd George before the First World War’, Twentieth Century British History, 8, 127–44. Google Scholar

TICHELAR, M. (2003), ‘The conflict over property rights during the Second World War: the Labour Party’s abandonment of land nationalization’, Twentieth Century British History, 14, 165–88. Google Scholar

TICHELAR, M. (2008), ‘Labour and the land: from municipalization to the Land Commission, 1951–1971’, Twentieth Century British History, 19, 314–43. Google Scholar

UTHWATT COMMITTEE (1941), The Final Report of the Expert Committee on Compensation and Betterment (Cmd 6368), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

WEILER, P. (2008), ‘Labour and the land: from municipalization to the Land Commission, 1951–1971’, Twentieth Century British History, 19, 314–43. Google Scholar

WEILER, P. (2013), ‘Labour and the land: the making of the Community Act, 1976’, Contemporary British History, 27, 389–420. Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. (2016), ‘The economics of development value and planning gain’, in Crook et al. (eds), 20–36. Google Scholar

WIDMAIER, W. (2016), ‘The power of economic ideas – through, over and in – political time: the construction, conversion and crisis of the neoliberal order in the US and UK’, Journal of European Public Policy, 23, 338–56. Google Scholar

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Author details

Catney, Philip

Henneberry, John