Town Planning Review

In the shadow of Sir Patrick: Niel Abercrombie’s planning career in Britain, Palestine and Australia 1933–1975

Town Planning Review (2018), 89, (4), 355–378.

Abstract

Patrick Abercrombie looms large over British planning history and the global spread of town and country planning philosophies through the twentieth century. However, the life and contributions of his only son Niel, a capable architect-planner in his own right, have not been documented. This paper examines the career of Niel Abercrombie (1911–1984) who worked with his father and Clifford Holliday on various planning projects in Britain and Palestine in the 1930s and then after the Second World War migrated to Australia to continue his career in public service with the NSW Department of Local Government (1946–1948), the Illawarra Planning Authority (1948–1950), the University and Board of Works in Melbourne (1950–1955), and as Town and Country Planning Commissioner of Tasmania (1956–1974). His activities are described and contributions assessed against the backdrops of urban policy transfer, British influences on Australian planning and life in the shadow of a British planning icon.

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ABERCROMBIE, N. (1947), ‘Open space and amenities’, Shire and Municipal Record, 40, 77–78. Open space and amenities Shire and Municipal Record 40 77 78 Google Scholar

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ABERCROMBIE, N. (1953), ‘This year may be Melbourne’s turning point’, Herald, 19 January 1953. This year may be Melbourne’s turning point Herald Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1954), ‘Our growing city’, M. M. B. W. Officers’ Journal, December, 15–25. Our growing city M. M. B. W. Officers’ Journal 15 25 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1957), ‘Planning new towns’, Tasmanian Architect, Summer, 15–16. Planning new towns Tasmanian Architect Summer 15 16 Google Scholar

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ABERCROMBIE, P. and KELLY, S. (1935), East Suffolk Regional Planning Scheme, London, University Press of Liverpool and Hodder and Stoughton. East Suffolk Regional Planning Scheme Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. and NICKSON, R. (1946), ‘A plan for Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch’ (Unpublished Report), London. A plan for Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE-HOWROYD, F. (2017), Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania. 11 May 2017. Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania Google Scholar

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ARGUS (1952), ‘Planning expert rates Melbourne… the greatest sprawler in the world’, Argus, 31 January 1952. Google Scholar

ARGUS (1954), ‘“Brains Trust” will advise a council – free!’, Argus, 10 April 1954. Google Scholar

AUSTRALIAN WOMEN’S WEEKLY (1946), ‘English housing scheme revives the village green’, Australian Women’s Weekly, 30 November 1946. Google Scholar

BLYTHE, R. (1996), ‘Planning education: the establishment of the diploma of Town Planning at the Hobart Technical College’ in T. Dingle (ed.), The Australian City – Future/Past, Proceedings of the Third Australian Planning History/Urban History Conference, Melbourne, 35–42. Planning education: the establishment of the diploma of Town Planning at the Hobart Technical College 35 42 Google Scholar

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CLARK, M. (1993), ‘Metropolitan planning in Hobart’, in R. Freestone (ed.), Spirited Cities: Urban Planning, Traffic and Environmental Management in the Nineties, Annandale, Federation Press, 176–89. Metropolitan planning in Hobart Spirited Cities: Urban Planning, Traffic and Environmental Management in the Nineties 176 89 Google Scholar

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CONSTRUCTION (1948), ‘Mr Neil Abercrombie appointed planner to northern Illawarra sub-regional planning authority’, 10 March 1948. Google Scholar

DAILY TELEGRAPH (1946), ‘Tips of a modern Christopher Wren’, 25 November 1946. Google Scholar

DIX, G. (1978), ‘Little plans and noble diagrams’, Town Planning Review, 49, 329–52. Little plans and noble diagrams Town Planning Review 49 329 52 Google Scholar

DIX, G. (1979), ‘Leslie Patrick Abercrombie: a centenary note’, Town Planning Review, 50, 257–64. Leslie Patrick Abercrombie: a centenary note Town Planning Review 50 257 64 Google Scholar

DIX, G. (1981), ‘Patrick Abercrombie 1879–1957’, in G. E. Cherry (ed.), Pioneers in British Planning, London, Architectural Press, 103–30. Patrick Abercrombie 1879–1957 Pioneers in British Planning 103 30 Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R. (2009), ‘The first professor: Denis Winston comes to Sydney, 1949’, Australian Planner, 46, 36–37. The first professor: Denis Winston comes to Sydney, 1949 Australian Planner 46 36 37 Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R. (2018) ‘Biographies’, in C. Hein (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Planning History, London, Routledge, 60–75. Biographies The Routledge Handbook of Planning History 60 75 Google Scholar

FREESTONE R., AMATI, M. and MILLS, P. (2016), ‘The renaissance of post-war metropolitan planning in Melbourne, Australia 1949–1954’ in C. Hein (ed.), Proceedings of the 17th International Planning History Society Conference: History, Urbanism, Resilience, Volume 1, Delft, TU Delft Open, 311–17. The renaissance of post-war metropolitan planning in Melbourne, Australia 1949–1954 311 17 Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R. and JAMES, P. (2018), ‘Learning from LA: Australian responses to Los Angeles urbanism 1910–1960’, Journal of Planning History, in press. Learning from LA: Australian responses to Los Angeles urbanism 1910–1960 Journal of Planning History Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R., NICHOLS, D. and GARNAUT, C. (2017), ‘Tertiary education and postwar reconstruction: the first Australian planning programs’, in A. Frank and C. Silver (eds), Urban Planning Education: Beginnings, Global Movement and Future Prospects, London, Springer, 101–18. Tertiary education and postwar reconstruction: the first Australian planning programs Urban Planning Education: Beginnings, Global Movement and Future Prospects 101 18 Google Scholar

HOLFORD, W. G. (1949), ‘The planning schools: 2 University College London’, Town Planning Review, 20, 283–87. The planning schools: 2 University College London Town Planning Review 20 283 87 Google Scholar

HOME, R. (2013), Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities, 2nd edition, London, Routledge. Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ILLAWARRA DAILY MERCURY (1950), ‘Schools are vital in town planning’, Illawarra Daily Mercury, 19 August 1950. Google Scholar

ILLAWARRA PLANNING AUTHORITY (1950), Report on the Illawarra Planning Scheme, Wollongong. Google Scholar

JAMES, P. and FREESTONE, R. (2008), ‘Norman Weekes’ contribution to modern town planning and design in New South Wales’, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 94, 201–18. Norman Weekes’ contribution to modern town planning and design in New South Wales Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society 94 201 18 Google Scholar

JAMES, P. and FREESTONE, R. (2014), ‘Town planning exhibitions, planning education and Hobart’s First Metropolitan Plan’, Tasmanian Historical Studies, 19, 117–38. Town planning exhibitions, planning education and Hobart’s First Metropolitan Plan Tasmanian Historical Studies 19 117 38 Google Scholar

JOHNSON, P- A. (1999), ‘Compliance, subversion and the Australian-Britain Nexus: theoretical dilemmas for Australian architecture and urbanism’, Architectural Theory Review, 4, 34–49. Compliance, subversion and the Australian-Britain Nexus: theoretical dilemmas for Australian architecture and urbanism Architectural Theory Review 4 34 49 Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1948a), ‘Town planning’, Kiama Independent, 4 September 1948. Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1948b), ‘Park areas on foreshores’, Kiama Independent, 7 August 1948. Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1949), ‘Cabins at Lake Illawarra’, Kiama Independent, 3 December 1949. Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1950), ‘Illawarra Planning Authority exhibition at Wollongong’, Kiama Independent, 23 August 1950. Google Scholar

LITHGOW MERCURY (1948), ‘Re-planning near south coast’, Lithgow Mercury, 30 January 1948. Google Scholar

LAURIE, W. R. (1946), ‘British planning schemes: lessons for Australia’, RAIA Bulletin (NSW Chapter), May 1946, 3–4. British planning schemes: lessons for Australia RAIA Bulletin (NSW Chapter) 3 4 Google Scholar

LARCOMBE, F. A. (1978), The Advancement of Local Government in New South Wales 1906 to the Present, Sydney, Sydney University Press. The Advancement of Local Government in New South Wales 1906 to the Present Google Scholar

MUNICIPAL COMMISSION (1965), Reports of the Municipal Commission of Tasmania, Hobart, Government Printer. Google Scholar

NOLAN, R. (2017), Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania, 11 May 2017. Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania Google Scholar

PARLIAMENT OF TASMANIA (1970), Report of the Joint Committee on Town and Country Planning, With Minutes of Proceedings, Hobart, Government Printer. Google Scholar

PETROW, S. (1995), ‘Against the spirit of local government: the making of Tasmanian town and country planning legislation’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 54, 205–18. Against the spirit of local government: the making of Tasmanian town and country planning legislation Australian Journal of Public Administration 54 205 18 Google Scholar

PETROW, S. (2000), ‘The diary of a Town and Country Planning Commissioner: R. A. McInnis in Tasmania 1945–1956’ in C. Garnaut and S. Hamnett (eds), Fifth Australian Urban History Planning Conference Proceedings, 372–84. The diary of a Town and Country Planning Commissioner: R. A. McInnis in Tasmania 1945–1956 372 84 Google Scholar

PETROW, S. and ALEXANDER, A. (2008), Growing With Strength: A History of the Hobart City Council 1846–2000, Hobart, Hobart City Council. Growing With Strength: A History of the Hobart City Council 1846–2000 Google Scholar

ROOTES, G. (2009), ‘“Overstrained and creaking at every joint”: local government in rural Tasmania’, Tasmanian Historical Research Association Papers and Proceedings, 56, 154–69. “Overstrained and creaking at every joint”: local government in rural Tasmania Tasmanian Historical Research Association Papers and Proceedings 56 154 69 Google Scholar

SOUTH COAST TIMES AND WOLLONGONG ARGUS (1948), ‘Wollongong in “World Class” if properly planned says eminent British town planner’, South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus, 28 October 1948. Google Scholar

SOUTH COAST TIMES AND WOLLONGONG ARGUS (1950), ‘Town planning scheme explained to council’, South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus, 6 November 1950. Google Scholar

SYDNEY MORNING HERALD (1946), ‘British architect to settle here’, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 November 1946. Google Scholar

SYDNEY MORNING HERALD (1947), ‘Sydney’s talking about…’, Sydney Morning Herald, 16 October 1947. Google Scholar

SYDNEY MORNING HERALD (1950), ‘Development plan for south coast industrial region’, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 October 1950. Google Scholar

TIMES (1936), Marriages, Times, 1 February 1936. Google Scholar

TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT (1936), ‘Grace in country planning: an architectural design for Suffolk’, Times Literary Supplement, 8 February 1936. Google Scholar

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE (2006), ‘A history of the architecture department’, Department of Architecture, www.arct.cam.ac.uk/aboutthedepartment/aboutthedepthome (accessed 29 September 2016). Google Scholar

WARD, S. (2018), ‘Planning Diffusion: Agents, Mechanisms, Networks, and Theories’ in C. Hein (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Planning History, London, Routledge, 76–90. Planning Diffusion: Agents, Mechanisms, Networks, and Theories The Routledge Handbook of Planning History 76 90 Google Scholar

WESTERMAN, H. (1958), ‘Town planning in Tasmania’, Journal of the Australian Planning Institute, 18, 18–24. Town planning in Tasmania Journal of the Australian Planning Institute 18 18 24 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1947), ‘Open space and amenities’, Shire and Municipal Record, 40, 77–78. Open space and amenities Shire and Municipal Record 40 77 78 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1948), ‘The problem of the foreshores: coastal development of the Illawarra region’, Shire and Municipal Record, 28 September, 339–45. The problem of the foreshores: coastal development of the Illawarra region Shire and Municipal Record 339 45 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1949), Foreword to L. A. Lyons, Illawarra: The Garden of the State, Port Kembla, Macdonald and Masterson. Illawarra: The Garden of the State Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1953), ‘This year may be Melbourne’s turning point’, Herald, 19 January 1953. This year may be Melbourne’s turning point Herald Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1954), ‘Our growing city’, M. M. B. W. Officers’ Journal, December, 15–25. Our growing city M. M. B. W. Officers’ Journal 15 25 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, N. (1957), ‘Planning new towns’, Tasmanian Architect, Summer, 15–16. Planning new towns Tasmanian Architect Summer 15 16 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. (1945), Town and Country Planning, 2nd edition, London, Oxford University Press. Town and Country Planning Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. (n.d.), Unpublished memoir 1879–1957, University of Tasmania, deposited 2017. Unpublished memoir 1879–1957 Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. and KELLY, S. (1935), East Suffolk Regional Planning Scheme, London, University Press of Liverpool and Hodder and Stoughton. East Suffolk Regional Planning Scheme Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. and NICKSON, R. (1946), ‘A plan for Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch’ (Unpublished Report), London. A plan for Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE-HOWROYD, F. (2017), Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania. 11 May 2017. Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania Google Scholar

AMATI, M. and FREESTONE, R. (2009), ‘“Saint Patrick”, Sir Patrick Abercrombie’s Australian tour 1948’, Town Planning Review, 80, 597–626. “Saint Patrick”, Sir Patrick Abercrombie’s Australian tour 1948 Town Planning Review 80 597 626 Google Scholar

ANON. (1958), ‘The Royal Australian Institute of Architects Tasmanian chapter: council and committees’, Tasmanian Architect, Autumn, 35. The Royal Australian Institute of Architects Tasmanian chapter: council and committees Tasmanian Architect 35 Google Scholar

ANON. (1964), ‘Scope for scape: the city beautiful townscape committee nears realisation’, Tasmanian Architect, August, 23–24. Scope for scape: the city beautiful townscape committee nears realisation Tasmanian Architect 23 24 Google Scholar

ARGUS (1952), ‘Planning expert rates Melbourne… the greatest sprawler in the world’, Argus, 31 January 1952. Google Scholar

ARGUS (1954), ‘“Brains Trust” will advise a council – free!’, Argus, 10 April 1954. Google Scholar

AUSTRALIAN WOMEN’S WEEKLY (1946), ‘English housing scheme revives the village green’, Australian Women’s Weekly, 30 November 1946. Google Scholar

BLYTHE, R. (1996), ‘Planning education: the establishment of the diploma of Town Planning at the Hobart Technical College’ in T. Dingle (ed.), The Australian City – Future/Past, Proceedings of the Third Australian Planning History/Urban History Conference, Melbourne, 35–42. Planning education: the establishment of the diploma of Town Planning at the Hobart Technical College 35 42 Google Scholar

BROWN, A. J. and SHERRARD, H. M. (1951), Town and Country Planning, Melbourne, University of Melbourne Press. Town and Country Planning Google Scholar

CLARK, M. (1993), ‘Metropolitan planning in Hobart’, in R. Freestone (ed.), Spirited Cities: Urban Planning, Traffic and Environmental Management in the Nineties, Annandale, Federation Press, 176–89. Metropolitan planning in Hobart Spirited Cities: Urban Planning, Traffic and Environmental Management in the Nineties 176 89 Google Scholar

COLLINS, M. (2015), ‘The development of town planning education at University College London 1914–1969: the contributions of Professors S. D. Adshead, L. P. Abercrombie, and W. G. Holford’, Planning Perspectives, 31, 283–98. The development of town planning education at University College London 1914–1969: the contributions of Professors S. D. Adshead, L. P. Abercrombie, and W. G. Holford Planning Perspectives 31 283 98 Google Scholar

CONSTRUCTION (1948), ‘Mr Neil Abercrombie appointed planner to northern Illawarra sub-regional planning authority’, 10 March 1948. Google Scholar

DAILY TELEGRAPH (1946), ‘Tips of a modern Christopher Wren’, 25 November 1946. Google Scholar

DIX, G. (1978), ‘Little plans and noble diagrams’, Town Planning Review, 49, 329–52. Little plans and noble diagrams Town Planning Review 49 329 52 Google Scholar

DIX, G. (1979), ‘Leslie Patrick Abercrombie: a centenary note’, Town Planning Review, 50, 257–64. Leslie Patrick Abercrombie: a centenary note Town Planning Review 50 257 64 Google Scholar

DIX, G. (1981), ‘Patrick Abercrombie 1879–1957’, in G. E. Cherry (ed.), Pioneers in British Planning, London, Architectural Press, 103–30. Patrick Abercrombie 1879–1957 Pioneers in British Planning 103 30 Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R. (2009), ‘The first professor: Denis Winston comes to Sydney, 1949’, Australian Planner, 46, 36–37. The first professor: Denis Winston comes to Sydney, 1949 Australian Planner 46 36 37 Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R. (2018) ‘Biographies’, in C. Hein (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Planning History, London, Routledge, 60–75. Biographies The Routledge Handbook of Planning History 60 75 Google Scholar

FREESTONE R., AMATI, M. and MILLS, P. (2016), ‘The renaissance of post-war metropolitan planning in Melbourne, Australia 1949–1954’ in C. Hein (ed.), Proceedings of the 17th International Planning History Society Conference: History, Urbanism, Resilience, Volume 1, Delft, TU Delft Open, 311–17. The renaissance of post-war metropolitan planning in Melbourne, Australia 1949–1954 311 17 Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R. and JAMES, P. (2018), ‘Learning from LA: Australian responses to Los Angeles urbanism 1910–1960’, Journal of Planning History, in press. Learning from LA: Australian responses to Los Angeles urbanism 1910–1960 Journal of Planning History Google Scholar

FREESTONE, R., NICHOLS, D. and GARNAUT, C. (2017), ‘Tertiary education and postwar reconstruction: the first Australian planning programs’, in A. Frank and C. Silver (eds), Urban Planning Education: Beginnings, Global Movement and Future Prospects, London, Springer, 101–18. Tertiary education and postwar reconstruction: the first Australian planning programs Urban Planning Education: Beginnings, Global Movement and Future Prospects 101 18 Google Scholar

HOLFORD, W. G. (1949), ‘The planning schools: 2 University College London’, Town Planning Review, 20, 283–87. The planning schools: 2 University College London Town Planning Review 20 283 87 Google Scholar

HOME, R. (2013), Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities, 2nd edition, London, Routledge. Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ILLAWARRA DAILY MERCURY (1950), ‘Schools are vital in town planning’, Illawarra Daily Mercury, 19 August 1950. Google Scholar

ILLAWARRA PLANNING AUTHORITY (1950), Report on the Illawarra Planning Scheme, Wollongong. Google Scholar

JAMES, P. and FREESTONE, R. (2008), ‘Norman Weekes’ contribution to modern town planning and design in New South Wales’, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 94, 201–18. Norman Weekes’ contribution to modern town planning and design in New South Wales Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society 94 201 18 Google Scholar

JAMES, P. and FREESTONE, R. (2014), ‘Town planning exhibitions, planning education and Hobart’s First Metropolitan Plan’, Tasmanian Historical Studies, 19, 117–38. Town planning exhibitions, planning education and Hobart’s First Metropolitan Plan Tasmanian Historical Studies 19 117 38 Google Scholar

JOHNSON, P- A. (1999), ‘Compliance, subversion and the Australian-Britain Nexus: theoretical dilemmas for Australian architecture and urbanism’, Architectural Theory Review, 4, 34–49. Compliance, subversion and the Australian-Britain Nexus: theoretical dilemmas for Australian architecture and urbanism Architectural Theory Review 4 34 49 Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1948a), ‘Town planning’, Kiama Independent, 4 September 1948. Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1948b), ‘Park areas on foreshores’, Kiama Independent, 7 August 1948. Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1949), ‘Cabins at Lake Illawarra’, Kiama Independent, 3 December 1949. Google Scholar

KIAMA INDEPENDENT (1950), ‘Illawarra Planning Authority exhibition at Wollongong’, Kiama Independent, 23 August 1950. Google Scholar

LITHGOW MERCURY (1948), ‘Re-planning near south coast’, Lithgow Mercury, 30 January 1948. Google Scholar

LAURIE, W. R. (1946), ‘British planning schemes: lessons for Australia’, RAIA Bulletin (NSW Chapter), May 1946, 3–4. British planning schemes: lessons for Australia RAIA Bulletin (NSW Chapter) 3 4 Google Scholar

LARCOMBE, F. A. (1978), The Advancement of Local Government in New South Wales 1906 to the Present, Sydney, Sydney University Press. The Advancement of Local Government in New South Wales 1906 to the Present Google Scholar

MUNICIPAL COMMISSION (1965), Reports of the Municipal Commission of Tasmania, Hobart, Government Printer. Google Scholar

NOLAN, R. (2017), Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania, 11 May 2017. Interview by R. Freestone and P. James, Hobart, Tasmania Google Scholar

PARLIAMENT OF TASMANIA (1970), Report of the Joint Committee on Town and Country Planning, With Minutes of Proceedings, Hobart, Government Printer. Google Scholar

PETROW, S. (1995), ‘Against the spirit of local government: the making of Tasmanian town and country planning legislation’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 54, 205–18. Against the spirit of local government: the making of Tasmanian town and country planning legislation Australian Journal of Public Administration 54 205 18 Google Scholar

PETROW, S. (2000), ‘The diary of a Town and Country Planning Commissioner: R. A. McInnis in Tasmania 1945–1956’ in C. Garnaut and S. Hamnett (eds), Fifth Australian Urban History Planning Conference Proceedings, 372–84. The diary of a Town and Country Planning Commissioner: R. A. McInnis in Tasmania 1945–1956 372 84 Google Scholar

PETROW, S. and ALEXANDER, A. (2008), Growing With Strength: A History of the Hobart City Council 1846–2000, Hobart, Hobart City Council. Growing With Strength: A History of the Hobart City Council 1846–2000 Google Scholar

ROOTES, G. (2009), ‘“Overstrained and creaking at every joint”: local government in rural Tasmania’, Tasmanian Historical Research Association Papers and Proceedings, 56, 154–69. “Overstrained and creaking at every joint”: local government in rural Tasmania Tasmanian Historical Research Association Papers and Proceedings 56 154 69 Google Scholar

SOUTH COAST TIMES AND WOLLONGONG ARGUS (1948), ‘Wollongong in “World Class” if properly planned says eminent British town planner’, South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus, 28 October 1948. Google Scholar

SOUTH COAST TIMES AND WOLLONGONG ARGUS (1950), ‘Town planning scheme explained to council’, South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus, 6 November 1950. Google Scholar

SYDNEY MORNING HERALD (1946), ‘British architect to settle here’, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 November 1946. Google Scholar

SYDNEY MORNING HERALD (1947), ‘Sydney’s talking about…’, Sydney Morning Herald, 16 October 1947. Google Scholar

SYDNEY MORNING HERALD (1950), ‘Development plan for south coast industrial region’, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 October 1950. Google Scholar

TIMES (1936), Marriages, Times, 1 February 1936. Google Scholar

TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT (1936), ‘Grace in country planning: an architectural design for Suffolk’, Times Literary Supplement, 8 February 1936. Google Scholar

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE (2006), ‘A history of the architecture department’, Department of Architecture, www.arct.cam.ac.uk/aboutthedepartment/aboutthedepthome (accessed 29 September 2016). Google Scholar

WARD, S. (2018), ‘Planning Diffusion: Agents, Mechanisms, Networks, and Theories’ in C. Hein (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Planning History, London, Routledge, 76–90. Planning Diffusion: Agents, Mechanisms, Networks, and Theories The Routledge Handbook of Planning History 76 90 Google Scholar

WESTERMAN, H. (1958), ‘Town planning in Tasmania’, Journal of the Australian Planning Institute, 18, 18–24. Town planning in Tasmania Journal of the Australian Planning Institute 18 18 24 Google Scholar

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Author details

Freestone, Robert

James, Peggy