Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Socio-pragmatic Functions of Code-switching in Latino Essays. A Case Study on Bilingual Pragmatic Markers in Susana Chávez-Silverman’s Killer Crónicas (2004)

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2018), 95, (9), 927–944.

Abstract

This paper contributes to the general discussion on the value of written data for the study of phenomena typical of orality, and wants to provide a better understanding of the social and linguistic functions of code-switching in Chicano narratives. It looks into the use of bilingual pragmatic marker pairs in Susana Chávez-Silverman’s essays Killer Crónicas (2004). Two case studies are dedicated to pragmatic expressions that focus on the direct interaction between the speaker–writer and hearer–reader, namely the epistemic markers you know/sabes and the metadiscursive parentheticals I swear/te lo juro. It is shown that, besides supporting well thought literary effects, the use of pragmatic markers in this volume mirrors surprisingly well their use in monolingual and bilingual spoken discourse. As a consequence, due to its high degree of orality, the text of Chávez-Silverman can be considered as a complementary source for the study of code-switching in spoken language.

Este trabajo contribuye a la discusión general sobre el valor de datos escritos para el análisis de fenómenos típicos de la oralidad, y provee un mejor entendimiento de las funciones sociales y lingüísticas del cambio de código en textos narrativos chicanos. Estudia el uso de marcadores pragmáticos bilingües en los ensayos Killer Crónicas de Susana Chávez-Silverman (2004). Los dos estudios de caso se dedican a expresiones pragmáticas que se centran en la interacción directa entre el hablante–escritor y el interlocutor–lector, a saber los marcadores you know/sabes y los parentéticos metadiscursivos I swear/te lo juro. Se argumenta que, más que generar determinados efectos literarios, el uso de los marcadores pragmáticos refleja bien su uso en el discurso hablado monolingüe y bilingüe. Como consecuencia, por su grado de oralidad elevado, el texto de Chávez-Silverman se puede considerar como fuente complementaria para el estudio del cambio de código en el lenguaje hablado.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

C-Oral-Rom, 2005–. C-Oral-Rom: Integrated Reference Corpora for Spoken Romance Languages, ed. Emanuela Cresti and Massimo Moneglia. [Print and ebook with DVD.] (Amsterdam: John Benjamins). Google Scholar

CORLEC, n. d. Reference Spoken Corpus of Contemporary Spanish. (Madrid: UAM: Laboratorio de Lingüística Informática). Available at: >http://www.lllf.uam.es/ING/Corlec.html> [accessed 26 July 2018]. Google Scholar

PRESEEA, 2014-. Corpus del Proyecto para el estudio sociolingüístico del español de España y de América. (Alcalá de Henares: Universidad de Alcalá). Available at: >http://preseea.linguas.net> [accessed 26 July 2018]. Google Scholar

Aaron, Jessi, 2004. ‘So respetamos un tradición del uno al otro’, Spanish in Context, 1.2: 161–79. So respetamos un tradición del uno al otro Spanish in Context 1 161 79 Google Scholar

Allaston, Paul, and Jeff Browitt, 2008. ‘Introducing Hyperworlds(s): Language, Culture and History in the Latin American World(s)’, Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, 5.1: 1–23. Introducing Hyperworlds(s): Language, Culture and History in the Latin American World(s) Portal Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 5 1 23 Google Scholar

Auer, Peter, 1998. ‘Introduction: Bilingual Conversation Revisited’, in Code-switching in Conversation, ed. Peter Auer (London: Routledge), pp. 1–24. Introduction: Bilingual Conversation Revisited Code-switching in Conversation 1 24 Google Scholar

Auer, Peter, 1999. ‘From Code-switching via Language Mixing to Fused Lects: Toward a Dynamic Typology of Bilingual Speech’, International Journal of Bilingualism, 3.4: 309–332. From Code-switching via Language Mixing to Fused Lects: Toward a Dynamic Typology of Bilingual Speech International Journal of Bilingualism 3 309 332 Google Scholar

Azofra, Elena, and Renata Enghels, 2017. ‘El proceso de gramaticalización del marcador epistémico deverbal ¿sabes?’, Iberoromania, 85: 1–25. El proceso de gramaticalización del marcador epistémico deverbal ¿sabes? Iberoromania 85 1 25 Google Scholar

Benveniste, Émile, 1971 [1958]. Problems in General Linguistics, trans. of Problèmes de linguistique générale by M. E. Meek (Miami, FL: University of Miami Press). Problems in General Linguistics Google Scholar

Blakemore, Diane, 1991. ‘Performatives and Parentheticals’, Proceeding of the Aristotelian Society, 91: 197–213. Performatives and Parentheticals Proceeding of the Aristotelian Society 91 197 213 Google Scholar

Brown, Roger, and Albert Gilman, 1989. ‘Politeness Theory and Shakespeare’s Four Major Tragedies’, Language in Society, 18.2: 159–212. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare’s Four Major Tragedies Language in Society 18 159 212 Google Scholar

Bürki, Yvette, 2003. ‘La alternancia de códigos en la literatura neorriqueña’, Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamricana, 1.2: 79–96. La alternancia de códigos en la literatura neorriqueña Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamricana 1 79 96 Google Scholar

Callahan, Laura, 2004. Spanish/English Codeswitching in a Written Corpus (Amsterdam: Benjamins). Spanish/English Codeswitching in a Written Corpus Google Scholar

Chávez-Silverman, Susana, 2004. Killer Crónicas. Bilingual Memories/Memorias bilingües (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press). Killer Crónicas. Bilingual Memories/Memorias bilingües Google Scholar

Derrick, Roshwanda A., 2014. ‘Radical Bilingualism in Killer Crónicas’, Hispania, 97.3: 366–67. Radical Bilingualism in Killer Crónicas Hispania 97 366 67 Google Scholar

Derrick, Roshwanda A., 2015. ‘Code-Switching, Code-Mixing and Radical Bilingualism in U.S. Latino Texts’, Wayne State University Dissertations, Article 1309. Code-Switching, Code-Mixing and Radical Bilingualism in U.S. Latino Texts Google Scholar

Flores-Ferrán, Nadia, 2014. ‘So pues entonces: An Examination of Bilingual Discourse Markers in Spanish Oral Narratives of Personal Experience of New York City-born Puerto Ricans’, Sociolinguistic Studies, 8.1: 57–83. So pues entonces: An Examination of Bilingual Discourse Markers in Spanish Oral Narratives of Personal Experience of New York City-born Puerto Ricans Sociolinguistic Studies 8 57 83 Google Scholar

Fraser, Bruce, 1999. ‘What are Discourse Markers?’, Journal of Pragmatics, 31: 931–52. What are Discourse Markers? Journal of Pragmatics 31 931 52 Google Scholar

Fuentes Rodríguez, Catalina, 2009. Diccionario de conectores y operadores del español (Madrid: Arco Libros). Diccionario de conectores y operadores del español Google Scholar

Garrido Medina, Joaquín, 1999. ‘Los actos de habla. Las oraciones imperativas’, in Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española, ed. Ignacio Bosque and Violeta Demonte (Madrid: Espasa Calpe), pp. 3879–928. Los actos de habla. Las oraciones imperativas Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española 3879 928 Google Scholar

Goetsch, Paul, 1985. ‘Fingierte Mündlichkeit in der Erzählkunst entwickelter Schriftkulturen’, Poetica, 17: 202–218. Fingierte Mündlichkeit in der Erzählkunst entwickelter Schriftkulturen Poetica 17 202 218 Google Scholar

Holmes, Janet, 1986. ‘Functions of you know in Women’s and Men’s Speech’, Language in Society, 15.1: 1–21. Functions of you know in Women’s and Men’s Speech Language in Society 15 1 21 Google Scholar

House Juliane, 2009. ‘Subjectivity in English as Lingua Franca Discourse: The Case of you know’, Intercultural Pragmatics, 6.2: 171–93. Subjectivity in English as Lingua Franca Discourse: The Case of you know Intercultural Pragmatics 6 171 93 Google Scholar

Hummel, Martin, 2014. ‘La reconstrucción diacrónica entre oralidad y escritura. El caso de los marcadores discursivos claro, entonces y total’, en Marcadores del discurso. Perspectivas y contrastes, ed. María Marta García Negroni (Buenos Aires: Santiago Arcos editor), pp. 35–61. La reconstrucción diacrónica entre oralidad y escritura. El caso de los marcadores discursivos claro, entonces y total Marcadores del discurso. Perspectivas y contrastes 35 61 Google Scholar

Jonsson, Carla, 2005. ‘Code-switching in Chicano Theater: Power, Identity and Style in Three Plays by Cherríe Moraga’, PhD dissertation, Umeå University. Code-switching in Chicano Theater: Power, Identity and Style in Three Plays by Cherríe Moraga Google Scholar

Jonsson, Carla, 2014. ‘Power and Resistance: Language Mixing in Three Chicano Plays’, International Journal of Bilingualism, 18.2: 118–33. Power and Resistance: Language Mixing in Three Chicano Plays International Journal of Bilingualism 18 118 33 Google Scholar

Keller, Gary, 1979. ‘The Literary Strategems Available to the Bilingual Chicano Writer’, in The Identification and Analysis of Chicano Literature, ed. Francisco Jiménez (Ypsilanti, MI: Bilingual Press), pp. 262–316. The Literary Strategems Available to the Bilingual Chicano Writer The Identification and Analysis of Chicano Literature 262 316 Google Scholar

Kissine, Mikhail, 2013. From Utterances to Speech Acts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). From Utterances to Speech Acts Google Scholar

Kluge, Bettina, 2011. ‘Camino de un marcador del discurso: una comparación del español ¿sabes? con el francés tu sais y el inglés you know’, in Marcadores del discurso: de la descripción a la definición, ed. Oscar Heidi Aschenberg (Madrid and Frankfurt: Iberoamericana y Vervuert), pp. 305–341. Camino de un marcador del discurso: una comparación del español ¿sabes? con el francés tu sais y el inglés you know Marcadores del discurso: de la descripción a la definición 305 341 Google Scholar

Koch, Peter, and Wulf Oesterreicher, 2007. Lengua hablada en la Romania: español, francés, italiano (Madrid: Gredos). Lengua hablada en la Romania: español, francés, italiano Google Scholar

Lipski, John, 1982. ‘Spanish–English Language Switching in Speech and Literature: Theories and Models’, The Bilingual Review, 9.3: 191–212. Spanish–English Language Switching in Speech and Literature: Theories and Models The Bilingual Review 9 191 212 Google Scholar

Macaulay, Ronald, 2002. ‘You know, it depends’, Journal of Pragmatics, 34: 749–67. You know, it depends Journal of Pragmatics 34 749 67 Google Scholar

Mahootian, Shahrzad, 2005. ‘Linguistic Change and Social Meaning: Codeswitching in the Media’, International Journal of Bilingualism, 9.3–4: 361–76. Linguistic Change and Social Meaning: Codeswitching in the Media International Journal of Bilingualism 4 361 76 Google Scholar

Martí Sánchez, Manuel, 2008. Los marcadores en español L/E: conectores discursivos y operadores pragmáticos (Madrid: Arco Libros). Los marcadores en español L/E: conectores discursivos y operadores pragmáticos Google Scholar

Martín Zorraquino, Maria Antonia, and José Portolés Lázaro, 1999. ‘Los marcadores del discurso’, in Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española, ed. Ignacio Bosque and Violeta Demonte (Madrid: Espasa Calpe), pp. 4051–214. Los marcadores del discurso Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española 4051 214 Google Scholar

Matras, Yaron, 2000, ‘Fusion and the Cognitive Basis for Bilingual Discourse Markers’, International Journal of Bilingualism, 4.4: 505–528. Fusion and the Cognitive Basis for Bilingual Discourse Markers International Journal of Bilingualism 4 505 528 Google Scholar

Montes-Alcalá, Cecilia, 2012. ‘Code-switching in US-Latino Novels’, in Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing, ed. Mark Sebba, Shahrzad Mahootian and Carla Jonsson (New York: Routledge), pp. 68–88. Code-switching in US-Latino Novels Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing 68 88 Google Scholar

Myers-Scotton, Carol, 1993. Social Motivations for Code-Switching (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Social Motivations for Code-Switching Google Scholar

Myers-Scotton, Carol, 1998. ‘A Theoretical Introduction to the Markedness Model’, in Codes and Consequences Choosing Linguistic Varieties, ed. Carol Myers-Scotton (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 18–40. A Theoretical Introduction to the Markedness Model Codes and Consequences Choosing Linguistic Varieties 18 40 Google Scholar

Ohlson, Linda, 2007. ‘“Baby I’m sorry, te juro, I’m sorry”. Subjetivización versus objetivización mediante el cambio de código inglés/español en la letra de una canción de bachata actual’, in Spanish in Contact. Policy, Social and Linguistic Inquiries, ed. Kim Potowski and Richard Cameron (Amsterdam: Benjamins), pp. 173–89. “Baby I’m sorry, te juro, I’m sorry”. Subjetivización versus objetivización mediante el cambio de código inglés/español en la letra de una canción de bachata actual Spanish in Contact. Policy, Social and Linguistic Inquiries 173 89 Google Scholar

Said-Mohand, Aixa, 2007. ‘Aproximación sociolingüística del marcador del discurso tú sabes en el habla de jóvenes bilingües estadounidenses’, Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 26.2: 67–93. Aproximación sociolingüística del marcador del discurso tú sabes en el habla de jóvenes bilingües estadounidenses Southwest Journal of Linguistics 26 67 93 Google Scholar

Sánchez, Rosaura, 2008. ‘Our Linguistic and Social Context’, in Spanglish, ed. Ilan Stavans (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), pp. 3–41. Our Linguistic and Social Context Spanglish 3 41 Google Scholar

Santos Río, Luis, 2003. Diccionario de partículas (Salamanca: Luso-española de ediciones). Diccionario de partículas Google Scholar

Schneider, Stefan, 2007. Reduced Parenthetical Clauses as Mitigators. A Corpus Study of Spoken French, Italian and Spanish (Amsterdam: Benjamins). Reduced Parenthetical Clauses as Mitigators. A Corpus Study of Spoken French, Italian and Spanish Google Scholar

Sebba, Mark, Shahrzad Mahootian and Carla Jonsson (eds), 2012. Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing (New York: Routledge). Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing Google Scholar

Séguis, Brigita, 2013. ‘From Code-switching to a Mixed Code: The Role of Parenthetical Verbs in the Emerging Polish-Russian Mixed Code in Lithuania’, Journal of Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics, 4.2: 79–98. From Code-switching to a Mixed Code: The Role of Parenthetical Verbs in the Emerging Polish-Russian Mixed Code in Lithuania Journal of Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics 4 79 98 Google Scholar

Sell, Roger D., 2000. Literature as Communication (Amsterdam: Benjamins). Literature as Communication Google Scholar

Torres, Lourdes, 2002. ‘Bilingual Discourse Markers in Puerto Rican Spanish’, Language in Society, 31: 65–83. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Puerto Rican Spanish Language in Society 31 65 83 Google Scholar

Torres, Lourdes, 2007. ‘In the Contact-Zone: Code-switching Strategies by Latino/-a Writers’, Melus, 32.1: 75–96. In the Contact-Zone: Code-switching Strategies by Latino/-a Writers Melus 32 75 96 Google Scholar

Torres, Lourdes, and Kim Potowski, 2008. ‘A Comparative Study of Bilingual Discourse Markers in Chicago Mexican, Puerto Rican, and MexiRican Spanish’, International Journal of Bilingualism, 12.4: 263–79. A Comparative Study of Bilingual Discourse Markers in Chicago Mexican, Puerto Rican, and MexiRican Spanish International Journal of Bilingualism 12 263 79 Google Scholar

Traugott, Elizabeth C., 2007. ‘Discussion Article: Discourse Markers, Modal Particles, and Contrastive Analysis, Synchronic and Diachronic’, Catalan Journal of Linguistics, 6: 139–57. Discussion Article: Discourse Markers, Modal Particles, and Contrastive Analysis, Synchronic and Diachronic Catalan Journal of Linguistics 6 139 57 Google Scholar

Urmson, James Opie, 1952. ‘Parenthetical Verbs’, Mind, 61: 480–96. Parenthetical Verbs Mind 61 480 96 Google Scholar

Vincent, Sophie, Sarah Darbaky and Amina Mettouchi, 2009. ‘The Grammaticalization of you know. From Shared Knowledge to Control over the Co-speaker’, English Text Construction, 2.2: 209–227. The Grammaticalization of you know. From Shared Knowledge to Control over the Co-speaker English Text Construction 2 209 227 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Enghels, Renata