Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Speaking in Tongues: On Maragall, Unamuno and Pentecost

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2019), 96, (8), 815–833.

Abstract

This article analyses the presence of Pentecost as a metaphor and model for Iberian multilingualism in the writings of Joan Maragall and Miguel de Unamuno. The correspondence between these two poets, in addition to documenting their admiration for one another and their political disagreements, reveals their distinct theologies of language and theories of translation. While Maragall approaches translation as a means to self-recognition that reinforces a sacred linguistic diversity, Unamuno views it as a process of defamiliarization and purification that aspires to form a single, transfigured language. These ideas are worked out in letters, poems, articles, essays and public address. The persistence and proliferation of floral games across Spain in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century becomes a particularly telling backdrop against which to examine each poet’s understanding of an Iberian ‘pentecostal tongue’.

Access Token
£25.00

Works cited

Alonso Olea, Eduardo J., 2002. ‘Primeros juegos florales de Bilbao de Agosto de 1901. Premios y premiados’, Bidebarrieta, 11: 39–57. Google Scholar

Balaguer, Víctor, 1895. Los juegos florales en España. Memorias y discursos (Barcelona: Luis Tasso). Google Scholar

Bastons, Carles (ed.), 2006. Joan Maragall y Miguel de Unamuno, una amistad paradigmática. Cartas, artículos, dedicatorias, poemas (Lleida: Editorial Milenio). Google Scholar

Benjamin, Walter, 1968. ‘The Task of the Translator’, in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich). Google Scholar

Coccozzella, Peter, 1999. ‘Esbós d’una alteritat complementària: Joan Maragall i Miguel de Unamuno’, Revista de l’Alguer, 10: 171–79. Google Scholar

Curros Enríquez, Manuel, 1886 [1880]. Aires d’a miña terra. 3rd ed. (La Coruña: La Voz de Galicia). Google Scholar

Domingo, Josep M. (ed.), 2011. Barcelona i els Jocs Florals, 1859. Modernització i romanticisme (Barcelona: Museu d’Història de Barcelona). Google Scholar

Epps, Brad, 2005. ‘Between Europe and Africa: Modernity, Race, and Nationality in the Correspondence of Miguel de Unamuno and Joan Maragall’, Anales de la Literatura Española Contemporánea, 30: 97–132. Google Scholar

Fulquet, Josep Maria, 1995. ‘Recreación, adaptación, asimilación, imitación. La influencia de Goethe en Joan Maragall: primeros esbozos para una teoría de la traducción’, Quimera, 140–141: 68–70. Google Scholar

Fuster, Joan, 1964. Las originalidades. Maragall y Unamuno frente a frente (Madrid y Santiago de Chile: Cruz del Sur). Google Scholar

Gabilondo, Joseba, 2016. Before Babel: A History of Basque Literatures (Barbaroak). Google Scholar

García de Nora, Eugenio, 1993. ‘Maragall, traducido por Unamuno’, in Literatura y bilingüismo, ed. Elvezio Canonica de Rochemonteix and Ernst Rudin (Kassel: Edition Reichenberger), pp. 173–83. Google Scholar

García Garrosa, María Jesús, and Francisco Lafarga, 2004. El discurso sobre la traducción en la España del siglo XVIII (Kassel: Edition Reichenberger). Google Scholar

Gubern, R., 1957. ‘Els primers jocs florals a Catalunya: Lleida, 31 de maig 1338’, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 34: 95–96. Google Scholar

Harkema, Leslie J., 2017. Spanish Modernism and the Poetics of Youth: From Miguel de Unamuno to La Joven Literatura (Toronto: University of Toronto Press). Google Scholar

Khawaja, Noreen, 2016. The Religion of Existence: Asceticism in Philosophy from Kierkegaard to Sartre (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Google Scholar

Longhurst, Carlos A., 2009. ‘Unamuno y su problemática vision de la familia ibérica’, Revista de Lenguas y Literaturas Catalana, Gallega y Vasca, 14: 343–53. Google Scholar

Maragall, Joan, 1981. Obres completes. 2 vols. (Barcelona: Editorial Selecta). Google Scholar

Marfany, Joan-Lluís, 2002. ‘Unamuno, Maragall i la poesia’, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 79: 189–203. Google Scholar

Newcomb, Robert Patrick, 2010. ‘Portugal in Unamuno’s View of Iberia as a Dialectic Unity’, Estudos Avançados, 24: 61–78. Google Scholar

Ortega y Gasset, José, 2006. Obras completas. Vol. 5. (Madrid: Taurus). Google Scholar

Pereiro Otero, José Manuel, and Francisco Plata, 2012. ‘Práctica y teoría de la traducción en Unamuno: Cuatro cartas inéditas’, Anales de la Literatura Española Contemporánea, 37: 1059–1115. Google Scholar

Pérez Isasi, Santiago, 2017. ‘Los Estudios Ibéricos como estudios literarios: algunas consideraciones teóricas y metodológicas’, in Procesos de nacionalización e identidades en la península ibérica, ed. César Rina Simón (Cáceres: Universidad de Extremadura), pp. 347–61. Google Scholar

Pinyol i Torrents, Ramon, 2011. ‘Literatura, ideologia i política. A través de la historia dels Jocs Florals’, in Barcelona i els Jocs Florals, 1859, ed. Josep M. Domingo (Barcelona: Museu d’Història de Barcelona), pp. 77–100. Google Scholar

Pla, Josep, 1984. Joan Maragall (un assaig) (Barcelona: Edicions Destino). Google Scholar

Rabaté, Colette, and Jean-Claude Rabaté, 2009. Miguel de Unamuno. Biografía (Madrid: Taurus). Google Scholar

Resina, Joan Ramon, 2002. ‘“For Their Own Good”: The Spanish Identity and its Great Inquisitor, Miguel de Unamuno’, in The Battle over Spanish between 1800 and 2000, ed. José del Valle and Luis Gabriel-Stheeman (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 106–133. Google Scholar

Resina, Joan Ramon, 2009. Del hispanismo a los Estudios Ibéricos. Una propuesta federativa para el ámbito cultural (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva). Google Scholar

Ridruejo, Dionisio, 1971. ‘Esta correspondencia’, in Epistolario y escritos complementarios Unamuno-Maragall, ed. Miguel de Unamuno and Juan Maragall (Madrid: Seminarios y Ediciones), pp. 247–66. Google Scholar

Rodríguez Alonso, Manuel, 1992. ‘Los Juegos Florales en la literatura gallega’, Revista de Lengua y Literatura Catalana, Gallega y Vasca, 2: 59–62. Google Scholar

Rogers, Gayle, 2016. Incomparable Empires: Modernism and the Translation of Spanish and American Literature (New York: Columbia University Press). Google Scholar

Romero Tobar, Leonardo, 2005. ‘Extraterritoriality and Multilingualism in Spanish Literary Historiography’, in Spain Beyond Spain: Modernity, Literary History, and National Identity, ed. Brad Epps and Fernández Cifuentes (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press), pp. 189–204. Google Scholar

Rusiñol, Santiago, 1902. Els Jocs Florals de Canprosa: comedia en un acte (Barcelona: Tipografia ‘L’Avenç’). Google Scholar

Steiner, George, 1998 [1975]. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Google Scholar

Tur, Jaume, 1974. Maragall i Goethe: Les traduccions del Faust (Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona). Google Scholar

Unamuno, Miguel de, 1916. Ensayos. 7 vols. (Madrid: Residencia de Estudiantes). Google Scholar

Unamuno, Miguel de, 1966. Obras completas, ed. Manuel García Blanco. 9 vols. (Madrid: Escelicer). Google Scholar

Unamuno, Miguel de, 2009. Poesías, ed. Manuel Álvar (Madrid: Cátedra). Google Scholar

Venuti, Lawrence, 1995. The Translator’s Invisibility (London and New York: Routledge). Google Scholar

Yxart, Josep, 1891. ‘La decadencia de los Juegos Florales’, La España Regional, Oct.–Dec. Reprinted in Rosa Cabré, ‘Josep Yxart: La decadencia de los Juegos Florales’, Anuari Verdaguer 8 (1993–1994), 225–94. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Harkema, Leslie J.