Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Gastón Biraben’s Cautiva (2005): An Instance of Enduring Grief

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2016), 93, (4), 421–438.

Abstract

Despite its rather conventional representation of the relationship between acquired memories and recovered identities, Gastón Biraben’s Cautiva (2005) draws attention to a forceful symbiosis between memory and grief. Biraben’s film invites its spectators to contemplate grief as a catalyst for promoting memory, both social and individual, beyond the film’s diegetic present. In a sequel of sorts to Luis Puenzo’s The Official Story (1985), Cautiva’s focus on grief remains worthy of analytical attention, as it represents grief that complicates but also enables personal and communal memories of the recent past. The film, in essence, recalls a particular type of grief, portrayed as resulting from and sustained by unshared intimate memories relevant to the illegal appropriations during Argentine state terror (1976–1983). By situating the story in the mid-1990s, Biraben undergirds grief not solely as a complex emotion but also as a relentless emotional state. This article contemplates Cautiva as an uncomplicated cinematic portrayal of the memories that continue at once present, suspended, unshared, and, therefore, punctuated by enduring grief.

A pesar de su representación convencional de la relación entre memorias adquiridas e identidades recuperadas, la película Cautiva (2005) de Gastón Biraben destaca una contundente simbiosis entre la memoria y el sufrimiento. Cautiva invita a sus espectadores a contemplar el sufrimiento como un catalizador para fomentar la memoria social e individual más allá del presente diegético de la película. En una especie de secuela a la película de Luis Puenzo, La historia oficial, el enfoque que tiene Cautiva en el sufrimiento merece atención analítica, ya que este sufrimiento complica al mismo tiempo que propicia memorias individuales y comunales de un pasado reciente. La película, en esencia, rememora un sufrimiento particular que es el resultado de y sustentado por las memorias íntimas de las apropiaciones ilegales durante el Terrorismo de Estado en Argentina (1976–1983). Al situar la historia a mediados de los noventa, Biraben afianza el sufrimiento no sólo como un sentimiento complejo, sino que también como un estado emocional inquebrantable. Este artículo contempla a la película Cautiva como un sencillo retrato cinematográfico de las memorias que siguen presentes, suspendidas, sin compartir, y por consecuencia, sufren de un dolor imperecedero.

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Scarry, Elaine, 1985. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World (Oxford: Oxford University Press). The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World Google Scholar

Schwartz, Marcy E., and Mary Beth Tierney-Tello, 2006. Photography and Writing in Latin America: Double Exposures (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Photography and Writing in Latin America: Double Exposures Google Scholar

Taylor, Diana, 2003. The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas (Durham, NC: Duke University Press). The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas Google Scholar

Todorov, Tzvetan, 2010. Memory as a Remedy for Evil (London: Seagull Books). Memory as a Remedy for Evil Google Scholar

Vezzetti, Hugo, 2009. Sobre la violencia revolucionaria: memorias y olvidos (Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI). Sobre la violencia revolucionaria: memorias y olvidos Google Scholar

Welzer, Harald, 2010. ‘Communicative Memory’, in Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning (eds), A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies (Berlin: de Gruyter), pp. 285–98. Communicative Memory A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies 285 98 Google Scholar

Zerubavel, Eviatar, 2003. Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past Google Scholar

Amado, Ana, 2004. Lazos de familia: herencias, cuerpos, ficciones (Buenos Aires: Paidós). Lazos de familia: herencias, cuerpos, ficciones Google Scholar

Andrew, Dudley, 1997. ‘A Preface to Disputation’, in The Image in Dispute, ed. Andrew Dudley and Sally Shafto (Austin: University of Texas), p. x. A Preface to Disputation The Image in Dispute x Google Scholar

Barthes, Roland, 1980. Camera Lucida (New York: Hill & Wang). Camera Lucida Google Scholar

de Certeau, Michel, 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press). The Practice of Everyday Life Google Scholar

Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari, 2004. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (London: Continuum). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia Google Scholar

Derrida, Jacques, 1995. ‘Archive Fever: The Freudian Impression’, Diacrítics, 25.2: 9–63. Archive Fever: The Freudian Impression Diacrítics 25.2 9 63 Google Scholar

Erll, Astrid. 2010. ‘Literature, Film, and the Mediality of Cultural Memory’, in A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies, ed. Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning, (Berlin: de Gruyter), pp. 289–98. Literature, Film, and the Mediality of Cultural Memory A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies 289 98 Google Scholar

Forcinito, Ana, 2014. Los umbrales del testimonio; entre las narraciones de los sobrevivientes y las señas de la posdictadura (Frankfurt, Germany: Vervuert). Los umbrales del testimonio; entre las narraciones de los sobrevivientes y las señas de la posdictadura Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund, 1976. ‘Duelo y melancolía’, en Obras completas, Tomo XIV (Buenos Aires: Amorrortu). Duelo y melancolía Obras completas Google Scholar

Garibotto, Verónica, 2011. ‘Iconic Fictions: Narrating Recent Argentine History in Post-2000 Second-Generation Films’, Studies in Hispanic Cinemas, 8.2: 175–87. Iconic Fictions: Narrating Recent Argentine History in Post-2000 Second-Generation Films Studies in Hispanic Cinemas 8.2 175 87 Google Scholar

Gatti, Gabriel, 2012. ‘Imposing Identity Against Social Catastrophes. The Strategies of (Re) Generation of Meaning of the Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (Argentina)’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 31.3: 352–65. Imposing Identity Against Social Catastrophes. The Strategies of (Re) Generation of Meaning of the Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (Argentina) Bulletin of Latin American Research 31.3 352 65 Google Scholar

Gustafson, Donald, 1989. ‘Grief’, Noûs, 23.4: 457–79. Grief Noûs 23.4 457 79 Google Scholar

Halbwachs, Maurice, 1992. On Collective Memory, trans. Lewis A. Coser. Heritage of Sociology Series. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). On Collective Memory Google Scholar

Jelin, Elizabeth, 2003. State Repression and the Labors of Memory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). State Repression and the Labors of Memory Google Scholar

Jelin, Elizabeth, 2016 (forthcoming). ‘What Type of Memory for What Kind of Democracy? Challenges in the Link Between Past and Future’. Proceedings of the Conference ‘Democracy and Memory in Latin America ’, 1 November 2013 at Harvard University. Keynote address. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). What Type of Memory for What Kind of Democracy? Challenges in the Link Between Past and Future’. Proceedings of the Conference ‘Democracy and Memory in Latin America Google Scholar

Kaiser, Susana, 2005. Postmemories of Terror: A New Generation Copes with the Legacy of the ‘Dirty War’ (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). Postmemories of Terror: A New Generation Copes with the Legacy of the ‘Dirty War’ Google Scholar

LaCapra, Dominick, 2001. Writing History, Writing Trauma (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press). Writing History, Writing Trauma Google Scholar

Landsberg, Alison, 2004. Prosthetic Memory (New York: Columbia University Press). Prosthetic Memory Google Scholar

Lawlor, Leonard, 1998. ‘Memory Becomes Electra’, Review of Politics, 60.4: 796–98. Memory Becomes Electra Review of Politics 60.4 796 98 Google Scholar

Lazzara, Michael, 2009. ‘Filming Loss: (Post-)Memory, Subjectivity, and the Performance of Failure in Recent Argentine Documentary Films’, Latin American Perspectives, 36.5: 145–57. Filming Loss: (Post-)Memory, Subjectivity, and the Performance of Failure in Recent Argentine Documentary Films Latin American Perspectives 36.5 145 57 Google Scholar

Lynch, Kevin, 1960. The Image of the City (Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press). The Image of the City Google Scholar

Page, Joanna, 2009. Crisis and Capitalism in Contemporary Argentine Cinema (Durham, NC: Duke University Press). Crisis and Capitalism in Contemporary Argentine Cinema Google Scholar

Page, Max, 2013. Memories of Buenos Aires (Amhurst: University of Massachusetts Press). Memories of Buenos Aires Google Scholar

Ricoeur, Paul, 2006. Memory, History, Forgetting (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Memory, History, Forgetting Google Scholar

Robben, Antonius, 2005. Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina Google Scholar

Rocha, Carolina, and Georgia Seminet (eds), 2012. Representing History, Class and Gender in Spain and Latin America: Children and Adolescents in Film (New York: Palgrave). Representing History, Class and Gender in Spain and Latin America: Children and Adolescents in Film Google Scholar

Rocha, Carolina, and Georgia Seminet (eds), 2014. Screening Minors in Contemporary Latin American Cinema (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books). Screening Minors in Contemporary Latin American Cinema Google Scholar

Ros, Ana, 2012. The Post-Dictatorship Generation in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay: Collective Memory and Cultural Production (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). The Post-Dictatorship Generation in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay: Collective Memory and Cultural Production Google Scholar

Rothberg, Michael, 2009. Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press). Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization Google Scholar

Sarlo, Beatriz, 2005. Tiempo pasado. Cultura de memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusión (Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno). Tiempo pasado. Cultura de memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusión Google Scholar

Scarry, Elaine, 1985. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World (Oxford: Oxford University Press). The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World Google Scholar

Schwartz, Marcy E., and Mary Beth Tierney-Tello, 2006. Photography and Writing in Latin America: Double Exposures (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Photography and Writing in Latin America: Double Exposures Google Scholar

Taylor, Diana, 2003. The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas (Durham, NC: Duke University Press). The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas Google Scholar

Todorov, Tzvetan, 2010. Memory as a Remedy for Evil (London: Seagull Books). Memory as a Remedy for Evil Google Scholar

Vezzetti, Hugo, 2009. Sobre la violencia revolucionaria: memorias y olvidos (Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI). Sobre la violencia revolucionaria: memorias y olvidos Google Scholar

Welzer, Harald, 2010. ‘Communicative Memory’, in Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning (eds), A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies (Berlin: de Gruyter), pp. 285–98. Communicative Memory A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies 285 98 Google Scholar

Zerubavel, Eviatar, 2003. Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past Google Scholar

Amado, Ana, 2004. Lazos de familia: herencias, cuerpos, ficciones (Buenos Aires: Paidós). Lazos de familia: herencias, cuerpos, ficciones Google Scholar

Andrew, Dudley, 1997. ‘A Preface to Disputation’, in The Image in Dispute, ed. Andrew Dudley and Sally Shafto (Austin: University of Texas), p. x. A Preface to Disputation The Image in Dispute x Google Scholar

Barthes, Roland, 1980. Camera Lucida (New York: Hill & Wang). Camera Lucida Google Scholar

de Certeau, Michel, 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press). The Practice of Everyday Life Google Scholar

Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari, 2004. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (London: Continuum). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia Google Scholar

Derrida, Jacques, 1995. ‘Archive Fever: The Freudian Impression’, Diacrítics, 25.2: 9–63. Archive Fever: The Freudian Impression Diacrítics 25.2 9 63 Google Scholar

Erll, Astrid. 2010. ‘Literature, Film, and the Mediality of Cultural Memory’, in A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies, ed. Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning, (Berlin: de Gruyter), pp. 289–98. Literature, Film, and the Mediality of Cultural Memory A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies 289 98 Google Scholar

Forcinito, Ana, 2014. Los umbrales del testimonio; entre las narraciones de los sobrevivientes y las señas de la posdictadura (Frankfurt, Germany: Vervuert). Los umbrales del testimonio; entre las narraciones de los sobrevivientes y las señas de la posdictadura Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund, 1976. ‘Duelo y melancolía’, en Obras completas, Tomo XIV (Buenos Aires: Amorrortu). Duelo y melancolía Obras completas Google Scholar

Garibotto, Verónica, 2011. ‘Iconic Fictions: Narrating Recent Argentine History in Post-2000 Second-Generation Films’, Studies in Hispanic Cinemas, 8.2: 175–87. Iconic Fictions: Narrating Recent Argentine History in Post-2000 Second-Generation Films Studies in Hispanic Cinemas 8.2 175 87 Google Scholar

Gatti, Gabriel, 2012. ‘Imposing Identity Against Social Catastrophes. The Strategies of (Re) Generation of Meaning of the Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (Argentina)’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 31.3: 352–65. Imposing Identity Against Social Catastrophes. The Strategies of (Re) Generation of Meaning of the Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (Argentina) Bulletin of Latin American Research 31.3 352 65 Google Scholar

Gustafson, Donald, 1989. ‘Grief’, Noûs, 23.4: 457–79. Grief Noûs 23.4 457 79 Google Scholar

Halbwachs, Maurice, 1992. On Collective Memory, trans. Lewis A. Coser. Heritage of Sociology Series. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). On Collective Memory Google Scholar

Jelin, Elizabeth, 2003. State Repression and the Labors of Memory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). State Repression and the Labors of Memory Google Scholar

Jelin, Elizabeth, 2016 (forthcoming). ‘What Type of Memory for What Kind of Democracy? Challenges in the Link Between Past and Future’. Proceedings of the Conference ‘Democracy and Memory in Latin America ’, 1 November 2013 at Harvard University. Keynote address. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). What Type of Memory for What Kind of Democracy? Challenges in the Link Between Past and Future’. Proceedings of the Conference ‘Democracy and Memory in Latin America Google Scholar

Kaiser, Susana, 2005. Postmemories of Terror: A New Generation Copes with the Legacy of the ‘Dirty War’ (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). Postmemories of Terror: A New Generation Copes with the Legacy of the ‘Dirty War’ Google Scholar

LaCapra, Dominick, 2001. Writing History, Writing Trauma (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press). Writing History, Writing Trauma Google Scholar

Landsberg, Alison, 2004. Prosthetic Memory (New York: Columbia University Press). Prosthetic Memory Google Scholar

Lawlor, Leonard, 1998. ‘Memory Becomes Electra’, Review of Politics, 60.4: 796–98. Memory Becomes Electra Review of Politics 60.4 796 98 Google Scholar

Lazzara, Michael, 2009. ‘Filming Loss: (Post-)Memory, Subjectivity, and the Performance of Failure in Recent Argentine Documentary Films’, Latin American Perspectives, 36.5: 145–57. Filming Loss: (Post-)Memory, Subjectivity, and the Performance of Failure in Recent Argentine Documentary Films Latin American Perspectives 36.5 145 57 Google Scholar

Lynch, Kevin, 1960. The Image of the City (Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press). The Image of the City Google Scholar

Page, Joanna, 2009. Crisis and Capitalism in Contemporary Argentine Cinema (Durham, NC: Duke University Press). Crisis and Capitalism in Contemporary Argentine Cinema Google Scholar

Page, Max, 2013. Memories of Buenos Aires (Amhurst: University of Massachusetts Press). Memories of Buenos Aires Google Scholar

Ricoeur, Paul, 2006. Memory, History, Forgetting (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Memory, History, Forgetting Google Scholar

Robben, Antonius, 2005. Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina Google Scholar

Rocha, Carolina, and Georgia Seminet (eds), 2012. Representing History, Class and Gender in Spain and Latin America: Children and Adolescents in Film (New York: Palgrave). Representing History, Class and Gender in Spain and Latin America: Children and Adolescents in Film Google Scholar

Rocha, Carolina, and Georgia Seminet (eds), 2014. Screening Minors in Contemporary Latin American Cinema (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books). Screening Minors in Contemporary Latin American Cinema Google Scholar

Ros, Ana, 2012. The Post-Dictatorship Generation in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay: Collective Memory and Cultural Production (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). The Post-Dictatorship Generation in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay: Collective Memory and Cultural Production Google Scholar

Rothberg, Michael, 2009. Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press). Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization Google Scholar

Sarlo, Beatriz, 2005. Tiempo pasado. Cultura de memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusión (Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno). Tiempo pasado. Cultura de memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusión Google Scholar

Scarry, Elaine, 1985. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World (Oxford: Oxford University Press). The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World Google Scholar

Schwartz, Marcy E., and Mary Beth Tierney-Tello, 2006. Photography and Writing in Latin America: Double Exposures (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Photography and Writing in Latin America: Double Exposures Google Scholar

Taylor, Diana, 2003. The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas (Durham, NC: Duke University Press). The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas Google Scholar

Todorov, Tzvetan, 2010. Memory as a Remedy for Evil (London: Seagull Books). Memory as a Remedy for Evil Google Scholar

Vezzetti, Hugo, 2009. Sobre la violencia revolucionaria: memorias y olvidos (Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI). Sobre la violencia revolucionaria: memorias y olvidos Google Scholar

Welzer, Harald, 2010. ‘Communicative Memory’, in Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning (eds), A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies (Berlin: de Gruyter), pp. 285–98. Communicative Memory A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies 285 98 Google Scholar

Zerubavel, Eviatar, 2003. Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past Google Scholar

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SELIMOVIC, INELA

SELIMOVIC, INELA