Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Love and War: Male Friendship and the Performance of Masculinity in the Poetry of Garcilaso de la Vega (1501–1536)

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2018), 95, (4), 383–398.

Abstract

This article explores the performance of courtly masculinity in the poetry of Garcilaso de la Vega (1501–1536). It demonstrates how the Italianate lyric of sixteenth-century Spain allowed the poet to imagine the persona of the Renaissance courtier by experimenting with different models of male friendship. The three poems examined in this essay: an epistle, a sonnet, and an ode, respectively promote male relationships based on intellect and poetic skill, military achievement and solidarity, and homosociality and literary fame. Ultimately, Garcilaso’s works reveal the subtleties of how the new social identity of the masculine courtier and social relations were performed and mediated through the ‘new lyric’ in sixteenth-century Castilian letters.

Este artículo explora la representación y actuación de la masculinidad cortesana en la poesía de Garcilaso de la Vega (1501–1536). Se analiza cómo la lírica de estilo italiano de la España del siglo dieciséis permitía que el poeta imaginara el personaje del cortesano renacentista experimentando con modelos distintos de la amistad masculina. Los tres poemas examinados en este ensayo: una epístola, un soneto y una oda, respectivamente abogan por las relaciones entre varones basadas en el intelecto y la destreza poética, los éxitos militares y la solidaridad y la homosocialidad y la fama literaria. Últimamente, la obra de Garcilaso revela las sutilezas de cómo la nueva identidad social del cortesano masculino y las relaciones sociales se desarrollaban y se mediaban a través de la ‘nueva lírica’ de las letras castellanas del siglo dieciséis.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Andreadis, Harriette, 2006. ‘Re-Configuring Early Modern Friendship: Katherine Phillips and Homoerotic Desire’, Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, 46.3: 523–42. Re-Configuring Early Modern Friendship: Katherine Phillips and Homoerotic Desire Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 46.3 523 42 Google Scholar

Avilés, Luis F., 1996. ‘Contemplar mi stado: las posibilidades del yo en el soneto I de Garcilaso’, Calíope, 2: 58–78. Contemplar mi stado: las posibilidades del yo en el soneto I de Garcilaso Calíope 2 58 78 Google Scholar

Bock, Gisela, 1991. ‘Challenging Dichotomies: Perspectives on Women’s History’, in Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives, ed. Karen M. Offen, Ruth Roach Pierson and Jane Rendall (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), pp. 1–23. Challenging Dichotomies: Perspectives on Women’s History Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives 1 23 Google Scholar

Butler, Judith, 1999. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York: Routledge). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity Google Scholar

Castiglione, Baldassare, 1972. El Cortesano, trans. Juan Boscan, ed. Teresa Suero Roca (Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera). El Cortesano Google Scholar

Cicero, 1953. ‘Laelius or, an Essay on Friendship’, in Cicero’s Offices, ed. Thomas de Quincey (London: J. M. Dent). Laelius or, an Essay on Friendship Cicero’s Offices Google Scholar

Clark, Mark Edward, 1983. ‘Horace, Ars Poetica 75–78: The Origin and Worth of Elegy’, The Classical World, 77.1: 1–5. Horace, Ars Poetica 75–78: The Origin and Worth of Elegy The Classical World 77.1 1 5 Google Scholar

Donnell, Sidney, 2003. Feminizing the Enemy: Imperial Spain, Transvestite Drama, and the Crisis of Masculinity (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press). Feminizing the Enemy: Imperial Spain, Transvestite Drama, and the Crisis of Masculinity Google Scholar

Garcilaso de la Vega, 2007. Obra poética y textos en prosa, ed. Bienvenido Morros. Clásicos y Modernos, 18 (Barcelona: Editorial Crítica). Obra poética y textos en prosa Google Scholar

Gray, Andrew F., 2016. ‘Garcilaso at Home in Naples: On the Neo-Latin Muse of the Príncipe de los poetas castellanos’, Calíope, 21.1: 5–33. Garcilaso at Home in Naples: On the Neo-Latin Muse of the Príncipe de los poetas castellanos Calíope 21.1 5 33 Google Scholar

Heiple, Daniel L., 1994 Garcilaso de la Vega and the Italian Renaissance (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press). Garcilaso de la Vega and the Italian Renaissance Google Scholar

Helgerson, Richard, 2007. A Sonnet from Carthage: Garcilaso de la Vega and the New Poetry of Sixteenth-century Europe (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). A Sonnet from Carthage: Garcilaso de la Vega and the New Poetry of Sixteenth-century Europe Google Scholar

Herrera, Fernando de (ed.), 1580. Obras de Garcilaso de la Vega con anotaciones de Fernando de Herrera (Seville: Alonso de la Barrera). Obras de Garcilaso de la Vega con anotaciones de Fernando de Herrera Google Scholar

Herrera, Fernando de (ed.), 2001. Anotaciones a la poesía de Garcilaso, ed. Inoria Pepe and José María Reyes (Madrid: Cátedra). Anotaciones a la poesía de Garcilaso Google Scholar

Jackson, Virginia, and Yopie Prins (eds), 2014. The Lyric Theory Reader: A Critical Anthology (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press). The Lyric Theory Reader: A Critical Anthology Google Scholar

Langer, Ullrich, 1994. Perfect Friendship: Studies in Literature and Moral Philosophy from Boccaccio to Corneille (Geneva: Librairie Droz). Perfect Friendship: Studies in Literature and Moral Philosophy from Boccaccio to Corneille Google Scholar

Lyons, John, 2012. ‘The Poetry of Friendship’, Seventeenth-Century French Studies, 34.1: 17–25. The Poetry of Friendship Seventeenth-Century French Studies 34.1 17 25 Google Scholar

Middlebrook, Leah, 2009. Imperial Lyric: New Poetry and New Subjects in Early Modern Spain (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press). Imperial Lyric: New Poetry and New Subjects in Early Modern Spain Google Scholar

Middlebrook, Leah, 2010. ‘The Poetics of Modern Masculinity in Sixteenth-Century Spain’, in The Poetics of Masculinity in Early Modern Italy and Spain, ed. Gerry Milligan and Jane Tylus (Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies), pp. 143–68. The Poetics of Modern Masculinity in Sixteenth-Century Spain The Poetics of Masculinity in Early Modern Italy and Spain 143 68 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 1992. Muses and Masks: Some Classical Genres of Spanish Poetry (Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta). Muses and Masks: Some Classical Genres of Spanish Poetry Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 1996. ‘Daniel L. Heiple Garcilaso and the Italian Renaissance’. Review. Hispanic Review, 64.2: 272–74. Daniel L. Heiple Garcilaso and the Italian Renaissance Hispanic Review 64.2 272 74 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 2000. ‘Garcilaso’s Love Poetry: Between Love Affairs and Annotations’, MLN, 115.2: 355–66. Garcilaso’s Love Poetry: Between Love Affairs and Annotations MLN 115.2 355 66 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 2010. Boscán y Garcilaso: Su amistad y el Renacimiento en España (Sevilla: Sibilina, S.L.U). Boscán y Garcilaso: Su amistad y el Renacimiento en España Google Scholar

Rodríguez García, José María, 1998. ‘Epos delendum est: The Subject of Carthage in Garcilaso’s “A Boscán desde la Goleta”’, Hispanic Review, 66.2: 151–70. Epos delendum est: The Subject of Carthage in Garcilaso’s “A Boscán desde la Goleta” Hispanic Review 66.2 151 70 Google Scholar

Schachter, Marc D., 2008. Voluntary Servitude and the Erotics of Friendship: From Classical Antiquity to Early Modern France (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate). Voluntary Servitude and the Erotics of Friendship: From Classical Antiquity to Early Modern France Google Scholar

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, 1985. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (New York: Columbia University Press). Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire Google Scholar

Spongberg, Mary, 2002. Writing Women’s History since the Renaissance (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). Writing Women’s History since the Renaissance Google Scholar

Torres, Isabel, 2013. Love Poetry in the Spanish Golden Age: Eros, Eris and Empire (Woodbridge, UK: Tamesis). Love Poetry in the Spanish Golden Age: Eros, Eris and Empire Google Scholar

Vega, María Jose, and Cesc Esteve (eds), 2004. Idea de la lírica en el Renacimiento (Entre Italia y España) (Barcelona: Mirabel Editorial). Idea de la lírica en el Renacimiento (Entre Italia y España) Google Scholar

Weiss, Julian, 2004. ‘Renaissance Poetry’, in The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature, ed. David T. Gies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 159–77. Renaissance Poetry The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature 159 77 Google Scholar

Weller, Barry, 1978. ‘The Rhetoric of Friendship in Montaigne’s Essais’, New Literary History, 9.3: 503–523. The Rhetoric of Friendship in Montaigne’s Essais New Literary History 9.3 503 523 Google Scholar

Andreadis, Harriette, 2006. ‘Re-Configuring Early Modern Friendship: Katherine Phillips and Homoerotic Desire’, Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, 46.3: 523–42. Re-Configuring Early Modern Friendship: Katherine Phillips and Homoerotic Desire Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 46.3 523 42 Google Scholar

Avilés, Luis F., 1996. ‘Contemplar mi stado: las posibilidades del yo en el soneto I de Garcilaso’, Calíope, 2: 58–78. Contemplar mi stado: las posibilidades del yo en el soneto I de Garcilaso Calíope 2 58 78 Google Scholar

Bock, Gisela, 1991. ‘Challenging Dichotomies: Perspectives on Women’s History’, in Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives, ed. Karen M. Offen, Ruth Roach Pierson and Jane Rendall (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), pp. 1–23. Challenging Dichotomies: Perspectives on Women’s History Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives 1 23 Google Scholar

Butler, Judith, 1999. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York: Routledge). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity Google Scholar

Castiglione, Baldassare, 1972. El Cortesano, trans. Juan Boscan, ed. Teresa Suero Roca (Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera). El Cortesano Google Scholar

Cicero, 1953. ‘Laelius or, an Essay on Friendship’, in Cicero’s Offices, ed. Thomas de Quincey (London: J. M. Dent). Laelius or, an Essay on Friendship Cicero’s Offices Google Scholar

Clark, Mark Edward, 1983. ‘Horace, Ars Poetica 75–78: The Origin and Worth of Elegy’, The Classical World, 77.1: 1–5. Horace, Ars Poetica 75–78: The Origin and Worth of Elegy The Classical World 77.1 1 5 Google Scholar

Donnell, Sidney, 2003. Feminizing the Enemy: Imperial Spain, Transvestite Drama, and the Crisis of Masculinity (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press). Feminizing the Enemy: Imperial Spain, Transvestite Drama, and the Crisis of Masculinity Google Scholar

Garcilaso de la Vega, 2007. Obra poética y textos en prosa, ed. Bienvenido Morros. Clásicos y Modernos, 18 (Barcelona: Editorial Crítica). Obra poética y textos en prosa Google Scholar

Gray, Andrew F., 2016. ‘Garcilaso at Home in Naples: On the Neo-Latin Muse of the Príncipe de los poetas castellanos’, Calíope, 21.1: 5–33. Garcilaso at Home in Naples: On the Neo-Latin Muse of the Príncipe de los poetas castellanos Calíope 21.1 5 33 Google Scholar

Heiple, Daniel L., 1994 Garcilaso de la Vega and the Italian Renaissance (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press). Garcilaso de la Vega and the Italian Renaissance Google Scholar

Helgerson, Richard, 2007. A Sonnet from Carthage: Garcilaso de la Vega and the New Poetry of Sixteenth-century Europe (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). A Sonnet from Carthage: Garcilaso de la Vega and the New Poetry of Sixteenth-century Europe Google Scholar

Herrera, Fernando de (ed.), 1580. Obras de Garcilaso de la Vega con anotaciones de Fernando de Herrera (Seville: Alonso de la Barrera). Obras de Garcilaso de la Vega con anotaciones de Fernando de Herrera Google Scholar

Herrera, Fernando de (ed.), 2001. Anotaciones a la poesía de Garcilaso, ed. Inoria Pepe and José María Reyes (Madrid: Cátedra). Anotaciones a la poesía de Garcilaso Google Scholar

Jackson, Virginia, and Yopie Prins (eds), 2014. The Lyric Theory Reader: A Critical Anthology (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press). The Lyric Theory Reader: A Critical Anthology Google Scholar

Langer, Ullrich, 1994. Perfect Friendship: Studies in Literature and Moral Philosophy from Boccaccio to Corneille (Geneva: Librairie Droz). Perfect Friendship: Studies in Literature and Moral Philosophy from Boccaccio to Corneille Google Scholar

Lyons, John, 2012. ‘The Poetry of Friendship’, Seventeenth-Century French Studies, 34.1: 17–25. The Poetry of Friendship Seventeenth-Century French Studies 34.1 17 25 Google Scholar

Middlebrook, Leah, 2009. Imperial Lyric: New Poetry and New Subjects in Early Modern Spain (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press). Imperial Lyric: New Poetry and New Subjects in Early Modern Spain Google Scholar

Middlebrook, Leah, 2010. ‘The Poetics of Modern Masculinity in Sixteenth-Century Spain’, in The Poetics of Masculinity in Early Modern Italy and Spain, ed. Gerry Milligan and Jane Tylus (Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies), pp. 143–68. The Poetics of Modern Masculinity in Sixteenth-Century Spain The Poetics of Masculinity in Early Modern Italy and Spain 143 68 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 1992. Muses and Masks: Some Classical Genres of Spanish Poetry (Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta). Muses and Masks: Some Classical Genres of Spanish Poetry Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 1996. ‘Daniel L. Heiple Garcilaso and the Italian Renaissance’. Review. Hispanic Review, 64.2: 272–74. Daniel L. Heiple Garcilaso and the Italian Renaissance Hispanic Review 64.2 272 74 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 2000. ‘Garcilaso’s Love Poetry: Between Love Affairs and Annotations’, MLN, 115.2: 355–66. Garcilaso’s Love Poetry: Between Love Affairs and Annotations MLN 115.2 355 66 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 2010. Boscán y Garcilaso: Su amistad y el Renacimiento en España (Sevilla: Sibilina, S.L.U). Boscán y Garcilaso: Su amistad y el Renacimiento en España Google Scholar

Rodríguez García, José María, 1998. ‘Epos delendum est: The Subject of Carthage in Garcilaso’s “A Boscán desde la Goleta”’, Hispanic Review, 66.2: 151–70. Epos delendum est: The Subject of Carthage in Garcilaso’s “A Boscán desde la Goleta” Hispanic Review 66.2 151 70 Google Scholar

Schachter, Marc D., 2008. Voluntary Servitude and the Erotics of Friendship: From Classical Antiquity to Early Modern France (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate). Voluntary Servitude and the Erotics of Friendship: From Classical Antiquity to Early Modern France Google Scholar

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, 1985. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (New York: Columbia University Press). Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire Google Scholar

Spongberg, Mary, 2002. Writing Women’s History since the Renaissance (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). Writing Women’s History since the Renaissance Google Scholar

Torres, Isabel, 2013. Love Poetry in the Spanish Golden Age: Eros, Eris and Empire (Woodbridge, UK: Tamesis). Love Poetry in the Spanish Golden Age: Eros, Eris and Empire Google Scholar

Vega, María Jose, and Cesc Esteve (eds), 2004. Idea de la lírica en el Renacimiento (Entre Italia y España) (Barcelona: Mirabel Editorial). Idea de la lírica en el Renacimiento (Entre Italia y España) Google Scholar

Weiss, Julian, 2004. ‘Renaissance Poetry’, in The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature, ed. David T. Gies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 159–77. Renaissance Poetry The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature 159 77 Google Scholar

Weller, Barry, 1978. ‘The Rhetoric of Friendship in Montaigne’s Essais’, New Literary History, 9.3: 503–523. The Rhetoric of Friendship in Montaigne’s Essais New Literary History 9.3 503 523 Google Scholar

Andreadis, Harriette, 2006. ‘Re-Configuring Early Modern Friendship: Katherine Phillips and Homoerotic Desire’, Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, 46.3: 523–42. Re-Configuring Early Modern Friendship: Katherine Phillips and Homoerotic Desire Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900 46.3 523 42 Google Scholar

Avilés, Luis F., 1996. ‘Contemplar mi stado: las posibilidades del yo en el soneto I de Garcilaso’, Calíope, 2: 58–78. Contemplar mi stado: las posibilidades del yo en el soneto I de Garcilaso Calíope 2 58 78 Google Scholar

Bock, Gisela, 1991. ‘Challenging Dichotomies: Perspectives on Women’s History’, in Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives, ed. Karen M. Offen, Ruth Roach Pierson and Jane Rendall (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), pp. 1–23. Challenging Dichotomies: Perspectives on Women’s History Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives 1 23 Google Scholar

Butler, Judith, 1999. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York: Routledge). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity Google Scholar

Castiglione, Baldassare, 1972. El Cortesano, trans. Juan Boscan, ed. Teresa Suero Roca (Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera). El Cortesano Google Scholar

Cicero, 1953. ‘Laelius or, an Essay on Friendship’, in Cicero’s Offices, ed. Thomas de Quincey (London: J. M. Dent). Laelius or, an Essay on Friendship Cicero’s Offices Google Scholar

Clark, Mark Edward, 1983. ‘Horace, Ars Poetica 75–78: The Origin and Worth of Elegy’, The Classical World, 77.1: 1–5. Horace, Ars Poetica 75–78: The Origin and Worth of Elegy The Classical World 77.1 1 5 Google Scholar

Donnell, Sidney, 2003. Feminizing the Enemy: Imperial Spain, Transvestite Drama, and the Crisis of Masculinity (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press). Feminizing the Enemy: Imperial Spain, Transvestite Drama, and the Crisis of Masculinity Google Scholar

Garcilaso de la Vega, 2007. Obra poética y textos en prosa, ed. Bienvenido Morros. Clásicos y Modernos, 18 (Barcelona: Editorial Crítica). Obra poética y textos en prosa Google Scholar

Gray, Andrew F., 2016. ‘Garcilaso at Home in Naples: On the Neo-Latin Muse of the Príncipe de los poetas castellanos’, Calíope, 21.1: 5–33. Garcilaso at Home in Naples: On the Neo-Latin Muse of the Príncipe de los poetas castellanos Calíope 21.1 5 33 Google Scholar

Heiple, Daniel L., 1994 Garcilaso de la Vega and the Italian Renaissance (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press). Garcilaso de la Vega and the Italian Renaissance Google Scholar

Helgerson, Richard, 2007. A Sonnet from Carthage: Garcilaso de la Vega and the New Poetry of Sixteenth-century Europe (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). A Sonnet from Carthage: Garcilaso de la Vega and the New Poetry of Sixteenth-century Europe Google Scholar

Herrera, Fernando de (ed.), 1580. Obras de Garcilaso de la Vega con anotaciones de Fernando de Herrera (Seville: Alonso de la Barrera). Obras de Garcilaso de la Vega con anotaciones de Fernando de Herrera Google Scholar

Herrera, Fernando de (ed.), 2001. Anotaciones a la poesía de Garcilaso, ed. Inoria Pepe and José María Reyes (Madrid: Cátedra). Anotaciones a la poesía de Garcilaso Google Scholar

Jackson, Virginia, and Yopie Prins (eds), 2014. The Lyric Theory Reader: A Critical Anthology (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press). The Lyric Theory Reader: A Critical Anthology Google Scholar

Langer, Ullrich, 1994. Perfect Friendship: Studies in Literature and Moral Philosophy from Boccaccio to Corneille (Geneva: Librairie Droz). Perfect Friendship: Studies in Literature and Moral Philosophy from Boccaccio to Corneille Google Scholar

Lyons, John, 2012. ‘The Poetry of Friendship’, Seventeenth-Century French Studies, 34.1: 17–25. The Poetry of Friendship Seventeenth-Century French Studies 34.1 17 25 Google Scholar

Middlebrook, Leah, 2009. Imperial Lyric: New Poetry and New Subjects in Early Modern Spain (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press). Imperial Lyric: New Poetry and New Subjects in Early Modern Spain Google Scholar

Middlebrook, Leah, 2010. ‘The Poetics of Modern Masculinity in Sixteenth-Century Spain’, in The Poetics of Masculinity in Early Modern Italy and Spain, ed. Gerry Milligan and Jane Tylus (Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies), pp. 143–68. The Poetics of Modern Masculinity in Sixteenth-Century Spain The Poetics of Masculinity in Early Modern Italy and Spain 143 68 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 1992. Muses and Masks: Some Classical Genres of Spanish Poetry (Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta). Muses and Masks: Some Classical Genres of Spanish Poetry Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 1996. ‘Daniel L. Heiple Garcilaso and the Italian Renaissance’. Review. Hispanic Review, 64.2: 272–74. Daniel L. Heiple Garcilaso and the Italian Renaissance Hispanic Review 64.2 272 74 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 2000. ‘Garcilaso’s Love Poetry: Between Love Affairs and Annotations’, MLN, 115.2: 355–66. Garcilaso’s Love Poetry: Between Love Affairs and Annotations MLN 115.2 355 66 Google Scholar

Rivers, Elias L., 2010. Boscán y Garcilaso: Su amistad y el Renacimiento en España (Sevilla: Sibilina, S.L.U). Boscán y Garcilaso: Su amistad y el Renacimiento en España Google Scholar

Rodríguez García, José María, 1998. ‘Epos delendum est: The Subject of Carthage in Garcilaso’s “A Boscán desde la Goleta”’, Hispanic Review, 66.2: 151–70. Epos delendum est: The Subject of Carthage in Garcilaso’s “A Boscán desde la Goleta” Hispanic Review 66.2 151 70 Google Scholar

Schachter, Marc D., 2008. Voluntary Servitude and the Erotics of Friendship: From Classical Antiquity to Early Modern France (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate). Voluntary Servitude and the Erotics of Friendship: From Classical Antiquity to Early Modern France Google Scholar

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, 1985. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (New York: Columbia University Press). Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire Google Scholar

Spongberg, Mary, 2002. Writing Women’s History since the Renaissance (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). Writing Women’s History since the Renaissance Google Scholar

Torres, Isabel, 2013. Love Poetry in the Spanish Golden Age: Eros, Eris and Empire (Woodbridge, UK: Tamesis). Love Poetry in the Spanish Golden Age: Eros, Eris and Empire Google Scholar

Vega, María Jose, and Cesc Esteve (eds), 2004. Idea de la lírica en el Renacimiento (Entre Italia y España) (Barcelona: Mirabel Editorial). Idea de la lírica en el Renacimiento (Entre Italia y España) Google Scholar

Weiss, Julian, 2004. ‘Renaissance Poetry’, in The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature, ed. David T. Gies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 159–77. Renaissance Poetry The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature 159 77 Google Scholar

Weller, Barry, 1978. ‘The Rhetoric of Friendship in Montaigne’s Essais’, New Literary History, 9.3: 503–523. The Rhetoric of Friendship in Montaigne’s Essais New Literary History 9.3 503 523 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Barlow, Jennifer E.