Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Multimodal Representation of sub-Saharan Immigrants as Illegal: Deconstructing their Portrayal as Victims, Heroes and Threats in a Sample from the Spanish Press

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2016), 93, (4), 343–360.

Abstract

This paper analyses the main linguistic and visual characteristics of sub-Saharan immigrants represented as illegal in a sample from the Spanish press, and the ideological consequences for the audience of the newspapers. The data consists of all the news items published on sub-Saharan immigrants in the digital editions of the three most popular Spanish newspapers, El País, ABC and El Mundo, from 1 June 2011 to 1 June 2014. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) and van Leeuwen’s (2008) model for the verbal and visual representation of social actors will be used to study the main characteristics of the written language used to refer to sub-Saharan immigrants as illegal in three main ways: as victims, as heroes and as threats. In addition, Kress and van Leeuwen’s (2006) visual grammar will be the theoretical framework used to analyse the photographs published in the newspapers studied in order to observe the main visual characteristics that contribute to the portrayal of immigrants as illegal.

El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las principales características lingüísticas y visuales de los inmigrantes subsaharianos representados como ilegales en una muestra de la prensa española y las consecuencias ideológicas que esto tiene para la audiencia de los periódicos. Los datos consisten en todas las noticias relacionadas con los inmigrantes subsaharianos publicadas en la edición digital de tres de los periódicos españoles más importantes: El País, ABC y El Mundo desde el 1 de junio de 2011 al 1 de junio de 2014. El análisis crítico del discurso (ACD) y el modelo propuesto por van Leeuwen (2008) para analizar la representación verbal y visual de actores sociales se emplearán para estudiar las principales características de la lengua escrita para referirse a los inmigrantes subsaharianos como ilegales de tres modos: como víctimas, héroes y amenaza. Además, la gramática visual de Kress y van Leeuwen (2006) será el marco teórico para analizar las fotografías.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ABC, 1 June 2011–1 June 2014. [Online – Hemeroteca.] Available at: http://www.abc.es [accessed 12 February 2016]. Google Scholar

Alonso Belmonte, Isabel, Anne McCabe and Daniel Chornet-Roses, 2010. ‘In Their Own Words: The Construction of the Image of Immigrant in Peninsular Spanish Broadsheets and Free Sheets’, Discourse and Communication, 4.3: 227–42. In Their Own Words: The Construction of the Image of Immigrant in Peninsular Spanish Broadsheets and Free Sheets Discourse and Communication 4.3 227 42 Google Scholar

Arango, Joaquín, 2002. La fisonomía de la inmigración en España. El campo de las ciencias y las artes, 139 (‘El nuevo orden demográfico’) (Madrid: Servicio de Estudios BBVA). La fisonomía de la inmigración en España. El campo de las ciencias y las artes, 139 (‘El nuevo orden demográfico’) Google Scholar

Bacon, David, 2008. Illegal People: How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants (Boston, MA: Beacon Press). Illegal People: How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants Google Scholar

Baldry, Anthony, and Paul J. Thibault, 2006. Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis: A Multimedia Toolkit and Coursebook (London: Equinox). Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis: A Multimedia Toolkit and Coursebook Google Scholar

Bañón Hernández, Antonio M., 2002. Discurso e inmigración. Propuestas para el análisis de un debate social (Murcia: Universidad de Murcia). Discurso e inmigración. Propuestas para el análisis de un debate social Google Scholar

Bañón Hernández, Antonio M., and Samantha R. Romero, 2013. ‘ Ánimo. Estamos con vosotros : Messages of Solidarity Written in a Visitors’ Book During a Sit-in Conducted by a Group of Immigrants in Spain’, Discourse & Society, 24.1: 3–26. Ánimo. Estamos con vosotros : Messages of Solidarity Written in a Visitors’ Book During a Sit-in Conducted by a Group of Immigrants in Spain Discourse & Society 24.1 3 26 Google Scholar

Barker, Martin, 1981. The New Racism (London: Junction Books). The New Racism Google Scholar

Collins, Jock, 2007. ‘Immigrants as Victims of Crime and Criminal Justice Discourse in Australia’, International Review of Victimology, 14: 57–79. Immigrants as Victims of Crime and Criminal Justice Discourse in Australia International Review of Victimology 14 57 79 Google Scholar

Crespo, Eliecer, and María Martínez Lirola, 2012. ‘Lexical and Visual Choices in the Representation of Immigration in the Spanish Press’, Spanish in Context, 9.1: 27–57. Lexical and Visual Choices in the Representation of Immigration in the Spanish Press Spanish in Context 9.1 27 57 Google Scholar

Dauvergne, Catherine, 2008. Making People Illegal: What Globalization Means for Migration and Law (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Making People Illegal: What Globalization Means for Migration and Law Google Scholar

De Haas, Hein, 2008. ‘The Myth of Invasion. The Inconvenient Realities of African Migration to Europe’, Third World Quarterly, 29.7: 1305–1322. The Myth of Invasion. The Inconvenient Realities of African Migration to Europe Third World Quarterly 29.7 1305 1322 Google Scholar

El Mundo, 1 June 2011 – 1 June 2014. [Online – Hemeroteca.] Available at: http://www.elmundo.es [accessed 12 February 2016]. Google Scholar

El País, 1 June 2011 – 1 June 2014. [Online – Archivo.] Available at: http://www.elpais.es [accessed 12 February 2016]. Google Scholar

Ennaji, Moha, 2005. Multilingualism, Cultural Identity and Education in Morocco (New York: Springer). Multilingualism, Cultural Identity and Education in Morocco Google Scholar

Fitzgerald, Brigid, and Lynne Young, 2006. The Power of Language: How Discourse Influences Society (London: Equinox Publishers). The Power of Language: How Discourse Influences Society Google Scholar

Granados, Antolín, 2002. ‘¿Es virtual la realidad de la inmigración?: la construcción mediática de la inmigración extranjera en España’, in La inmigración en España: contextos y alternativas, vol. II, ed. Francisco Javier García Castaño (Granada: Laboratorio de Estudios Interculturales), pp. 437–48. ¿Es virtual la realidad de la inmigración?: la construcción mediática de la inmigración extranjera en España La inmigración en España: contextos y alternativas 437 48 Google Scholar

Guerra Salas, Luis, and María Elena Gómez Sánchez, 2010. ‘El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración: algunos ejemplos’, in Lingua, Identitá e immigrazione, ed. Maria Vittoria Calvi, Giovanna Mapelli and Milin Bonomi (Milan, Italy: Franco Angeli), pp. 163–72. El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración: algunos ejemplos Lingua, Identitá e immigrazione 163 72 Google Scholar

Guerra Salas, Luis, and María Elena Gómez Sánchez, 2011. ‘El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración latinoamericana en España: el corpus de noticias INMIGRA’, Lengua y Migración, 3.1: 33–51. El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración latinoamericana en España: el corpus de noticias INMIGRA Lengua y Migración 3.1 33 51 Google Scholar

Hanson, Gordon H., 2009. The Economics and Policy of Illegal Immigration in the United States (Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute). The Economics and Policy of Illegal Immigration in the United States Google Scholar

Hatoss, Anikó, 2012. ‘Where Are You From? Identity Construction and Experiences of “Othering” in the Narratives of Sudanese Refugee-Background Australians’, Discourse & Society, 23.1: 47–68. Where Are You From? Identity Construction and Experiences of “Othering” in the Narratives of Sudanese Refugee-Background Australians Discourse & Society 23.1 47 68 Google Scholar

Kaced, Assia, 2011. ‘The Illegal Immigrant: Victim/Hero. An Analytical Study on Content of Two Algerian Daily Newspapers: El Chourouk (Arabic) and El Watan (French)’, in Media, Migration and Public Opinion: Myths, Prejudices and the Challenge of Attaining Mutual Understanding between Europe and North Africa, ed. Iván Ureta (Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang), pp. 93–109. The Illegal Immigrant: Victim/Hero. An Analytical Study on Content of Two Algerian Daily Newspapers: El Chourouk (Arabic) and El Watan (French) Media, Migration and Public Opinion: Myths, Prejudices and the Challenge of Attaining Mutual Understanding between Europe and North Africa 93 109 Google Scholar

KhosraviNik, Majid, 2009. ‘The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in British Newspapers During the Balkan Conflict (1999) and the British General Election (2005)’, Discourse & Society, 20.4: 477–98. The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in British Newspapers During the Balkan Conflict (1999) and the British General Election (2005) Discourse & Society 20.4 477 98 Google Scholar

KhosraviNik, Majid, 2010a. ‘Actor Descriptions, Action Attributions, and Argumentation: Towards a Systematization of CDA Analytical Categories in the Representation of Social Groups’, Critical Discourse Studies, 7.1: 55–72. Actor Descriptions, Action Attributions, and Argumentation: Towards a Systematization of CDA Analytical Categories in the Representation of Social Groups Critical Discourse Studies 7.1 55 72 Google Scholar

KhosraviNik, Majid, 2010b. ‘The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in the British Newspapers: A Critical Discourse Analysis’, Journal of Language and Politics, 9.1: 1–28. The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in the British Newspapers: A Critical Discourse Analysis Journal of Language and Politics 9.1 1 28 Google Scholar

Kiwan, Nadia, 2009. Identities, Discourses and Experiences. Young People of North African Origin in France (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press). Identities, Discourses and Experiences. Young People of North African Origin in France Google Scholar

Kress, Gunther, and Theo van Leeuwen, 2006. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. Second edition. (London: Routledge Press). Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design Google Scholar

Magalhães, Célia Maria, and Paulo Henrique Caetano, 2012. ‘A Comparative Study of Brazilian and British Images of the Black Body’, in Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights, ed. Wendy L. Bowcher (London: Palgrave), pp. 299–324. A Comparative Study of Brazilian and British Images of the Black Body Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights 299 324 Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2006. ‘A Critical Analysis of the Image of Immigrants in Multimodal Texts’, Linguistics and the Human Sciences, 2.3: 377–97. A Critical Analysis of the Image of Immigrants in Multimodal Texts Linguistics and the Human Sciences 2.3 377 97 Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, (ed.), 2008a. Inmigración, discurso y medios de comunicación (Alicante: Instituto Alicantino de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert). Inmigración, discurso y medios de comunicación Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2008b. ‘Las relaciones entre las características lingüísticas y visuales de las noticias sobre inmigración en la prensa gratuita y su relación con la audiencia’, Discurso y Sociedad, 2.4: 799–815. Las relaciones entre las características lingüísticas y visuales de las noticias sobre inmigración en la prensa gratuita y su relación con la audiencia Discurso y Sociedad 2.4 799 815 Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2013. Discourses of Immigration in Times of Economic Crisis: A Critical Perspective (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing). Discourses of Immigration in Times of Economic Crisis: A Critical Perspective Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2014. ‘Approaching the Representation of sub-Saharan Immigrants in a Sample from the Spanish Press: Deconstructing Stereotypes’, Critical Discourse Studies, 11.4: 482–99. Approaching the Representation of sub-Saharan Immigrants in a Sample from the Spanish Press: Deconstructing Stereotypes Critical Discourse Studies 11.4 482 99 Google Scholar

Moore, Kerry, Bernhard Gross and Terry Threadgold (eds), 2012. Migrations and the Media (New York: Peter Lang). Migrations and the Media Google Scholar

Navas Luque, Marisol, and Isabel Cuadrado Guirado, 2003. ‘Actitudes hacia gitanos e inmigrantes africanos: un estudio comparativo’, Apuntes de Psicología, 21.1: 29–49. Actitudes hacia gitanos e inmigrantes africanos: un estudio comparativo Apuntes de Psicología 21.1 29 49 Google Scholar

Newton, Andowah A., 2005. ‘Injecting Diversity into US Immigration Policy: The Diversity Visa Program and the Missing Discourse on its Impact on African Immigration to the United States’, Cornell International Law Journal, 38.3: 1049–1082. Injecting Diversity into US Immigration Policy: The Diversity Visa Program and the Missing Discourse on its Impact on African Immigration to the United States Cornell International Law Journal 38.3 1049 1082 Google Scholar

Newton, Lina, 2008. Illegal, Alien, or Immigrant: The Politics of Immigration Reform (New York: New York University Press). Illegal, Alien, or Immigrant: The Politics of Immigration Reform Google Scholar

Passel, Jeffrey S., and Cohn D’Vera, 2009. A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States (Washington DC: Pew Hispanic Center). A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States Google Scholar

Pham, T. Thao, 2014. Moroccan Immigrant Women in Spain. Honor and Marriage (New York: Lexington Books). Moroccan Immigrant Women in Spain. Honor and Marriage Google Scholar

Riccio, Bruno, 2001. ‘Following the Senegalese Migratory Path through Media Representation’, in Media and Migration. Constructions of Mobility and Difference, ed. Russell King and Nancy Wook (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 110–26. Following the Senegalese Migratory Path through Media Representation Media and Migration. Constructions of Mobility and Difference 110 26 Google Scholar

Rodríguez Breijo, Vanessa, 2010. ‘La representación televisiva de los inmigrantes africanos: invisibilidad, desconocimiento y precariedad’, Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación, 1: 113–40. La representación televisiva de los inmigrantes africanos: invisibilidad, desconocimiento y precariedad Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación 1 113 40 Google Scholar

Sepúlveda, Concepción, Luis Gilberto, Miquel Rodrigo Alsina and Pilar Medina Bravo, 2008. ‘Niveles semánticos de las representaciones sociales de la inmigración subsahariana: los sucesos de Ceuta y Melilla según ABC’, Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodístico, 14: 129–48. Niveles semánticos de las representaciones sociales de la inmigración subsahariana: los sucesos de Ceuta y Melilla según ABC Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodístico 14 129 48 Google Scholar

Spener, David, 2009. Clandestine Crossings: Migrants and Coyotes on the Texas–Mexico Border (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press). Clandestine Crossings: Migrants and Coyotes on the Texas–Mexico Border Google Scholar

Triandafyllidou, Anna, 2010. ‘Irregular Migration in Europe in the Early 21st Century’, in Irregular Migration in Europe: Myths and Realities, ed. Anna Triandafyllidou and Asa Lundqvist (Farnham, UK: Ashgate), pp. 1–22. Irregular Migration in Europe in the Early 21st Century Irregular Migration in Europe: Myths and Realities 1 22 Google Scholar

Triandafyllidou, Anna, and Thanos Maroukis, 2012. Migrant Smuggling. Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe (London: Macmillan). Migrant Smuggling. Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2005. Racism and Discourse in Spain and Latin America (Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins). Racism and Discourse in Spain and Latin America Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2006. ‘Discurso de las élites y racismo institucional’, in Medios de comunicación e inmigración, ed. Manuel Lario Bastida (Murcia: Convivir sin Racismo: CAM – Obra Social), pp. 16–34. Discurso de las élites y racismo institucional Medios de comunicación e inmigración 16 34 Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2008. ‘Reproducir el racismo: el rol de la prensa’, in La inmigración sale a la calle. Comunicación y discursos políticos sobre el discurso migratorio, ed. Francisco Checa y Olmos (Barcelona: Icaria), pp. 19–49. Reproducir el racismo: el rol de la prensa La inmigración sale a la calle. Comunicación y discursos políticos sobre el discurso migratorio 19 49 Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2009. Discurso y poder, trans. Alcira Bixio (Barcelona: Gedisa). Discurso y poder Google Scholar

Van Leeuwen, Theo, 2008. Discourse and Practice. New Tools for Critical Discourse Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Discourse and Practice. New Tools for Critical Discourse Analysis Google Scholar

Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer, 2009. ‘Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory and Methodology’, in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer. Second edition. (London: Sage), pp. 1–33. Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory and Methodology Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis 1 33 Google Scholar

Wodak, Ruth, and Martin Reisigl, 2001. ‘Discourse and Racism’, in The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. Deborah Tannen, Deborah Schiffrin and Heidi Hamilton (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 372–97. Discourse and Racism The Handbook of Discourse Analysis 372 97 Google Scholar

ABC, 1 June 2011–1 June 2014. [Online – Hemeroteca.] Available at: http://www.abc.es [accessed 12 February 2016]. Google Scholar

Alonso Belmonte, Isabel, Anne McCabe and Daniel Chornet-Roses, 2010. ‘In Their Own Words: The Construction of the Image of Immigrant in Peninsular Spanish Broadsheets and Free Sheets’, Discourse and Communication, 4.3: 227–42. In Their Own Words: The Construction of the Image of Immigrant in Peninsular Spanish Broadsheets and Free Sheets Discourse and Communication 4.3 227 42 Google Scholar

Arango, Joaquín, 2002. La fisonomía de la inmigración en España. El campo de las ciencias y las artes, 139 (‘El nuevo orden demográfico’) (Madrid: Servicio de Estudios BBVA). La fisonomía de la inmigración en España. El campo de las ciencias y las artes, 139 (‘El nuevo orden demográfico’) Google Scholar

Bacon, David, 2008. Illegal People: How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants (Boston, MA: Beacon Press). Illegal People: How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants Google Scholar

Baldry, Anthony, and Paul J. Thibault, 2006. Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis: A Multimedia Toolkit and Coursebook (London: Equinox). Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis: A Multimedia Toolkit and Coursebook Google Scholar

Bañón Hernández, Antonio M., 2002. Discurso e inmigración. Propuestas para el análisis de un debate social (Murcia: Universidad de Murcia). Discurso e inmigración. Propuestas para el análisis de un debate social Google Scholar

Bañón Hernández, Antonio M., and Samantha R. Romero, 2013. ‘ Ánimo. Estamos con vosotros : Messages of Solidarity Written in a Visitors’ Book During a Sit-in Conducted by a Group of Immigrants in Spain’, Discourse & Society, 24.1: 3–26. Ánimo. Estamos con vosotros : Messages of Solidarity Written in a Visitors’ Book During a Sit-in Conducted by a Group of Immigrants in Spain Discourse & Society 24.1 3 26 Google Scholar

Barker, Martin, 1981. The New Racism (London: Junction Books). The New Racism Google Scholar

Collins, Jock, 2007. ‘Immigrants as Victims of Crime and Criminal Justice Discourse in Australia’, International Review of Victimology, 14: 57–79. Immigrants as Victims of Crime and Criminal Justice Discourse in Australia International Review of Victimology 14 57 79 Google Scholar

Crespo, Eliecer, and María Martínez Lirola, 2012. ‘Lexical and Visual Choices in the Representation of Immigration in the Spanish Press’, Spanish in Context, 9.1: 27–57. Lexical and Visual Choices in the Representation of Immigration in the Spanish Press Spanish in Context 9.1 27 57 Google Scholar

Dauvergne, Catherine, 2008. Making People Illegal: What Globalization Means for Migration and Law (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Making People Illegal: What Globalization Means for Migration and Law Google Scholar

De Haas, Hein, 2008. ‘The Myth of Invasion. The Inconvenient Realities of African Migration to Europe’, Third World Quarterly, 29.7: 1305–1322. The Myth of Invasion. The Inconvenient Realities of African Migration to Europe Third World Quarterly 29.7 1305 1322 Google Scholar

El Mundo, 1 June 2011 – 1 June 2014. [Online – Hemeroteca.] Available at: http://www.elmundo.es [accessed 12 February 2016]. Google Scholar

El País, 1 June 2011 – 1 June 2014. [Online – Archivo.] Available at: http://www.elpais.es [accessed 12 February 2016]. Google Scholar

Ennaji, Moha, 2005. Multilingualism, Cultural Identity and Education in Morocco (New York: Springer). Multilingualism, Cultural Identity and Education in Morocco Google Scholar

Fitzgerald, Brigid, and Lynne Young, 2006. The Power of Language: How Discourse Influences Society (London: Equinox Publishers). The Power of Language: How Discourse Influences Society Google Scholar

Granados, Antolín, 2002. ‘¿Es virtual la realidad de la inmigración?: la construcción mediática de la inmigración extranjera en España’, in La inmigración en España: contextos y alternativas, vol. II, ed. Francisco Javier García Castaño (Granada: Laboratorio de Estudios Interculturales), pp. 437–48. ¿Es virtual la realidad de la inmigración?: la construcción mediática de la inmigración extranjera en España La inmigración en España: contextos y alternativas 437 48 Google Scholar

Guerra Salas, Luis, and María Elena Gómez Sánchez, 2010. ‘El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración: algunos ejemplos’, in Lingua, Identitá e immigrazione, ed. Maria Vittoria Calvi, Giovanna Mapelli and Milin Bonomi (Milan, Italy: Franco Angeli), pp. 163–72. El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración: algunos ejemplos Lingua, Identitá e immigrazione 163 72 Google Scholar

Guerra Salas, Luis, and María Elena Gómez Sánchez, 2011. ‘El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración latinoamericana en España: el corpus de noticias INMIGRA’, Lengua y Migración, 3.1: 33–51. El discurso periodístico sobre la inmigración latinoamericana en España: el corpus de noticias INMIGRA Lengua y Migración 3.1 33 51 Google Scholar

Hanson, Gordon H., 2009. The Economics and Policy of Illegal Immigration in the United States (Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute). The Economics and Policy of Illegal Immigration in the United States Google Scholar

Hatoss, Anikó, 2012. ‘Where Are You From? Identity Construction and Experiences of “Othering” in the Narratives of Sudanese Refugee-Background Australians’, Discourse & Society, 23.1: 47–68. Where Are You From? Identity Construction and Experiences of “Othering” in the Narratives of Sudanese Refugee-Background Australians Discourse & Society 23.1 47 68 Google Scholar

Kaced, Assia, 2011. ‘The Illegal Immigrant: Victim/Hero. An Analytical Study on Content of Two Algerian Daily Newspapers: El Chourouk (Arabic) and El Watan (French)’, in Media, Migration and Public Opinion: Myths, Prejudices and the Challenge of Attaining Mutual Understanding between Europe and North Africa, ed. Iván Ureta (Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang), pp. 93–109. The Illegal Immigrant: Victim/Hero. An Analytical Study on Content of Two Algerian Daily Newspapers: El Chourouk (Arabic) and El Watan (French) Media, Migration and Public Opinion: Myths, Prejudices and the Challenge of Attaining Mutual Understanding between Europe and North Africa 93 109 Google Scholar

KhosraviNik, Majid, 2009. ‘The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in British Newspapers During the Balkan Conflict (1999) and the British General Election (2005)’, Discourse & Society, 20.4: 477–98. The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in British Newspapers During the Balkan Conflict (1999) and the British General Election (2005) Discourse & Society 20.4 477 98 Google Scholar

KhosraviNik, Majid, 2010a. ‘Actor Descriptions, Action Attributions, and Argumentation: Towards a Systematization of CDA Analytical Categories in the Representation of Social Groups’, Critical Discourse Studies, 7.1: 55–72. Actor Descriptions, Action Attributions, and Argumentation: Towards a Systematization of CDA Analytical Categories in the Representation of Social Groups Critical Discourse Studies 7.1 55 72 Google Scholar

KhosraviNik, Majid, 2010b. ‘The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in the British Newspapers: A Critical Discourse Analysis’, Journal of Language and Politics, 9.1: 1–28. The Representation of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Immigrants in the British Newspapers: A Critical Discourse Analysis Journal of Language and Politics 9.1 1 28 Google Scholar

Kiwan, Nadia, 2009. Identities, Discourses and Experiences. Young People of North African Origin in France (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press). Identities, Discourses and Experiences. Young People of North African Origin in France Google Scholar

Kress, Gunther, and Theo van Leeuwen, 2006. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. Second edition. (London: Routledge Press). Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design Google Scholar

Magalhães, Célia Maria, and Paulo Henrique Caetano, 2012. ‘A Comparative Study of Brazilian and British Images of the Black Body’, in Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights, ed. Wendy L. Bowcher (London: Palgrave), pp. 299–324. A Comparative Study of Brazilian and British Images of the Black Body Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights 299 324 Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2006. ‘A Critical Analysis of the Image of Immigrants in Multimodal Texts’, Linguistics and the Human Sciences, 2.3: 377–97. A Critical Analysis of the Image of Immigrants in Multimodal Texts Linguistics and the Human Sciences 2.3 377 97 Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, (ed.), 2008a. Inmigración, discurso y medios de comunicación (Alicante: Instituto Alicantino de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert). Inmigración, discurso y medios de comunicación Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2008b. ‘Las relaciones entre las características lingüísticas y visuales de las noticias sobre inmigración en la prensa gratuita y su relación con la audiencia’, Discurso y Sociedad, 2.4: 799–815. Las relaciones entre las características lingüísticas y visuales de las noticias sobre inmigración en la prensa gratuita y su relación con la audiencia Discurso y Sociedad 2.4 799 815 Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2013. Discourses of Immigration in Times of Economic Crisis: A Critical Perspective (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing). Discourses of Immigration in Times of Economic Crisis: A Critical Perspective Google Scholar

Martínez Lirola, María, 2014. ‘Approaching the Representation of sub-Saharan Immigrants in a Sample from the Spanish Press: Deconstructing Stereotypes’, Critical Discourse Studies, 11.4: 482–99. Approaching the Representation of sub-Saharan Immigrants in a Sample from the Spanish Press: Deconstructing Stereotypes Critical Discourse Studies 11.4 482 99 Google Scholar

Moore, Kerry, Bernhard Gross and Terry Threadgold (eds), 2012. Migrations and the Media (New York: Peter Lang). Migrations and the Media Google Scholar

Navas Luque, Marisol, and Isabel Cuadrado Guirado, 2003. ‘Actitudes hacia gitanos e inmigrantes africanos: un estudio comparativo’, Apuntes de Psicología, 21.1: 29–49. Actitudes hacia gitanos e inmigrantes africanos: un estudio comparativo Apuntes de Psicología 21.1 29 49 Google Scholar

Newton, Andowah A., 2005. ‘Injecting Diversity into US Immigration Policy: The Diversity Visa Program and the Missing Discourse on its Impact on African Immigration to the United States’, Cornell International Law Journal, 38.3: 1049–1082. Injecting Diversity into US Immigration Policy: The Diversity Visa Program and the Missing Discourse on its Impact on African Immigration to the United States Cornell International Law Journal 38.3 1049 1082 Google Scholar

Newton, Lina, 2008. Illegal, Alien, or Immigrant: The Politics of Immigration Reform (New York: New York University Press). Illegal, Alien, or Immigrant: The Politics of Immigration Reform Google Scholar

Passel, Jeffrey S., and Cohn D’Vera, 2009. A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States (Washington DC: Pew Hispanic Center). A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States Google Scholar

Pham, T. Thao, 2014. Moroccan Immigrant Women in Spain. Honor and Marriage (New York: Lexington Books). Moroccan Immigrant Women in Spain. Honor and Marriage Google Scholar

Riccio, Bruno, 2001. ‘Following the Senegalese Migratory Path through Media Representation’, in Media and Migration. Constructions of Mobility and Difference, ed. Russell King and Nancy Wook (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 110–26. Following the Senegalese Migratory Path through Media Representation Media and Migration. Constructions of Mobility and Difference 110 26 Google Scholar

Rodríguez Breijo, Vanessa, 2010. ‘La representación televisiva de los inmigrantes africanos: invisibilidad, desconocimiento y precariedad’, Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación, 1: 113–40. La representación televisiva de los inmigrantes africanos: invisibilidad, desconocimiento y precariedad Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación 1 113 40 Google Scholar

Sepúlveda, Concepción, Luis Gilberto, Miquel Rodrigo Alsina and Pilar Medina Bravo, 2008. ‘Niveles semánticos de las representaciones sociales de la inmigración subsahariana: los sucesos de Ceuta y Melilla según ABC’, Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodístico, 14: 129–48. Niveles semánticos de las representaciones sociales de la inmigración subsahariana: los sucesos de Ceuta y Melilla según ABC Estudios Sobre el Mensaje Periodístico 14 129 48 Google Scholar

Spener, David, 2009. Clandestine Crossings: Migrants and Coyotes on the Texas–Mexico Border (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press). Clandestine Crossings: Migrants and Coyotes on the Texas–Mexico Border Google Scholar

Triandafyllidou, Anna, 2010. ‘Irregular Migration in Europe in the Early 21st Century’, in Irregular Migration in Europe: Myths and Realities, ed. Anna Triandafyllidou and Asa Lundqvist (Farnham, UK: Ashgate), pp. 1–22. Irregular Migration in Europe in the Early 21st Century Irregular Migration in Europe: Myths and Realities 1 22 Google Scholar

Triandafyllidou, Anna, and Thanos Maroukis, 2012. Migrant Smuggling. Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe (London: Macmillan). Migrant Smuggling. Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2005. Racism and Discourse in Spain and Latin America (Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins). Racism and Discourse in Spain and Latin America Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2006. ‘Discurso de las élites y racismo institucional’, in Medios de comunicación e inmigración, ed. Manuel Lario Bastida (Murcia: Convivir sin Racismo: CAM – Obra Social), pp. 16–34. Discurso de las élites y racismo institucional Medios de comunicación e inmigración 16 34 Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2008. ‘Reproducir el racismo: el rol de la prensa’, in La inmigración sale a la calle. Comunicación y discursos políticos sobre el discurso migratorio, ed. Francisco Checa y Olmos (Barcelona: Icaria), pp. 19–49. Reproducir el racismo: el rol de la prensa La inmigración sale a la calle. Comunicación y discursos políticos sobre el discurso migratorio 19 49 Google Scholar

Van Dijk, Teun A., 2009. Discurso y poder, trans. Alcira Bixio (Barcelona: Gedisa). Discurso y poder Google Scholar

Van Leeuwen, Theo, 2008. Discourse and Practice. New Tools for Critical Discourse Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Discourse and Practice. New Tools for Critical Discourse Analysis Google Scholar

Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer, 2009. ‘Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory and Methodology’, in Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. Ruth Wodak and Michael Meyer. Second edition. (London: Sage), pp. 1–33. Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory and Methodology Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis 1 33 Google Scholar

Wodak, Ruth, and Martin Reisigl, 2001. ‘Discourse and Racism’, in The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. Deborah Tannen, Deborah Schiffrin and Heidi Hamilton (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 372–97. Discourse and Racism The Handbook of Discourse Analysis 372 97 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

MARTÍNEZ LIROLA, MARÍA