Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

‘Y qué çena es ésta donde my pasyón porfía de mi llevar?’: espiritualidad conversa y elogio del cristiano nuevo en el banquete de la salvación de Arboleda de los enfermos

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2019), 96, (4), 347–364.

Abstract

El presente trabajo analiza Arboleda de los enfermos de Teresa de Cartagena a la luz del discurso teológico y antisemita de la Castilla de mediados del s. XV partiendo de la interpretación de Sor Teresa de la parábola del gran banquete (Lucas 14:15–24), especialmente del versículo 14:21b. Sor Teresa acude a fuentes rabínicas y bíblicas, así como al imaginario antisemita popular, para elaborar una retórica de la enfermedad que celebra al doliente como el elegido de Dios, identificándolo con los pobres y lisiados de Lucas 14:21b y alegóricamente con el judío-cristiano. Tomando como referencia las exégesis patrísticas de la parábola, Sor Teresa sugiere que el nuevo cristiano ha abandonado la abyección para acudir a la cena del Señor voluntariamente, con todo lo que tal acción conlleva en relación a las profecías mesiánicas del Antiguo Testamento y la controversia en torno a la alianza. El converso se presenta como el discípulo más virtuoso y leal a Dios en oposición a los amigos del prohombre, que se corresponderían con el cristiano nuevo y los enfermos que deciden no entrar, el judío aún no convertido. Se evidencia por tanto en Arboleda una interpretación ecléctica del Nuevo Testamento ya que el cristiano nuevo ingresa en el cuerpo místico de Cristo, siendo el primero en alcanzar la salvación que las principales premisas antisemíticas y super-cesionistas le negaban.

I analyse Teresa de Cartagena’s Arboleda de los enfermos in light of fifteenth-century Castilian theology and anti-converso discourse. I focus on Sor Teresa’s interpretation of the Parable of the great banquet (Luke 14:15–24), particularly verse 21b. Drawing on rabbinic and biblical sources and popular anti-Semitic language, Sor Teresa conceives a rhetoric of illness that celebrates the sufferers as God’s chosen ones, punished for the sake of themselves and humanity. These dolientes – the poor and crippled of Luke 14:21b – allegorically stand for the Jewish Christian. Sor Teresa turns to patristic exegesis of Luke’s parable to suggest that the new Christian abandoned wickedness to attend God’s supper of his own free will. Arboleda suggests that the converso corresponds to God’s most loyal and righteous adherent. Whereas the Old Christian represents the rich man’s friends, and the sick who remain on the streets, the non-converted Jews. Sor Teresa thus evinces an eclectic reading of the Supper of the Lamb in which the new Christian willingly attains salvation within the mystical body of Christ. Arboleda constitutes a defence of the sincerity of Jewish conversion that situates the new Christian first in line to eternal redemption; henceforth, denying the premises of anti-Semitic and supersessionist discourses.

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Obras citadas

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Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiratio operum Dei see Hutton 1967 Google Scholar

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Deyermond, Alan, 1983. ‘Spain’s First Women Writers’, en Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols, ed. Beth Miller (Berkeley: University of California Press). Google Scholar

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Hutton, Lewis J. (ed.), 1967. Teresa de Cartagena, Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiratio operum Dei, trad., ed. y introd. de Lewis J. Hutton. Anejos del Boletín de la Real Academia (Madrid: Real Academia Española). Google Scholar

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Mackay, Angus, 1972. ‘Popular Movements and Pogroms in Fifteenth-Century Castile’, Past & Present, 55: 33–37. Google Scholar

Nelken, Margarita, 1930. Las escritoras españolas (Barcelona: Ed Labor). Google Scholar

Netanyahu, Benzion, 1995. The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth-Century Spain (Nueva York: Random House). Google Scholar

Novak, David, 2005. ‘The Covenant in Rabbinic Thought’, en Two Faiths, One Covenant?: Jewish and Christian Identity in the Presence of the Other, eds. Eugene B. Korn y John T. Pawlikowski (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield), pp. 65–80. Google Scholar

Nueva Biblia española, 1975. Ed. Luis Alonso Schökel y Juan Mateos (Madrid: Ediciones cristiandad). Google Scholar

Pozas Garza, Raúl, 1996. Estudio crítico de los tratados adversus Iudaeos en la alta Edad Media (Roma: Pontificum Athenaeum Sanctae Crucis). Google Scholar

Rivera-Cordero, Teresa, 2009. ‘Spatializing Illness: Embodied Deafness in Teresa de Cartagena’s Arboleda de los enfermos’, La Corónica, 37.2: 61–77. Google Scholar

Rosenstock, Bruce, 2002. New Men: Conversos, Christian Theology, and Society in Fifteenth-Century Castile (Londres: Queen Mary, University of London, Department of Hispanic Studies). Google Scholar

Rubin, Miri, 1992. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Rubin, Miri, 1999. ‘Whose Eucharist? Eucharistic Identity as Historical Subject’, Modern Theology, 15.2: 197–208. Google Scholar

Saint-Loup, Aude de, 1993. ‘Images of the Deaf in Medieval Western Europe’, en Looking Back: A Reader on the History of Deaf Communities and Their Sign Languages, eds. Renate Fisher y Harlan L. Lane (Hamburgo: Signum), pp. 379–402. Google Scholar

Seidenspinner-Núñez, Dayle (ed.), 1997. ‘“But I Suffer Not a Woman to Teach”: Two Women Writers in Late Medieval Spain’, en Hers Ancient and Modern: Women’s Writing in Spain and Brazil, eds. Catherine Davies y Jane Whetnall (Manchester: University of Manchester, Department of Spanish and Portuguese), pp. 1–14. Google Scholar

Seidenspinner-Núñez, Dayle (ed.), 1998. ‘Introduction’, en The Writings of Teresa de Cartagena (Cambridge, UK y Rochester, N.Y.: D.S. Brewer). Google Scholar

Seidenspinner-Núñez, Dayle, y Yonsoo Kim, 2004. ‘Historicizing Teresa: Reflections on New Documents Regarding Sor Teresa de Cartagena’, La Corónica, 32: 121–50. Google Scholar

Sicroff, Albert A., 1985. Los estatutos de limpieza de sangre (Madrid: Taurus). Google Scholar

Surtz, Ronald E., 1995. ‘The New Judith: Teresa de Cartagena’, en Writing Women in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain: The Mothers of Saint Teresa of Avila by Ronald Surtz (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), pp. 21–40. Google Scholar

Teresa de Cartagena, Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiratio operum Dei see Hutton 1967 Google Scholar

Trillia, Raquel, 2007. ‘Teresa de Cartagena: Agent of Her Own Salvation’, Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos, 32.1: 51–70. Google Scholar

Van Geest, Paul, 2014. ‘Quid dicam de vindicando vel non vindicando? (Ep. 95, 3). Augustine’s Legitimation of Coercion in the Light of His Roles of Mediator, Judge, Teacher and Mystagogue’, en Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators, eds. Albert C. Geljon y Riemer Roukema (Boston: Brill), pp. 151–85. Google Scholar

Wailes, Stephen L., 1987. Medieval Allegories of Jesus’ Parables (Berkeley: University of California Press). Google Scholar

Alonso de Cartagena, 1943. Defensorium unitatis christianae, ed. Manuel P. Alonso (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas). Google Scholar

Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiratio operum Dei see Hutton 1967 Google Scholar

Ballestin Serrano, Alfredo, 1993. Pedro Alfonso, ‘Dialogus contra iudaeos’: Translation and notes. Its insertion in the polemical Jewish-Christian tradition (Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza; ProQuest Dissertations Publishing). Google Scholar

Bataillon, Marcel, 2013 [1950]. Erasmo y España. 4a reimpresión. (México: Fondo de Cultura Económica). Google Scholar

Beale, G. K., 1999. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text (Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans). Google Scholar

Benito Ruano, Eloy, 1961. Toledo en el siglo XV (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas). Google Scholar

Benito Ruano, Eloy, 1976. Los orígenes del problema converso (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas). Google Scholar

Boxall, Ian, 2009. The Revelation of Saint John (New York: Continuum). Google Scholar

Cartagena, Teresa de, Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiratio operum Dei see Hutton 1967 Google Scholar

Cartagena, Alonso, see Alonso de Cartagena 1943 Google Scholar

Cortés Timoner, María del Mar, 2004. Teresa de Cartagena primera escritora mística en lengua castellana (Málaga: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Málaga). Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1976. ‘“El convento de dolencias”: The Works of Teresa de Cartagena’, Journal of Hispanic Philology, 1 (1976–1977): 19–29. Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1983. ‘Spain’s First Women Writers’, en Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols, ed. Beth Miller (Berkeley: University of California Press). Google Scholar

Edwards, John, 1985. ‘The Conversos: A Theological Approach’, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 62:1: 39–49. Google Scholar

Gerli, E. Michael, 2007. ‘The Converso Condition: New Approaches to an Old Question’, en Medieval Iberia: Changing Societies and Cultures in Contact and Transition, eds. I. Corfis y R. Harris-Northall (Londres: Tamesis), pp, 3–15. Google Scholar

Giordano, María Laura, 2010. ‘“La ciudad de nuestra conciencia”: los conversos y la construcción de la identidad judeocristiana (1449–1556)’, Hispania Sacra, 125: 43–91. Google Scholar

Giordano, María Laura, 2015. ‘“The Wolf Shall Live with the Lamb” (Isa 11:6): The Defeat of a Converso Utopia in the Work of Teresa de Cartagena (1449–1478)’, en Feminist Biblical Studies in the 20th Century: Scholarship and Movement. The High Middle Ages, eds. Kari Elisabeth Børresen y Adriana Valerio. Vol. 9.1. (Atlanta, GA: SBL Press), pp. 279–301. Google Scholar

Gitlitz, David M., 1996. Secrecy and Deceit: The Religion of the Crypto-Jews (Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society). Google Scholar

Halevi, Judah, 1998. The Kuzari: In Defense of the Despised Faith, trans. H. Daniel Korobkin (Northvale, NJ, y Jerusalem: Jason Aronson). Google Scholar

Howe, Elizabeth T., 2015. ‘Court and Convent: Leonor López de Córdoba and Sor Teresa de Cartagena’, en Autobiographical Writing by Early Modern Hispanic Women by Elizabeth Teresa Howe (Farnham, UK y Burlington, VT: Ashgate). Google Scholar

Hussar, James, 2006. ‘The Jewish Roots of Teresa de Cartagena’s Arboleda de los enfermos’, La Corónica, 35.1: 151–69. Google Scholar

Hutton, Lewis J. (ed.), 1967. Teresa de Cartagena, Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiratio operum Dei, trad., ed. y introd. de Lewis J. Hutton. Anejos del Boletín de la Real Academia (Madrid: Real Academia Española). Google Scholar

Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906. The Jewish Encyclopedia. [En línea.] Disponible en: >http://www.jewish-encyclopedia.com/> [consultado el 27 de enero de 2019]. Google Scholar

Kantorowicz, Ernst H., 1957. The King’s Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press). Google Scholar

Kim, Yonsoo, 2008. El saber femenino y el sufrimiento corporal de la temprana edad moderna: Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiraçion operum Dey de Teresa de Cartagena (Córdoba: Universidad de Córdoba, Servicio de Publicaciones). Google Scholar

Kim, Yonsoo, 2012. Between Desire and Passion: Teresa de Cartagena (Leiden, The Netherlands, y Boston, MA: Brill). Google Scholar

Mackay, Angus, 1972. ‘Popular Movements and Pogroms in Fifteenth-Century Castile’, Past & Present, 55: 33–37. Google Scholar

Nelken, Margarita, 1930. Las escritoras españolas (Barcelona: Ed Labor). Google Scholar

Netanyahu, Benzion, 1995. The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth-Century Spain (Nueva York: Random House). Google Scholar

Novak, David, 2005. ‘The Covenant in Rabbinic Thought’, en Two Faiths, One Covenant?: Jewish and Christian Identity in the Presence of the Other, eds. Eugene B. Korn y John T. Pawlikowski (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield), pp. 65–80. Google Scholar

Nueva Biblia española, 1975. Ed. Luis Alonso Schökel y Juan Mateos (Madrid: Ediciones cristiandad). Google Scholar

Pozas Garza, Raúl, 1996. Estudio crítico de los tratados adversus Iudaeos en la alta Edad Media (Roma: Pontificum Athenaeum Sanctae Crucis). Google Scholar

Rivera-Cordero, Teresa, 2009. ‘Spatializing Illness: Embodied Deafness in Teresa de Cartagena’s Arboleda de los enfermos’, La Corónica, 37.2: 61–77. Google Scholar

Rosenstock, Bruce, 2002. New Men: Conversos, Christian Theology, and Society in Fifteenth-Century Castile (Londres: Queen Mary, University of London, Department of Hispanic Studies). Google Scholar

Rubin, Miri, 1992. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Rubin, Miri, 1999. ‘Whose Eucharist? Eucharistic Identity as Historical Subject’, Modern Theology, 15.2: 197–208. Google Scholar

Saint-Loup, Aude de, 1993. ‘Images of the Deaf in Medieval Western Europe’, en Looking Back: A Reader on the History of Deaf Communities and Their Sign Languages, eds. Renate Fisher y Harlan L. Lane (Hamburgo: Signum), pp. 379–402. Google Scholar

Seidenspinner-Núñez, Dayle (ed.), 1997. ‘“But I Suffer Not a Woman to Teach”: Two Women Writers in Late Medieval Spain’, en Hers Ancient and Modern: Women’s Writing in Spain and Brazil, eds. Catherine Davies y Jane Whetnall (Manchester: University of Manchester, Department of Spanish and Portuguese), pp. 1–14. Google Scholar

Seidenspinner-Núñez, Dayle (ed.), 1998. ‘Introduction’, en The Writings of Teresa de Cartagena (Cambridge, UK y Rochester, N.Y.: D.S. Brewer). Google Scholar

Seidenspinner-Núñez, Dayle, y Yonsoo Kim, 2004. ‘Historicizing Teresa: Reflections on New Documents Regarding Sor Teresa de Cartagena’, La Corónica, 32: 121–50. Google Scholar

Sicroff, Albert A., 1985. Los estatutos de limpieza de sangre (Madrid: Taurus). Google Scholar

Surtz, Ronald E., 1995. ‘The New Judith: Teresa de Cartagena’, en Writing Women in Late Medieval and Early Modern Spain: The Mothers of Saint Teresa of Avila by Ronald Surtz (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), pp. 21–40. Google Scholar

Teresa de Cartagena, Arboleda de los enfermos y Admiratio operum Dei see Hutton 1967 Google Scholar

Trillia, Raquel, 2007. ‘Teresa de Cartagena: Agent of Her Own Salvation’, Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos, 32.1: 51–70. Google Scholar

Van Geest, Paul, 2014. ‘Quid dicam de vindicando vel non vindicando? (Ep. 95, 3). Augustine’s Legitimation of Coercion in the Light of His Roles of Mediator, Judge, Teacher and Mystagogue’, en Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators, eds. Albert C. Geljon y Riemer Roukema (Boston: Brill), pp. 151–85. Google Scholar

Wailes, Stephen L., 1987. Medieval Allegories of Jesus’ Parables (Berkeley: University of California Press). Google Scholar

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Romero, Loreto