Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

'nunca esfacil': Heterographic Experimental Poetry in Late Franco Era Spain

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2019), 96, (3), 289–308.

Abstract

The present article explores the rise of visual and experimental poetry in late Franco Era Spain. While perhaps the longest-lasting and most active avant-garde in Spanish literary history, little critical attention has been given to the movement, especially in international contexts. I examine how these poets’ deconstruction of writing through the inclusion of visual elements and other non-traditional forms of textual composition, which I term ‘heterography’, subverts the simpler styles of both the nationalist and socialist aesthetics dominant in the poetry of the era. The experimental poets I discuss further challenge the restrictive nature of these dominant literary discourses by constructing alternative literary genealogies that include heterogeneous traditions. I focus particularly on the works of Julio Campal and Fernando Millán, two of the foundational figures of the numerous experimental poetry movements that arose during these years.

La presente investigación explora el auge de poesía experimental y visual en la época del franquismo tardío. A pesar de que fue la vanguardia más duradera y activa en la historia de la literatura de España, ha recibido muy poca atención crítica, especialmente en contextos internacionales. He investigado cómo la deconstrucción de la escritura por la inclusión de elementos visuales y otras formas de composición no tradicionales, que denomino heterografía, subvierte los estilos más sencillos de las estéticas nacionalistas y socialistas que dominaban el clima literario de entonces y cómo estos poetas experimentales desafiaron la naturaleza restrictiva de los discursos dominantes para construir genealogías literarias alternativas que incluyen tradiciones heterogéneas. Este estudio da atención especial a la obra de Julio Campal y Fernando Millán, dos figuras fundacionales de los numerosos movimientos experimentales que surgieron en aquellos años.

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Works cited

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Mallarmé, Stéphane, E. H. Blackmore, A. M. Blackmore and E. McCombie, 2009. Collected Poems and Other Verse (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Google Scholar

Mayhew, Jonathan, 2009. The Twilight of the Avant-garde: Spanish Poetry 1980–2000 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press). Google Scholar

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Millán, Fernando, and Jesús García Sánchez, 1975. La escritura en libertad: antología de poesía experimental (Madrid: Alianza Editorial). Google Scholar

Ortega y Gasset, José, 2006 [1925]. La deshumanización del arte y otros ensayos de estética (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe). Google Scholar

Sarmiento, José Antonio, 1990a. La otra escritura: la poesía experimental española, 1960–1973 (Cuenca: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla–La Mancha). Google Scholar

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Shellhorse, Adam Joseph, 2015. ‘Subversions of the Sensible: The Poetics of Antropofagia in Brazilian Concrete Poetry’, Revista Hispánica Moderna, 68.1: 165-90. Google Scholar

Spatola, Adriano, 2008. Toward Total Poetry, trans. Brendan W. Hennesse and Guy Bennett (Los Angeles: Otis Books/Seismicity Editions). Google Scholar

Webster, Michael, 1995. Reading Visual Poetry After Futurism: Marinetti, Apollinaire, Schwitters, Cummings (New York: Peter Lang). Google Scholar

Apollinaire, Guillaume, and A. H. Greet, 2004. Calligrammes: Poems of Peace and War (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press). Google Scholar

Ayers, David, Benedikt Hjartarson, and Tomi Huttunen, 2015. Utopia (European Avant-Garde and Modernism Studies) (Berlin and Boston, MA: De Gruyter). Google Scholar

Bakhtin, Mihail Mihajlovic, Michael Holquist and Caryl Emerson, 2014. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (Austin: University of Texas Press). Google Scholar

Bohn, Willard, 2010. Reading Visual Poetry (Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press). Google Scholar

Borque, José María Díez, 1973. ‘La destrucción del verso: poesía concreta y sus derivaciones’, Urogallo: Revista literaria y cultural, 19: 37-42. Google Scholar

Campal, Julio, 1967. ‘5 poemas’, Cuaderno Cultural, 4.8: 29-42. Google Scholar

Campal, Julio, 1971. Poemas (Madrid: Parnaso-70). Google Scholar

Cirlot, Juan Eduardo, and Enrique Granell, 2005. En la llama: Poesía (1943-1959) (Madrid: Ediciones Siruela). Google Scholar

Dahlhaus, Carl, 1987. Schoenberg and the New Music: Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Deleuze, Giles, and F. Guattari, 1994. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). Google Scholar

Derrida, Jacques, and Eric Prenowitz, 1998. Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Google Scholar

Derrida, Jacques, and Alan Bass, 1972. Margins of Philosophy (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Google Scholar

Eco, Umberto, Anna Cancogni and David Robey, 1989. The Open Work (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). Google Scholar

Fernández Serrato, Juan Carlos, 2003. Cómo se lee un poema visual?: Retórica y poética del experimentalismo español (1975-1980) (Sevilla: Ediciones Alfar). Google Scholar

Francisco, José María de, F. Millán and Laura López Fernández, 2009. Escrito está. Poesía experimental en España (1963-1984) (Valladolid: Artium). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel, and Jay Miskowiec, 1986. ‘Of Other Spaces’, Diacritics, 16.1: 22-27. Google Scholar

Gómez de Liaño, Ignacio, 2009 [1973] ‘Abandonar la escritura’, in Escrito está. Poesía experimental en España (1963–1984), ed. J. M. de Francisco, L. López Fernández and F. Millán (Valladolid: Artium). Google Scholar

Hilder, Jamie, 2016. Designed Words for a Designed World: The International Concrete Poetry Movement, 1955–1971. 2nd ed. (Montreal, Quebec, Ontario: McGill-Queen’s University Press). Google Scholar

Ludington, Zachary, 2014. ‘Neo-tipo-grafía: Material Poetics in the Spanish Historical Avant-Garde’, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia. Google Scholar

Mallarmé, Stéphane, E. H. Blackmore, A. M. Blackmore and E. McCombie, 2009. Collected Poems and Other Verse (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Google Scholar

Mayhew, Jonathan, 2009. The Twilight of the Avant-garde: Spanish Poetry 1980–2000 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press). Google Scholar

Millán, Fernando, 1998. Vanguardias y vanguardismos ante el siglo XXI (Madrid: Ediciones Ardora). Google Scholar

Millán, Fernando, 2001. Ideogramas, emblemas y mitogramas: antología poética (1965–2000) (Jaén: Instituto de Estudios Giennenses). Google Scholar

Millán, Fernando, 2009 [1963]. ‘Reseña de dos charlas de Julio Campal’, in Escrito está. Poesía experimental en España (1963–1984), ed. J. M. de Francisco, L. López Fernández and F. Millán (Valladolid: Artium). Google Scholar

Millán, Fernando, and Jesús García Sánchez, 1975. La escritura en libertad: antología de poesía experimental (Madrid: Alianza Editorial). Google Scholar

Ortega y Gasset, José, 2006 [1925]. La deshumanización del arte y otros ensayos de estética (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe). Google Scholar

Sarmiento, José Antonio, 1990a. La otra escritura: la poesía experimental española, 1960–1973 (Cuenca: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla–La Mancha). Google Scholar

Sarmiento, José Antonio, 1990b ‘The Poetic Avant-Garde in Spain’, in Corrosive Signs: Essays on Experimental Poetry, ed. C. Espinosa and H. Polkinhom (University Park, MD: Maisonneuve Press), pp. 114-22. Google Scholar

Shellhorse, Adam Joseph, 2015. ‘Subversions of the Sensible: The Poetics of Antropofagia in Brazilian Concrete Poetry’, Revista Hispánica Moderna, 68.1: 165-90. Google Scholar

Spatola, Adriano, 2008. Toward Total Poetry, trans. Brendan W. Hennesse and Guy Bennett (Los Angeles: Otis Books/Seismicity Editions). Google Scholar

Webster, Michael, 1995. Reading Visual Poetry After Futurism: Marinetti, Apollinaire, Schwitters, Cummings (New York: Peter Lang). Google Scholar

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Author details

Jensen, Max F.

Jensen, Max F.