Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Gothic Tales of the Liberal Nation in Juan Martínez Villergas’s Los misterios de Madrid (1844–1845)

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2016), 93, (3), 269–284.

Abstract

This article analyses the use of the Gothic mode in Juan Martínez Villergas’s Los misterios de Madrid (1844–1845). Villergas’s novel belongs to the Spanish urban mystery genre, popular serial novels inspired by Eugène Sue’s Les Mystères de Paris. The misterio novels explored contemporary political and social issues through melodramatic storylines. Villergas uses his misterio to retell the story of the First Carlist War and the moderado–progresista conflict as a Gothic tale, with lecherous aristocrats and corrupt priests conspiring to undo the liberal government. The article explores how Villergas uses the Gothic to create a foundational narrative for progressive liberalism. However, the Gothic is the mode of ambiguity and contradiction, and Villergas’s use of the mode problematizes the new national narrative and reveals the complexities of the transition from the antiguo régimen to the modern age.

El presente artículo analiza el uso del modo gótico en Los misterios de Madrid (1844– 1845) de Juan Martínez Villergas. La novela de Villergas pertenece al género novelístico de los ‘misterios urbanos’, el cual se inspira en Les Mystères de Paris de Eugène Sue. Los misterios retratan asuntos sociales y políticos del momento a través de tramas melodramáticas. Villergas utiliza su misterio para recontar la historia de la Primera Guerra Carlista y el conflicto moderado–progresista como un relato gótico, en el cual aristócratas lujuriosos y curas corruptos conspiran para derrumbar el gobierno liberal. El artículo explora cómo Villergas emplea el gótico para crear una narrativa fundacional para el liberalismo progresista de la época. Sin embargo, el gótico es el modo de la ambigüedad y la contradicción, y su uso problematiza la nueva narrativa nacional y revela las complejidades de la transición del antiguo régimen a la modernidad.

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Alonso Cortés, Narciso, 1913. Juan Martínez Villergas: bosquejo biográfico–crítico. Segunda edición. (Valladolid: Viuda de Montero). Juan Martínez Villergas: bosquejo biográfico–crítico Google Scholar

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Anderson, Benedict, 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism Google Scholar

Anolik, Ruth Bienstock, 2003. ‘The Meanings of Maternal Absence in the Gothic Mode’, Modern Language Studies, 33.1–2: 24–43. The Meanings of Maternal Absence in the Gothic Mode Modern Language Studies 33.1–2 24 43 Google Scholar

Bachelard, Gaston, 1994. The Poetics of Space, trans. Maria Jolas (Boston, MA: Beacon Press). The Poetics of Space Google Scholar

Backes, Heidi, 2011. ‘Rehistoricizing the Gothic in Modern Spanish Fiction: Adelaida García Morales, Carlos Ruiz Zafón and Post-Franco Spain’ (Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison). Rehistoricizing the Gothic in Modern Spanish Fiction: Adelaida García Morales, Carlos Ruiz Zafón and Post-Franco Spain Google Scholar

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Bertsche, Alan Parker-Suárez, 2000. The Unseen Spectre: The Gothic Mode in Nineteenth-Century Spanish Narrative. (Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison). The Unseen Spectre: The Gothic Mode in Nineteenth-Century Spanish Narrative Google Scholar

Charnon-Deutsch, Lou, 2009. ‘Of Jews and Jesuits in the Nineteenth-Century French and Spanish Feuilleton’, Comparative Literature Studies, 46.4: 589–617. Of Jews and Jesuits in the Nineteenth-Century French and Spanish Feuilleton Comparative Literature Studies 46.4 589 617 Google Scholar

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Fernández, Francisco, 2004. Gothic Manifestations in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Spanish Writers (Dissertation, Indiana University). Gothic Manifestations in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Spanish Writers Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund, 1959. ‘Family Romance’, in Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud, ed. and trans. James Strachey (New York: Basic Books), vol. 5, pp. 74–78. Family Romance Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud 74 78 Google Scholar

García-Nieto, María Carmen, 1971. ‘Introducción: La España isabelina’, in Moderados y progresistas, 1833–1868, ed. María Carmen García-Nieto, Javier, Ma Donezar y Luis Puerta López (Madrid: Guadiana). Introducción: La España isabelina Moderados y progresistas, 1833–1868 Google Scholar

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Hogle, Jerrold E., 2002. ‘Introduction: The Gothic in Western Culture’, in The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction, ed. Jerrold E. Hogle (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Introduction: The Gothic in Western Culture The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction Google Scholar

Holt, Edgar, 1967. The Carlist Wars in Spain (London: Putnam). The Carlist Wars in Spain Google Scholar

Iarocci, Michael, 2006. Properties of Modernity: Romantic Spain, Modern Europe, and the Legacies of Empire (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press). Properties of Modernity: Romantic Spain, Modern Europe, and the Legacies of Empire Google Scholar

Juárez, Leonor, 2005. Ghostly Traces: Gender and Genre in the Popular Gothic Fiction of Early Nineteenth-Century Spain (Dissertation, University of Miami). Ghostly Traces: Gender and Genre in the Popular Gothic Fiction of Early Nineteenth-Century Spain Google Scholar

Kristeva, Julia, 1982. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection, trans. Leon S. Roudiez (New York: Columbia University Press). Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection Google Scholar

Labanyi, Jo, 2005. ‘Relocating Difference: Cultural History and Modernity in Late Nineteenth-Century Spain’, in Spain Beyond Spain: Modernity, Literary History, and National Identity, ed. Brad Epps and Luis Fernández Cifuentes (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press), pp.168–86. Relocating Difference: Cultural History and Modernity in Late Nineteenth-Century Spain Spain Beyond Spain: Modernity, Literary History, and National Identity 168 86 Google Scholar

Lee Six, Abigail, 2010. Gothic Terrors: Incarceration, Duplication and Bloodlust in Spanish Narrative (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press). Gothic Terrors: Incarceration, Duplication and Bloodlust in Spanish Narrative Google Scholar

Lee Six, Abigail, 2012. ‘The Monk (1796): A Hispanist’s Reading’, Ihla do Desterro, 62: 25–54. The Monk (1796): A Hispanist’s Reading Ihla do Desterro 62 25 54 Google Scholar

McKenchie, Claire Charlotte, 2013. ‘Man’s Best Friend: Evolution, Rabies, and the Gothic Dog’, Nineteenth-Century Prose, 40.1: 1–26. Man’s Best Friend: Evolution, Rabies, and the Gothic Dog Nineteenth-Century Prose 40.1 1 26 Google Scholar

Marichal, Carlos, 1980. La revolución liberal y los primeros partidos políticos en España, 1834–1844 (Madrid: Cátedra). La revolución liberal y los primeros partidos políticos en España, 1834–1844 Google Scholar

Martí-López, Elisa, 2002. Borrowed Words: Translation, Imitation, and the Making of the Nineteenth-Century Novel in Spain (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press). Borrowed Words: Translation, Imitation, and the Making of the Nineteenth-Century Novel in Spain Google Scholar

Martínez Villergas, Juan, 1844–1845. Los misterios de Madrid. Miscelánea de costumbres buenas y malas. 3 vols (Madrid: Manini y Compañía). Los misterios de Madrid. Miscelánea de costumbres buenas y malas Google Scholar

Miles, Robert, 2001. ‘Abjection, Nationalism, and the Gothic’, in The Gothic, ed. Fred Botting (Woodbridge, UK: D. S. Brewer), pp. 47–70. Abjection, Nationalism, and the Gothic The Gothic 47 70 Google Scholar

Mishra, Vijay, 1994. The Gothic Sublime (Albany: State University of New York Press). The Gothic Sublime Google Scholar

Nash, Mary, 2004. ‘The Rise of the Women’s Movement in Nineteenth-Century Spain’, in Women’s Emancipation Movements in the Nineteenth Century: A European Perspective, ed. Sylvia Paletschek and Bianka Pietro-Ennker (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press), pp. 243–62. The Rise of the Women’s Movement in Nineteenth-Century Spain Women’s Emancipation Movements in the Nineteenth Century: A European Perspective 243 62 Google Scholar

Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher, 2004. ‘“España ultramarina”: Colonialism and Nation-Building in Nineteenth-Century Spain’, European History Quarterly, 34.2: 191–214. “España ultramarina”: Colonialism and Nation-Building in Nineteenth-Century Spain European History Quarterly 34.2 191 214 Google Scholar

Sieburth, Stephanie, 1994. Inventing High and Low: Literature, Mass Culture, and Uneven Modernity in Spain (Durham, NC: Duke University Press). Inventing High and Low: Literature, Mass Culture, and Uneven Modernity in Spain Google Scholar

Surwillo, Lisa, 2009. ‘Passing Counterfeit Whiteness and Mulatta Wealth in Los misterios de Barcelona’, Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, 10.1: 75–87. Passing Counterfeit Whiteness and Mulatta Wealth in Los misterios de Barcelona Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies 10.1 75 87 Google Scholar

Valis, Noël, 2000. ‘The Hospital Body: Misterios del hospital ’,Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, 4: 7–22. The Hospital Body: Misterios del hospital Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 4 7 22 Google Scholar

Vicens Vives, Jaime, 1970. Approaches to the History of Spain, trans. Joan Connelly Ullman (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press). Approaches to the History of Spain Google Scholar

Vincent, Mary, 2007. Spain 1833–2002: People and State (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Spain 1833–2002: People and State Google Scholar

Williams, Anne, 1995. Art of Darkness: A Poetics of Gothic (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Art of Darkness: A Poetics of Gothic Google Scholar

Wright, Amy E., 2006. Subscribing Identities. The Serial Novel in the Development of Novel and Nation: Spain and Mexico from the 1840s to the 1860s. (Dissertation, Brown University, Providence, RI). Subscribing Identities. The Serial Novel in the Development of Novel and Nation: Spain and Mexico from the 1840s to the 1860s Google Scholar

Wright, Amy E., 2007. ‘Entre España y las Américas, el liberalism y el colonialismo: el caso de trotamundos transatlántico Juan Martínez Villergas’, Siglo Diecinueve: Literatura Hispánica, 13: 19–36. Entre España y las Américas, el liberalism y el colonialismo: el caso de trotamundos transatlántico Juan Martínez Villergas Siglo Diecinueve: Literatura Hispánica 13 19 36 Google Scholar

Alonso Cortés, Narciso, 1913. Juan Martínez Villergas: bosquejo biográfico–crítico. Segunda edición. (Valladolid: Viuda de Montero). Juan Martínez Villergas: bosquejo biográfico–crítico Google Scholar

Álvarez Barrientos, Joaquín, 1993. Madrid en la novela II (Madrid: Comunidad de Madrid). Madrid en la novela II Google Scholar

Álvarez Junco, José, 2001. Mater Dolorosa: La idea de España en el siglo XIX (Madrid: Taurus). Mater Dolorosa: La idea de España en el siglo XIX Google Scholar

Anderson, Benedict, 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism Google Scholar

Anolik, Ruth Bienstock, 2003. ‘The Meanings of Maternal Absence in the Gothic Mode’, Modern Language Studies, 33.1–2: 24–43. The Meanings of Maternal Absence in the Gothic Mode Modern Language Studies 33.1–2 24 43 Google Scholar

Bachelard, Gaston, 1994. The Poetics of Space, trans. Maria Jolas (Boston, MA: Beacon Press). The Poetics of Space Google Scholar

Backes, Heidi, 2011. ‘Rehistoricizing the Gothic in Modern Spanish Fiction: Adelaida García Morales, Carlos Ruiz Zafón and Post-Franco Spain’ (Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison). Rehistoricizing the Gothic in Modern Spanish Fiction: Adelaida García Morales, Carlos Ruiz Zafón and Post-Franco Spain Google Scholar

Baker, Edward, 1991. Materiales para escribir Madrid. Literatura y espacio urbano de Moratín a Galdós (Madrid: Siglo Veintiuno). Materiales para escribir Madrid. Literatura y espacio urbano de Moratín a Galdós Google Scholar

Bertsche, Alan Parker-Suárez, 2000. The Unseen Spectre: The Gothic Mode in Nineteenth-Century Spanish Narrative. (Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison). The Unseen Spectre: The Gothic Mode in Nineteenth-Century Spanish Narrative Google Scholar

Charnon-Deutsch, Lou, 2009. ‘Of Jews and Jesuits in the Nineteenth-Century French and Spanish Feuilleton’, Comparative Literature Studies, 46.4: 589–617. Of Jews and Jesuits in the Nineteenth-Century French and Spanish Feuilleton Comparative Literature Studies 46.4 589 617 Google Scholar

Dever, Carolyn, 1998. Death and the Mother from Dickens to Freud: Victorian Fiction and the Anxiety of Origins (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Death and the Mother from Dickens to Freud: Victorian Fiction and the Anxiety of Origins Google Scholar

Fernández, Francisco, 2004. Gothic Manifestations in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Spanish Writers (Dissertation, Indiana University). Gothic Manifestations in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Spanish Writers Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund, 1959. ‘Family Romance’, in Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud, ed. and trans. James Strachey (New York: Basic Books), vol. 5, pp. 74–78. Family Romance Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud 74 78 Google Scholar

García-Nieto, María Carmen, 1971. ‘Introducción: La España isabelina’, in Moderados y progresistas, 1833–1868, ed. María Carmen García-Nieto, Javier, Ma Donezar y Luis Puerta López (Madrid: Guadiana). Introducción: La España isabelina Moderados y progresistas, 1833–1868 Google Scholar

García Taración, Ascunsión, 1998. La sátira literaria poética en el siglo XIX: Juan Martínez Villergas (Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona). La sátira literaria poética en el siglo XIX: Juan Martínez Villergas Google Scholar

Gies, David T., 1987. ‘Larra, La galería fúnebre y el gusto por lo gótico’, Atti del IV Congreso sul Romanticismo Spagnolo e Hispanoamericano, 4: 60–68. Larra, La galería fúnebre y el gusto por lo gótico Atti del IV Congreso sul Romanticismo Spagnolo e Hispanoamericano 4 60 68 Google Scholar

Graham, Helen, and Jo Labanyi, 1995. ‘Introduction. Culture and Modernity: The Case of Spain’, in Spanish Cultural Studies: An Introduction: The Struggle for Modernity, ed. Helen Graham and Jo Labanyi (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Introduction. Culture and Modernity: The Case of Spain Spanish Cultural Studies: An Introduction: The Struggle for Modernity Google Scholar

Haidt, Rebecca, 2004. ‘Gothic Larra’, Decimonónica: Journal of Nineteenth-Century Hispanic Cultural Production, 1.1: 52–63. Gothic Larra Decimonónica: Journal of Nineteenth-Century Hispanic Cultural Production 1.1 52 63 Google Scholar

Hogle, Jerrold E., 2002. ‘Introduction: The Gothic in Western Culture’, in The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction, ed. Jerrold E. Hogle (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Introduction: The Gothic in Western Culture The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction Google Scholar

Holt, Edgar, 1967. The Carlist Wars in Spain (London: Putnam). The Carlist Wars in Spain Google Scholar

Iarocci, Michael, 2006. Properties of Modernity: Romantic Spain, Modern Europe, and the Legacies of Empire (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press). Properties of Modernity: Romantic Spain, Modern Europe, and the Legacies of Empire Google Scholar

Juárez, Leonor, 2005. Ghostly Traces: Gender and Genre in the Popular Gothic Fiction of Early Nineteenth-Century Spain (Dissertation, University of Miami). Ghostly Traces: Gender and Genre in the Popular Gothic Fiction of Early Nineteenth-Century Spain Google Scholar

Kristeva, Julia, 1982. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection, trans. Leon S. Roudiez (New York: Columbia University Press). Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection Google Scholar

Labanyi, Jo, 2005. ‘Relocating Difference: Cultural History and Modernity in Late Nineteenth-Century Spain’, in Spain Beyond Spain: Modernity, Literary History, and National Identity, ed. Brad Epps and Luis Fernández Cifuentes (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press), pp.168–86. Relocating Difference: Cultural History and Modernity in Late Nineteenth-Century Spain Spain Beyond Spain: Modernity, Literary History, and National Identity 168 86 Google Scholar

Lee Six, Abigail, 2010. Gothic Terrors: Incarceration, Duplication and Bloodlust in Spanish Narrative (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press). Gothic Terrors: Incarceration, Duplication and Bloodlust in Spanish Narrative Google Scholar

Lee Six, Abigail, 2012. ‘The Monk (1796): A Hispanist’s Reading’, Ihla do Desterro, 62: 25–54. The Monk (1796): A Hispanist’s Reading Ihla do Desterro 62 25 54 Google Scholar

McKenchie, Claire Charlotte, 2013. ‘Man’s Best Friend: Evolution, Rabies, and the Gothic Dog’, Nineteenth-Century Prose, 40.1: 1–26. Man’s Best Friend: Evolution, Rabies, and the Gothic Dog Nineteenth-Century Prose 40.1 1 26 Google Scholar

Marichal, Carlos, 1980. La revolución liberal y los primeros partidos políticos en España, 1834–1844 (Madrid: Cátedra). La revolución liberal y los primeros partidos políticos en España, 1834–1844 Google Scholar

Martí-López, Elisa, 2002. Borrowed Words: Translation, Imitation, and the Making of the Nineteenth-Century Novel in Spain (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press). Borrowed Words: Translation, Imitation, and the Making of the Nineteenth-Century Novel in Spain Google Scholar

Martínez Villergas, Juan, 1844–1845. Los misterios de Madrid. Miscelánea de costumbres buenas y malas. 3 vols (Madrid: Manini y Compañía). Los misterios de Madrid. Miscelánea de costumbres buenas y malas Google Scholar

Miles, Robert, 2001. ‘Abjection, Nationalism, and the Gothic’, in The Gothic, ed. Fred Botting (Woodbridge, UK: D. S. Brewer), pp. 47–70. Abjection, Nationalism, and the Gothic The Gothic 47 70 Google Scholar

Mishra, Vijay, 1994. The Gothic Sublime (Albany: State University of New York Press). The Gothic Sublime Google Scholar

Nash, Mary, 2004. ‘The Rise of the Women’s Movement in Nineteenth-Century Spain’, in Women’s Emancipation Movements in the Nineteenth Century: A European Perspective, ed. Sylvia Paletschek and Bianka Pietro-Ennker (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press), pp. 243–62. The Rise of the Women’s Movement in Nineteenth-Century Spain Women’s Emancipation Movements in the Nineteenth Century: A European Perspective 243 62 Google Scholar

Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher, 2004. ‘“España ultramarina”: Colonialism and Nation-Building in Nineteenth-Century Spain’, European History Quarterly, 34.2: 191–214. “España ultramarina”: Colonialism and Nation-Building in Nineteenth-Century Spain European History Quarterly 34.2 191 214 Google Scholar

Sieburth, Stephanie, 1994. Inventing High and Low: Literature, Mass Culture, and Uneven Modernity in Spain (Durham, NC: Duke University Press). Inventing High and Low: Literature, Mass Culture, and Uneven Modernity in Spain Google Scholar

Surwillo, Lisa, 2009. ‘Passing Counterfeit Whiteness and Mulatta Wealth in Los misterios de Barcelona’, Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, 10.1: 75–87. Passing Counterfeit Whiteness and Mulatta Wealth in Los misterios de Barcelona Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies 10.1 75 87 Google Scholar

Valis, Noël, 2000. ‘The Hospital Body: Misterios del hospital ’,Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, 4: 7–22. The Hospital Body: Misterios del hospital Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies 4 7 22 Google Scholar

Vicens Vives, Jaime, 1970. Approaches to the History of Spain, trans. Joan Connelly Ullman (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press). Approaches to the History of Spain Google Scholar

Vincent, Mary, 2007. Spain 1833–2002: People and State (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Spain 1833–2002: People and State Google Scholar

Williams, Anne, 1995. Art of Darkness: A Poetics of Gothic (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). Art of Darkness: A Poetics of Gothic Google Scholar

Wright, Amy E., 2006. Subscribing Identities. The Serial Novel in the Development of Novel and Nation: Spain and Mexico from the 1840s to the 1860s. (Dissertation, Brown University, Providence, RI). Subscribing Identities. The Serial Novel in the Development of Novel and Nation: Spain and Mexico from the 1840s to the 1860s Google Scholar

Wright, Amy E., 2007. ‘Entre España y las Américas, el liberalism y el colonialismo: el caso de trotamundos transatlántico Juan Martínez Villergas’, Siglo Diecinueve: Literatura Hispánica, 13: 19–36. Entre España y las Américas, el liberalism y el colonialismo: el caso de trotamundos transatlántico Juan Martínez Villergas Siglo Diecinueve: Literatura Hispánica 13 19 36 Google Scholar

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Delano, Cristina