British Journal of Canadian Studies

From Indian boys to Canadian men? The use of cadet drill in the Canadian Indian residential school system

British Journal of Canadian Studies (2017), 30, (2), 227–248.

Abstract

From the 1870s to the closing of Canada’s Indian residential school system in 1996, cadet corps and military-style drill were the cornerstones to physical education and functioned as a way to assimilate Indigenous students into a subordinate position in Canadian society. The schools’ use of cadet drill is a key legacy found in the historical and contemporary enlistments of Indigenous peoples in the Canadian armed forces. Some students used military drill as a way to survive the abuse they encountered at school by finding relief in opportunities to travel off school grounds to engage in public performances and competitive events. Additionally, students derived meaning from competitions, especially winning against non-Indigenous cadet teams. This time away from school and the competitions increased the student’s self-worth, with some students using it to connect to their people’s military past.

Access Token
£25.00

Ashton, Robert, 1896, ‘Report of the Mohawk Institute to the New England Company, December 1896’ (Diocese of Huron Archives). Report of the Mohawk Institute to the New England Company, December 1896 Google Scholar

Berger, Carl, 1970, The Sense of Power: Studies in the Ideas of Canadian Imperialism 1967–1914 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press). The Sense of Power: Studies in the Ideas of Canadian Imperialism 1967–1914 Google Scholar

Bloom, John, 2000, To Show What an Indian Can Do: Sports at Indigenous American Boarding Schools (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press). To Show What an Indian Can Do: Sports at Indigenous American Boarding Schools Google Scholar

Bloomfield, Anne, 1990, ‘Drill and Dances as Symbols of Imperialism’, in J.A. Mangan (ed.), Making Imperial Mentalities: Socialization and British Imperialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990), pp. 74–95. Drill and Dances as Symbols of Imperialism Making Imperial Mentalities: Socialization and British Imperialism 74 95 Google Scholar

Brown, D., 1986, ‘Sport, Darwinism and Canadian Private Schooling to 1918’, Canadian Journal of Sport History, 17 (Spring), 27–37. Sport, Darwinism and Canadian Private Schooling to 1918 Canadian Journal of Sport History 17 27 37 Google Scholar

Brown, David W., 1986, ‘Militarism and Canadian Private Education: Ideal and Practice, 1861–1918’, Canadian Journal of Sport History, 17 (Winter), 46–59. Militarism and Canadian Private Education: Ideal and Practice, 1861–1918 Canadian Journal of Sport History 17 46 59 Google Scholar

Burke, Gary J., 1996, ‘Good for the Boy and Nation: Military Drill and the Cadet Movement in Ontario Public Schools 1895–1911’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto). Good for the Boy and Nation: Military Drill and the Cadet Movement in Ontario Public Schools 1895–1911 Google Scholar

Davin, Nicholas Flood, 1879, ‘Report on Industrial Schools for Indians and Half Breeds’ (Sir John A. Macdonald Papers, Vol. 9, Library and Archives Canada). Available from: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Historical%20Reports/Davin%20Report.pdf. Google Scholar

Dempsey, L. James, 1999, Warriors of the King: Prairie Indians in World War I (Regina: University of Regina and the Plains Research Centre, 1999). Warriors of the King: Prairie Indians in World War I Google Scholar

Department of Indian Affairs, 1910, Calisthenics and Games Prescribed for Use in all Indian Schools (Ottawa: Government of Canada). Google Scholar

Egorov, Igor, 2005, ‘General History of Cadet Corps in Indian Residential Schools 1879–1996’ (General Synod Archives of the Anglican Church of Canada). General History of Cadet Corps in Indian Residential Schools 1879–1996 Google Scholar

Forsyth, Janice, 2012, ‘Bodies of Meaning: Sports and Games at Canadian Residential Schools’, in Janice Forsyth and Audrey R. Giles (eds), Indigenous Peoples and Sport: Historical Foundations and Contemporary Issues (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press), pp. 15–34. Bodies of Meaning: Sports and Games at Canadian Residential Schools Indigenous Peoples and Sport: Historical Foundations and Contemporary Issues 15 34 Google Scholar

Gaffen, Fred, 2008 [1985], Forgotten Soldiers (Winnipeg: Defence Academy Press [Penticton: Theytus Books Ltd]). Forgotten Soldiers Google Scholar

Graham, Elizabeth, 1997, The Mush Hole: Life at Two Indian Residential Schools (Waterloo, Ontario: Heffle Publishing). The Mush Hole: Life at Two Indian Residential Schools Google Scholar

Houghton, E.B., 1886, Physical Culture: First Book of Exercises in Drill, Calisthenics, and Gymnastics (Toronto: Warwick and Sons). Physical Culture: First Book of Exercises in Drill, Calisthenics, and Gymnastics Google Scholar

Howell, David and Peter Lindsay, 1986, ‘Social Gospel and the Young Boy Problem 1895–1925’, Canadian Journal of Sport History, 17 (Spring), 75–87. Social Gospel and the Young Boy Problem 1895–1925 Canadian Journal of Sport History 17 75 87 Google Scholar

Jung, Hans, 2007, ‘Can the Canadian Forces Reflect Canadian Society?’, Canadian Military Journal (Autumn), 27–36. Can the Canadian Forces Reflect Canadian Society? Canadian Military Journal 27 36 Google Scholar

Kett, Joseph F., 1971, ‘Adolescence and Youth in Nineteenth-Century America’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 2.2 (Fall), 283–98. Adolescence and Youth in Nineteenth-Century America Journal of Interdisciplinary History 2.2 283 98 Google Scholar

Koch, Jordan Robert, 2015, ‘“Iyacisitayin Newoskan Simakanisikanisak”: The (Re) Making of the Hobbema Community Cadet Corps Program’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Alberta). “Iyacisitayin Newoskan Simakanisikanisak”: The (Re) Making of the Hobbema Community Cadet Corps Program Google Scholar

Lackenbauer, P. Whitney, John Moses, R. Scott Sheffield, and Maxime Gohier, 2009, A Commemorative History of Aboriginal People in the Canadian Military (Ottawa: Department of National Defence Canada). Available from: http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/pub/boo-bro/abo-aut/index-eng.asp (accessed 9 July 2013). Google Scholar

Lewis, Herbert S. (ed.), 2005, Oneida Lives: Long-Lost Voices of the Wisconsin Oneidas (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press). Oneida Lives: Long-Lost Voices of the Wisconsin Oneidas Google Scholar

McDonald, Neil, 1978, ‘Edgerton Ryerson and the School as an Agent of Political Socialization’, in Neil McDonald and Alf Chaiton (eds), Egerton Ryerson and His Times: Essays on the History of Education (Toronto: Macmillan and Company), pp. 81–106. Edgerton Ryerson and the School as an Agent of Political Socialization Egerton Ryerson and His Times: Essays on the History of Education 81 106 Google Scholar

Miller, J.R., 1996, Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Indigenous Residential Schools (Toronto: University of Toronto Press). Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Indigenous Residential Schools Google Scholar

Milloy, John, 1999, A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press). A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Morrow, Don, 1977, ‘The Strathcona Trust in Ontario 1911–1939’, Canadian Journal of History of Sports and Physical Education, 8.1 (Spring), 72–90. The Strathcona Trust in Ontario 1911–1939 Canadian Journal of History of Sports and Physical Education 8.1 72 90 Google Scholar

Morrow, Don, 1989, A Concise History of Sport in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press). A Concise History of Sport in Canada Google Scholar

Morrow, Don and Kevin B. Wamsley, 2013, Sport in Canada: A History, 3rd ed. (Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press). Sport in Canada: A History Google Scholar

Morton, Desmond, 1978, ‘The Cadet Movement in the Moment of Canadian Militarism’, Journal of Canadian Studies, 13 (Summer), 56–68. The Cadet Movement in the Moment of Canadian Militarism Journal of Canadian Studies 13 56 68 Google Scholar

Moses, John, Donald Graves, and Warren Sinclair, 2004, A Sketch Account of Aboriginal Peoples in the Canadian Military (Ottawa: Department of National Defence Canada). Available from: http://www.turtleisland.org/news/abmilitary.pdf (accessed 8 July 2013). Google Scholar

National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces, 2016a, ‘How Many CAF Members and DND Employees are there?’ Available from: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about/faq.page#q12 (accessed 6 February 2017). Google Scholar

National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces, 2016b, ‘Indigenous People in the Canadian Armed Forces’, http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=Indigenous-peoples-in-the-canadian-armed-forces/hie8w98n (accessed 30 July 2016). Google Scholar

Pratt, Richard Henry, 1965, Battlefield and Classroom: Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867–1904 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press). Battlefield and Classroom: Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867–1904 Google Scholar

Ryerson, Egerton, 1847, “Report of Dr. Ryerson on Industrial Schools” (RG10, Vol. 2952, File 202239). Available from: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Historical%20Reports/Ryerson%20Report.pdf (accessed 9 January 2017). Google Scholar

Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre, Remembering Our Heroes: Saskatchewan First Nations Veterans. Available from: http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/205/301/ic/cdc/heroes/index2.html (accessed 12 August 2016). Google Scholar

Sawula, Lorna W., 1974, ‘Notes on the Strathcona Trust’, Canadian Journal of History of Sports and Physical Education, 5 (Spring), 56–61. Notes on the Strathcona Trust Canadian Journal of History of Sports and Physical Education 5 56 61 Google Scholar

‘Souvenir Old Boys Reunion Edition’, The Brantford Expositor (28–29 Dec. 1899), 29. Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Google Scholar

Stamp, Robert M., 1982, The Schools of Ontario, 1876–1976 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press). The Schools of Ontario, 1876–1976 Google Scholar

Statistics Canada. 2016 ‘Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis, and Inuit’. Available from: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99–011-x/99–011-x2011001-eng.cfm (accessed 6 February 2017). Google Scholar

Strathcona Trust Executive Council, 1911, Syllabus of Physical Exercises for Schools (Toronto: Copp). Google Scholar

The Brantford Expositor, various editions, 1898–1925. Google Scholar

The War Office, 1943, Pre-Service Physical Training and Recreation for Army Cadets (London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office). Google Scholar

Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2015a, ‘The History, Part 1, Origins to 1939’, The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada vol. 1. Available from: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Final%20Reports/Volume_1_History_Part_1_English_Web.pdf (accessed 1 December 2016). Google Scholar

Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2015b, ‘The History, Part 2, 1939 to 2000’, The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada vol. 1. Available from: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Final%20 Reports/Volume_1_History_Part_2_English_Web.pdf (accessed 1 December 2016). Google Scholar

Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2015c, ‘The Survivors Speak: A Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’. Available from: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Final%20Reports/Survivors_Speak_English_Web.pdf (accessed 1 December 2016). Google Scholar

Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 2015d, ‘The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action’. Available from: http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf (accessed 5 April 2016). Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Habkirk, Evan J.