Town Planning Review

‘Building back better’ along the Sanriku coast of Tohoku, Japan: five years after the ‘3/11’ disaster

Town Planning Review (2017), 88, (6), 615–638.

Abstract

This paper addresses the concept of ‘build back better’ and its application to reconstruction along the Sanriku coastal region, which was affected by a devastating tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011. I argue that although the Japanese government applied build-back-better approaches (fukkõ in Japanese), there have been contradictions, challenges and contestations that have delayed the successful recovery of the affected communities. Empirical material collected from field trips to north-east coastal Japan revealed many problems that have impeded this recovery in the first five years of the rebuilding programme. The results question the usefulness of the build-back-better approach to reconstruction.

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BIRD, W. (2013), ‘Post-tsunami Japan’s push to rebuild coast in concrete’, The Asia-Pacific Journal, 11, 26 May, http://apjjf.org/-Winifred-Bird/3945/article.pdf (accessed 15 October 2016). Google Scholar

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EDGINGTON, D. W. (2011), ‘Viewpoint: reconstruction after natural disasters: the opportunities and constraints facing our cities’, Town Planning Review, 82, v–xii. Viewpoint: reconstruction after natural disasters: the opportunities and constraints facing our cities Town Planning Review 82 v xii Google Scholar

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FAN, L. (2013), Disaster as Opportunity? Building Back Better in Aceh, Myamyar and Haiti, London, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute. Disaster as Opportunity? Building Back Better in Aceh, Myamyar and Haiti Google Scholar

FELDHOFF, T. (2007), ‘Japan’s construction lobby and the privatization of highway-related public corporations’, in A. Sorensen and C. Funck (eds), Living Cities in Japan: Citizens’ Movements, Machizukuri and Local Environments, London, Routledge, 91–112. Japan’s construction lobby and the privatization of highway-related public corporations Living Cities in Japan: Citizens’ Movements, Machizukuri and Local Environments 91 112 Google Scholar

FUTURA, N. and SEINO, S. (2016), ‘Progress and gaps in Eco-DRR policy and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake’, in F. G. Renaud, K. Sudmeier-Rieux, M. Estrella and U. Nehren (eds), Ecosystem-Based Disaster, Risk Reduction and Adaptation in Practice, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 295–314. Progress and gaps in Eco-DRR policy and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake Ecosystem-Based Disaster, Risk Reduction and Adaptation in Practice 295 314 Google Scholar

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GEIPEL, R. (1982), Disaster and Reconstruction: The Fruili (Italy) Earthquakes of 1976, Boston, George Allen and Unwin. Disaster and Reconstruction: The Fruili (Italy) Earthquakes of 1976 Google Scholar

HAAS, J. E., KATES, R. W. and BOWDEN, M. J. (eds) (1977), Reconstruction Following Disaster, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Reconstruction Following Disaster Google Scholar

HAYASHI, H. (2001), ‘Long-term recovery processes and their planning from devastating earthquake disasters’, Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi), 110, 991–98 (in Japanese). Long-term recovery processes and their planning from devastating earthquake disasters Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi) 110 991 98 Google Scholar

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IUCHI, K., JOHNSON, L. A.and OLSHANSKY, R. B. (2013), ‘Securing Tohoku’s future: planning for rebuilding in the first year following the Tohoku–Oki earthquake and tsunami’, Earthquake Spectra, 29, S479–S499. Securing Tohoku’s future: planning for rebuilding in the first year following the Tohoku–Oki earthquake and tsunami Earthquake Spectra 29 S479 S499 Google Scholar

IUCHI, K., MALY, E. and JOHNSON, L. (2014), ‘Three years after a mega-disaster: recovery policies, programs and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake’, in V. Santiago-Fandino, Y. A. Kontar and Y. Kaneda (eds), Post-tsunami Hazard Reconstruction and Restoration, New York, Springer, 29–46. Three years after a mega-disaster: recovery policies, programs and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake Post-tsunami Hazard Reconstruction and Restoration 29 46 Google Scholar

JICA (JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ASSOCIATION) (2013), The Study of Reconstruction Processes from Large-Scale Disasters: JICA’s Support for Reconstruction, Tokyo, JICA. Google Scholar

JOHNSON, L. A. and HAYASHI, H. (2012), ‘Synthesis efforts in disaster recovery research’, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 30, 212–38. Synthesis efforts in disaster recovery research International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 30 212 38 Google Scholar

KANEKO, Y. (2016), ‘Lessons from the 2011 East Japan Earthquake: issues of participation and early recovery’, in Y. Kaneko, K. Matsuoka and T. Toyoda (eds), 34–78. Lessons from the 2011 East Japan Earthquake: issues of participation and early recovery 34 78 Google Scholar

KARAN, P. P. (2016), ‘Introduction: after the triple disaster: landscape of devastation, despair, hope, and resilience’, in P. P. Karan and U. Suganuma (eds), 1–44. Introduction: after the triple disaster: landscape of devastation, despair, hope, and resilience 1 44 Google Scholar

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KENNEDY, J., ASHMORE, J., BABISTER, J. and I. KELMAN (2008), ‘The meaning of “build back better”: evidence from post-tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka’, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 16, 24–36. The meaning of “build back better”: evidence from post-tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 16 24 36 Google Scholar

KIM, K. and OLSHANSKY, R. B. (2014), ‘The theory and practice of building back better’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 80, 289–92. The theory and practice of building back better Journal of the American Planning Association 80 289 92 Google Scholar

LEE, A. J. (2016), Resilience by Design, Richmond, CA, Springer. Resilience by Design Google Scholar

MCNEILL, D. (2016), ‘Storm brewing over Japan’s sea wall’, The Independent, 6 March, (accessed 15 October 2016). Storm brewing over Japan’s sea wall The Independent Google Scholar

MCNEILL, D. and J. MCCURRY, J. (2014), ‘After the deluge: tsunami and the Great Wall of Japan’, Asia-Pacific Journal, 12, 28 July, http://apjjf.org/-Justin-McCurry--David-McNeill/4152/article.pdf (accessed 1 November 2016). Google Scholar

MILETI, D. (1999), Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, DC, Joseph Henry Press. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States Google Scholar

MOCHIZUKI, J. (2014), ‘Decision-making, policy choices and community rebuilding after the Tohoku disaster’, Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management, 4, 103–18. Decision-making, policy choices and community rebuilding after the Tohoku disaster Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management 4 103 18 Google Scholar

MUHARI, A., KENTARO, I., SUGAWARA, D. and IMAMURA, F. (2014), ‘A method to determine the Level 1 and Level 2 tsunami inundation areas for reconstruction in eastern Japan and possible application in pre-disaster areas’, in V. Santiago-Fandiño, Y. A. Kontar and Y. Kaneda (eds), 133–55. A method to determine the Level 1 and Level 2 tsunami inundation areas for reconstruction in eastern Japan and possible application in pre-disaster areas 133 55 Google Scholar

MURAKAMI, K. and MURAKAMI WOOD, D. (2014), ‘Planning innovation and post-disaster reconstruction: the case of Tohoku, Japan’, Planning Theory and Practice, 15, 237–41. Planning innovation and post-disaster reconstruction: the case of Tohoku, Japan Planning Theory and Practice 15 237 41 Google Scholar

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DEFRAYMENT ACT (n.d.), National Government Defrayment Act for Reconstruction of Public Civil Engineering Facilities (March 31, 1951 Laws No 97): Final Amendment: December 22, 1999 No 160, http://law.e-gov.go.jp/htmldata/S26/S26HO097.html (accessed 15 October 2016). Google Scholar

OLIVER-SMITH, A. (1991), ‘Successes and failures in post-disaster resettlement’, Disasters, 15, 12–23. Successes and failures in post-disaster resettlement Disasters 15 12 23 Google Scholar

OLSHANSKY, R. B. and CHANG, S. (2009), ‘Planning for disaster recovery: emerging research needs and challenges’, Progress in Planning, 72, 200–9. Planning for disaster recovery: emerging research needs and challenges Progress in Planning 72 200 9 Google Scholar

OLSHANSKY, R. B., HOPKINS, L. D. and JOHNSON, L. A. (2012), ‘Disaster recovery: processes compressed in time’, Natural Hazards Review, 13, 173–78. Disaster recovery: processes compressed in time Natural Hazards Review 13 173 78 Google Scholar

OTA, T., MAKI, N. and HAYASHI, H. (2009), ‘Evaluating planning process of the Kobe recovery plan based on project management framework’, Journal of Disaster Research, 4, 271–81. Evaluating planning process of the Kobe recovery plan based on project management framework Journal of Disaster Research 4 271 81 Google Scholar

PAMINTUAN-LAMORENA, M. (2014), ‘Giant sea wall to break tsunamis sparks debate in Japan’, Japan Daily Press, 12 March, japandailypress.com/giant-sea-wall-to-break-tsunamis-sparks-debate-in-japan-1245649 (accessed 15 October 2016). Google Scholar

RECONSTRUCTION AGENCY (2016a), ‘The Reconstruction Agency – the “Control Tower”’, http://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/topics/About_us/ (accessed 1 November 2016). Google Scholar

RECONSTRUCTION AGENCY (2016b), Progress to Date, http://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/topics/Progress_to_date/pdf/201608_process_and_prospects.pdf (accessed November 2016). Google Scholar

RESEARCH DESIGN COUNCIL (2011), Towards Reconstruction: Hope beyond the Disaster, report to the prime minister of the Reconstruction Design Council in response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, 25 June, www.mofa.go.jp/announce/jfpu/2011/7/pdfs/0712.pdf (accessed 30 August 2016). Google Scholar

ROSSI, P. H., WRIGHT, J. D. and WEBER-BURDIN, E. (1982), Natural Hazards and Public Choice: The State and Local Politics of Hazard Mitigation, New York, Academic Press. Natural Hazards and Public Choice: The State and Local Politics of Hazard Mitigation Google Scholar

SCHENCKING, C. (2013), The Great Kantō Earthquake and the Chimera of National Reconstruction in Japan, New York, Columbia University Press. The Great Kantō Earthquake and the Chimera of National Reconstruction in Japan Google Scholar

SHAW, E. and GODA, K. (2004), ‘From disaster to sustainable civil society: the Kobe experience’, Disasters, 28, 16–40. From disaster to sustainable civil society: the Kobe experience Disasters 28 16 40 Google Scholar

SIEMBIEDA, W. J. and HAYASHI, H. (2015), ‘Japan’s megadisaster challenges: crisis management in the modern era’, in F. Baldwin and A. Allison (eds), Japan: The Precarious Future, New York, Social Science Research Council, 139–66. Japan’s megadisaster challenges: crisis management in the modern era Japan: The Precarious Future 139 66 Google Scholar

SMITH, K. (2013), Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster, 6th edition, London, Routledge. Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster Google Scholar

TAKEZAWA, S. (2016), The Aftermath of the 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Living among the Rubble, Lanham, Lexington Books. The Aftermath of the 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Living among the Rubble Google Scholar

THE JAPAN TIMES (2016), ‘New Tohoku reconstruction plan approved by panel’, 4 March, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/03/04/national/politics-diplomacy/new-tohoku-reconstruction-plan-approved-panel/#.WBliC0vJ70s (accessed 1 November 2016). Google Scholar

THIRUPPUGAZH, V. (2016), Positioning stakeholders within owner-driven post-disaster reconstruction approaches: Gujrat, India, following the 2001 earthquake’, in P. Daly and R. M. Feener (eds), 160–80. Positioning stakeholders within owner-driven post-disaster reconstruction approaches: Gujrat, India, following the 2001 earthquake 160 80 Google Scholar

UMEDA, S. (2013) Japan: Legal Responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, Washington, DC, The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center, , http://www.loc.gov/law/help/japan-earthquake/Great-East-Japan-Earthquake.pdf (accessed 1 September 2016). Google Scholar

UN WORLD CONFERENCE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (2015), ‘Issue brief: reconstructing after disasters: build back better ministerial roundtable’, 14–18 March 2015, Sendai, Japan, www.wcdrr.org/uploads/Reconstructing-after-disasters-Build-back-better.pdf (accessed 1 September 2016). Google Scholar

BIRD, W. (2013), ‘Post-tsunami Japan’s push to rebuild coast in concrete’, The Asia-Pacific Journal, 11, 26 May, http://apjjf.org/-Winifred-Bird/3945/article.pdf (accessed 15 October 2016). Google Scholar

CAMPENEALLA, R. (2010), Delta Urbanism: New Orleans, Chicago, American Planners Press. Delta Urbanism: New Orleans Google Scholar

CYRANOSKI, D. (2012), ‘After the deluge: Japan is rebuilding its coastal cities to protect people from the biggest tsunamis’, Nature, 8 March, 141–43. After the deluge: Japan is rebuilding its coastal cities to protect people from the biggest tsunamis Nature 141 43 Google Scholar

DALY, P. and FEENER, R. M. (2016), Rebuilding Asia Following Natural Disasters: Approaches to Reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific Region, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Rebuilding Asia Following Natural Disasters: Approaches to Reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific Region Google Scholar

DELANEY, A. E. (2015), ‘Taking the high ground: impact of public policy on rebuilding neighborhoods in coastal Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami’, in M. Companion (ed.), Cultural Survival: Losses, Opportunities and Mitigation, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 61–72. Taking the high ground: impact of public policy on rebuilding neighborhoods in coastal Japan after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Cultural Survival: Losses, Opportunities and Mitigation 61 72 Google Scholar

EDGINGTON, D. W. (2010), Reconstructing Kobe: The Geography of Crisis and Opportunity, Vancouver, UBC Press. Reconstructing Kobe: The Geography of Crisis and Opportunity Google Scholar

EDGINGTON, D. W. (2011), ‘Viewpoint: reconstruction after natural disasters: the opportunities and constraints facing our cities’, Town Planning Review, 82, v–xii. Viewpoint: reconstruction after natural disasters: the opportunities and constraints facing our cities Town Planning Review 82 v xii Google Scholar

EDGINGTON, D.W. (2016), ‘Reflections on the Hanshin Earthquake of 1995 and the reconstruction of Kobe, Japan’, in P. Daly and R. M. Feener (eds), 108–40. Reflections on the Hanshin Earthquake of 1995 and the reconstruction of Kobe, Japan 108 40 Google Scholar

FAN, L. (2013), Disaster as Opportunity? Building Back Better in Aceh, Myamyar and Haiti, London, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute. Disaster as Opportunity? Building Back Better in Aceh, Myamyar and Haiti Google Scholar

FELDHOFF, T. (2007), ‘Japan’s construction lobby and the privatization of highway-related public corporations’, in A. Sorensen and C. Funck (eds), Living Cities in Japan: Citizens’ Movements, Machizukuri and Local Environments, London, Routledge, 91–112. Japan’s construction lobby and the privatization of highway-related public corporations Living Cities in Japan: Citizens’ Movements, Machizukuri and Local Environments 91 112 Google Scholar

FUTURA, N. and SEINO, S. (2016), ‘Progress and gaps in Eco-DRR policy and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake’, in F. G. Renaud, K. Sudmeier-Rieux, M. Estrella and U. Nehren (eds), Ecosystem-Based Disaster, Risk Reduction and Adaptation in Practice, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 295–314. Progress and gaps in Eco-DRR policy and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake Ecosystem-Based Disaster, Risk Reduction and Adaptation in Practice 295 314 Google Scholar

G7 JAPAN (2016), Road to Recovery from 2011 Earthquake, G7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors’ Meeting, Sendai, May, http://www.g7sendai2016.mof.go.jp/earthquake.html (accessed 15 October 2016). Google Scholar

GEIPEL, R. (1982), Disaster and Reconstruction: The Fruili (Italy) Earthquakes of 1976, Boston, George Allen and Unwin. Disaster and Reconstruction: The Fruili (Italy) Earthquakes of 1976 Google Scholar

HAAS, J. E., KATES, R. W. and BOWDEN, M. J. (eds) (1977), Reconstruction Following Disaster, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Reconstruction Following Disaster Google Scholar

HAYASHI, H. (2001), ‘Long-term recovery processes and their planning from devastating earthquake disasters’, Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi), 110, 991–98 (in Japanese). Long-term recovery processes and their planning from devastating earthquake disasters Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi) 110 991 98 Google Scholar

HONJO, Y. (2016), ‘Lessons learned from a comparison of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the 1995 Great Hanshin–Awaji Earthquake’, in Y. Kaneko, K. Matsuoka and T. Toyoda (eds), Asian Law in Disasters: Toward a Human-Centered Recovery, London, Routledge, 322–58. Lessons learned from a comparison of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the 1995 Great Hanshin–Awaji Earthquake Asian Law in Disasters: Toward a Human-Centered Recovery 322 58 Google Scholar

IUCHI, K., JOHNSON, L. A.and OLSHANSKY, R. B. (2013), ‘Securing Tohoku’s future: planning for rebuilding in the first year following the Tohoku–Oki earthquake and tsunami’, Earthquake Spectra, 29, S479–S499. Securing Tohoku’s future: planning for rebuilding in the first year following the Tohoku–Oki earthquake and tsunami Earthquake Spectra 29 S479 S499 Google Scholar

IUCHI, K., MALY, E. and JOHNSON, L. (2014), ‘Three years after a mega-disaster: recovery policies, programs and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake’, in V. Santiago-Fandino, Y. A. Kontar and Y. Kaneda (eds), Post-tsunami Hazard Reconstruction and Restoration, New York, Springer, 29–46. Three years after a mega-disaster: recovery policies, programs and implementation after the Great East Japan Earthquake Post-tsunami Hazard Reconstruction and Restoration 29 46 Google Scholar

JICA (JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ASSOCIATION) (2013), The Study of Reconstruction Processes from Large-Scale Disasters: JICA’s Support for Reconstruction, Tokyo, JICA. Google Scholar

JOHNSON, L. A. and HAYASHI, H. (2012), ‘Synthesis efforts in disaster recovery research’, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 30, 212–38. Synthesis efforts in disaster recovery research International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 30 212 38 Google Scholar

KANEKO, Y. (2016), ‘Lessons from the 2011 East Japan Earthquake: issues of participation and early recovery’, in Y. Kaneko, K. Matsuoka and T. Toyoda (eds), 34–78. Lessons from the 2011 East Japan Earthquake: issues of participation and early recovery 34 78 Google Scholar

KARAN, P. P. (2016), ‘Introduction: after the triple disaster: landscape of devastation, despair, hope, and resilience’, in P. P. Karan and U. Suganuma (eds), 1–44. Introduction: after the triple disaster: landscape of devastation, despair, hope, and resilience 1 44 Google Scholar

KARAN, P. P. and SUGANUMA, U. (eds), (2016), Japan after 3/11: Global Perspectives on the Earthquake, Tsunami, and Fukushima Meltdown, Lexington, University Press of Kentucky. Japan after 3/11: Global Perspectives on the Earthquake, Tsunami, and Fukushima Meltdown Google Scholar

KENNEDY, J., ASHMORE, J., BABISTER, J. and I. KELMAN (2008), ‘The meaning of “build back better”: evidence from post-tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka’, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 16, 24–36. The meaning of “build back better”: evidence from post-tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 16 24 36 Google Scholar

KIM, K. and OLSHANSKY, R. B. (2014), ‘The theory and practice of building back better’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 80, 289–92. The theory and practice of building back better Journal of the American Planning Association 80 289 92 Google Scholar

LEE, A. J. (2016), Resilience by Design, Richmond, CA, Springer. Resilience by Design Google Scholar

MCNEILL, D. (2016), ‘Storm brewing over Japan’s sea wall’, The Independent, 6 March, (accessed 15 October 2016). Storm brewing over Japan’s sea wall The Independent Google Scholar

MCNEILL, D. and J. MCCURRY, J. (2014), ‘After the deluge: tsunami and the Great Wall of Japan’, Asia-Pacific Journal, 12, 28 July, http://apjjf.org/-Justin-McCurry--David-McNeill/4152/article.pdf (accessed 1 November 2016). Google Scholar

MILETI, D. (1999), Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, DC, Joseph Henry Press. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States Google Scholar

MOCHIZUKI, J. (2014), ‘Decision-making, policy choices and community rebuilding after the Tohoku disaster’, Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management, 4, 103–18. Decision-making, policy choices and community rebuilding after the Tohoku disaster Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management 4 103 18 Google Scholar

MUHARI, A., KENTARO, I., SUGAWARA, D. and IMAMURA, F. (2014), ‘A method to determine the Level 1 and Level 2 tsunami inundation areas for reconstruction in eastern Japan and possible application in pre-disaster areas’, in V. Santiago-Fandiño, Y. A. Kontar and Y. Kaneda (eds), 133–55. A method to determine the Level 1 and Level 2 tsunami inundation areas for reconstruction in eastern Japan and possible application in pre-disaster areas 133 55 Google Scholar

MURAKAMI, K. and MURAKAMI WOOD, D. (2014), ‘Planning innovation and post-disaster reconstruction: the case of Tohoku, Japan’, Planning Theory and Practice, 15, 237–41. Planning innovation and post-disaster reconstruction: the case of Tohoku, Japan Planning Theory and Practice 15 237 41 Google Scholar

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DEFRAYMENT ACT (n.d.), National Government Defrayment Act for Reconstruction of Public Civil Engineering Facilities (March 31, 1951 Laws No 97): Final Amendment: December 22, 1999 No 160, http://law.e-gov.go.jp/htmldata/S26/S26HO097.html (accessed 15 October 2016). Google Scholar

OLIVER-SMITH, A. (1991), ‘Successes and failures in post-disaster resettlement’, Disasters, 15, 12–23. Successes and failures in post-disaster resettlement Disasters 15 12 23 Google Scholar

OLSHANSKY, R. B. and CHANG, S. (2009), ‘Planning for disaster recovery: emerging research needs and challenges’, Progress in Planning, 72, 200–9. Planning for disaster recovery: emerging research needs and challenges Progress in Planning 72 200 9 Google Scholar

OLSHANSKY, R. B., HOPKINS, L. D. and JOHNSON, L. A. (2012), ‘Disaster recovery: processes compressed in time’, Natural Hazards Review, 13, 173–78. Disaster recovery: processes compressed in time Natural Hazards Review 13 173 78 Google Scholar

OTA, T., MAKI, N. and HAYASHI, H. (2009), ‘Evaluating planning process of the Kobe recovery plan based on project management framework’, Journal of Disaster Research, 4, 271–81. Evaluating planning process of the Kobe recovery plan based on project management framework Journal of Disaster Research 4 271 81 Google Scholar

PAMINTUAN-LAMORENA, M. (2014), ‘Giant sea wall to break tsunamis sparks debate in Japan’, Japan Daily Press, 12 March, japandailypress.com/giant-sea-wall-to-break-tsunamis-sparks-debate-in-japan-1245649 (accessed 15 October 2016). Google Scholar

RECONSTRUCTION AGENCY (2016a), ‘The Reconstruction Agency – the “Control Tower”’, http://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/topics/About_us/ (accessed 1 November 2016). Google Scholar

RECONSTRUCTION AGENCY (2016b), Progress to Date, http://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/topics/Progress_to_date/pdf/201608_process_and_prospects.pdf (accessed November 2016). Google Scholar

RESEARCH DESIGN COUNCIL (2011), Towards Reconstruction: Hope beyond the Disaster, report to the prime minister of the Reconstruction Design Council in response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, 25 June, www.mofa.go.jp/announce/jfpu/2011/7/pdfs/0712.pdf (accessed 30 August 2016). Google Scholar

ROSSI, P. H., WRIGHT, J. D. and WEBER-BURDIN, E. (1982), Natural Hazards and Public Choice: The State and Local Politics of Hazard Mitigation, New York, Academic Press. Natural Hazards and Public Choice: The State and Local Politics of Hazard Mitigation Google Scholar

SCHENCKING, C. (2013), The Great Kantō Earthquake and the Chimera of National Reconstruction in Japan, New York, Columbia University Press. The Great Kantō Earthquake and the Chimera of National Reconstruction in Japan Google Scholar

SHAW, E. and GODA, K. (2004), ‘From disaster to sustainable civil society: the Kobe experience’, Disasters, 28, 16–40. From disaster to sustainable civil society: the Kobe experience Disasters 28 16 40 Google Scholar

SIEMBIEDA, W. J. and HAYASHI, H. (2015), ‘Japan’s megadisaster challenges: crisis management in the modern era’, in F. Baldwin and A. Allison (eds), Japan: The Precarious Future, New York, Social Science Research Council, 139–66. Japan’s megadisaster challenges: crisis management in the modern era Japan: The Precarious Future 139 66 Google Scholar

SMITH, K. (2013), Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster, 6th edition, London, Routledge. Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster Google Scholar

TAKEZAWA, S. (2016), The Aftermath of the 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Living among the Rubble, Lanham, Lexington Books. The Aftermath of the 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Living among the Rubble Google Scholar

THE JAPAN TIMES (2016), ‘New Tohoku reconstruction plan approved by panel’, 4 March, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/03/04/national/politics-diplomacy/new-tohoku-reconstruction-plan-approved-panel/#.WBliC0vJ70s (accessed 1 November 2016). Google Scholar

THIRUPPUGAZH, V. (2016), Positioning stakeholders within owner-driven post-disaster reconstruction approaches: Gujrat, India, following the 2001 earthquake’, in P. Daly and R. M. Feener (eds), 160–80. Positioning stakeholders within owner-driven post-disaster reconstruction approaches: Gujrat, India, following the 2001 earthquake 160 80 Google Scholar

UMEDA, S. (2013) Japan: Legal Responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, Washington, DC, The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center, , http://www.loc.gov/law/help/japan-earthquake/Great-East-Japan-Earthquake.pdf (accessed 1 September 2016). Google Scholar

UN WORLD CONFERENCE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (2015), ‘Issue brief: reconstructing after disasters: build back better ministerial roundtable’, 14–18 March 2015, Sendai, Japan, www.wcdrr.org/uploads/Reconstructing-after-disasters-Build-back-better.pdf (accessed 1 September 2016). Google Scholar

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Author details

Edgington, David W.