Town Planning Review

Framing turbulence in the academy: UK planning academics in a period of change

Town Planning Review (2017), 88, (5), 557–577.

Abstract

Higher education in the UK is undergoing a process of significant transformation involving major changes in the roles of academics, including planning academics. The argument of this paper is that these changes can be usefully understood within an institutionalist framework, as changes that have implications for the identity and roles of planning academics and the nature of planning education. Within this framework, influencing change requires understanding institutional traditions. The paper begins the task of assessing how familiar the academy is with traditions relating to higher education, with a view to initiating a more fruitful engagement with broader changes in the future.

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ALLEN, C. and IMRIE, R. (eds) (2010), The Knowledge Business: The Commodification of Urban and Housing Research, Farnham, Ashgate. The Knowledge Business: The Commodification of Urban and Housing Research Google Scholar

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BECHER, T. and TROWLER, P. R. (2001), Academic Tribes and Territories, 2nd edn, Buckingham, Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press. Academic Tribes and Territories Google Scholar

BEVIR, M. (2011), ‘Public administration as storytelling’, Public Administration, 89, 183–95. Public administration as storytelling Public Administration 89 183 95 Google Scholar

BEVIR, M., RHODES, R.A. and WELLER, P. (2003), ‘Traditions of governance: interpreting the changing role of the public sector’, Public Administration, 81, 1–17. Traditions of governance: interpreting the changing role of the public sector Public Administration 81 1 17 Google Scholar

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BURAWOY, M. (2011), ‘Redefining the “public university”: global and national contexts’, in J. A. Holmwood (ed.), Manifesto for the Public University, London, Bloomsbury Academic, 27–41. Redefining the “public university”: global and national contexts Manifesto for the Public University 27 41 Google Scholar

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COLLINI, S. (2012), What Are Universities For?, London, Penguin. What Are Universities For? Google Scholar

DEEM, R. (2004), ‘The knowledge worker, the manager-academic and the contemporary UK university: new and old forms of public management?’, Financial Accountability and Management, 20, 107–28. The knowledge worker, the manager-academic and the contemporary UK university: new and old forms of public management? Financial Accountability and Management 20 107 28 Google Scholar

DEEM, R. and BREHONY, K. (2005), ‘Management in ideology: the case of “new managerialism” in higher education’, Oxford Review of Education, 31, 217–35. Management in ideology: the case of “new managerialism” in higher education Oxford Review of Education 31 217 35 Google Scholar

DEEM, R., HILLYARD, S. and REED, M. (2007), Knowledge, Higher Education and the New Managerialism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Knowledge, Higher Education and the New Managerialism Google Scholar

DEWAR, D. (2004), ‘Planning school facing axe threat at Aberdeen’, Planning, 1573, 1. Planning school facing axe threat at Aberdeen Planning 1573 1 Google Scholar

DEWEY, J. (2012), Democracy and Education, Hollywood, FL, Simon and Brown. Democracy and Education Google Scholar

EDWARDS, M. M. and BATES, L. K. (2011), ‘Planning’s core curriculum: knowledge, practice and implementation’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 31, 172–83. Planning’s core curriculum: knowledge, practice and implementation Journal of Planning Education and Research 31 172 83 Google Scholar

ELLIS, G., MURTAGH, B. and COPELAND, L. (2010), The Future of the Planning Academy, London, RTPI. The Future of the Planning Academy Google Scholar

ERAUT, M. (1994), Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence, London, The Falmer Press. Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence Google Scholar

EVANS, M. (2004), Killing Thinking: The Death of the Universities, London, Continuum. Killing Thinking: The Death of the Universities Google Scholar

FULLER, S. (1997), Science, Buckingham, Open University Press. Science Google Scholar

GEE, V. E. and MACAULAY, C. (eds) (2000), Transfer of Learning in Professional and Vocational Education, London, Routledge. Transfer of Learning in Professional and Vocational Education Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006a), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, 2nd edn, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006b), ‘Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space’, European Planning Studies, 14, 299–320. Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space European Planning Studies 14 299 320 Google Scholar

HENKEL, M. (1998), ‘Higher education’, in M. Laffin (ed.), Beyond Bureaucracy? The Professions in the Contemporary Public Sector, Aldershot, Ashgate, 162–82. Higher education Beyond Bureaucracy? The Professions in the Contemporary Public Sector 162 82 Google Scholar

HESBURGH, T. M. (ed.) (1994), The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University, London, University of Notre Dame Press. The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University Google Scholar

HOLMWOOD, J. (ed.) (2011), A Manifesto for the Public University, London, Bloomsbury Academic. A Manifesto for the Public University Google Scholar

INCH, A. (2010), ‘Culture change as identity regulation the micro-politics of producing spatial planners in England’, Planning Theory and Practice, 11, 359–74. Culture change as identity regulation the micro-politics of producing spatial planners in England Planning Theory and Practice 11 359 74 Google Scholar

INCH, A. (2012), ‘“Culture work”, spatial planning and the politics of renewing public sector planning professionalism in England’, Town Planning Review, 83, 513–32. “Culture work”, spatial planning and the politics of renewing public sector planning professionalism in England Town Planning Review 83 513 32 Google Scholar

JOHNSON, T. (1972), Professions and Power, Basingstoke, Macmillan. Professions and Power Google Scholar

KLINGE, M. (2004), ‘Teachers’, in W. Rüegg (ed.), A History of the University in Europe, Volume 3, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 123–61. Teachers A History of the University in Europe, Volume 3 123 61 Google Scholar

LARNER, W. and LE HERON, R. (2003), ‘The neo-liberalising university? Spaces of policy, practice and performance’, New Zealand Sociology, 18, 102–14. The neo-liberalising university? Spaces of policy, practice and performance New Zealand Sociology 18 102 14 Google Scholar

LOWNDES, V. (2001), ‘Rescuing Aunt Sally: taking institutional theory seriously in urban politics’, Urban Studies, 38, 1953–71. Rescuing Aunt Sally: taking institutional theory seriously in urban politics Urban Studies 38 1953 71 Google Scholar

LOWNDES, V. (2005), ‘Something old, something new, something borrowed … How institutions change (and stay the same) in local governance’, Policy Studies, 26, 291–309. Something old, something new, something borrowed … How institutions change (and stay the same) in local governance Policy Studies 26 291 309 Google Scholar

MCARTHUR, J. (2013), Re-thinking Knowledge in Higher Education: Adorno and Social Justice, London, Bloomsbury Academic. Re-thinking Knowledge in Higher Education: Adorno and Social Justice Google Scholar

MACINTYRE, A. (1990), Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry, London, Duckworth. Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry Google Scholar

MACINTYRE, A. (2009), God, Philosophy, Universities, London, Continuum. God, Philosophy, Universities Google Scholar

MCLENNAN, G., OSBORNE, T. and VAUX, J. (2005), ‘Universities in “the condition of publicity”: how LSE engages with the wider world’, Globalisation, Societies and Education, 3, 241–60. Universities in “the condition of publicity”: how LSE engages with the wider world Globalisation, Societies and Education 3 241 60 Google Scholar

NATIONAL STATISTICS (2014), ‘Participation rates in higher education: academic years 2006/2007–2012/2013 (provisional) statistical first release’, 28 August 2014, London, National Statistics, www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/347864/HEIPR_PUBLICATION_2012-13.pdf (accessed 1 May 2015). Google Scholar

NICHOLLS, G. (2001), Professional Development in Higher Education, London, Kogan Page. Professional Development in Higher Education Google Scholar

NUSSBAUM, M. (1997), Cultivating Humanity, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Cultivating Humanity Google Scholar

POLLITT, C. (2013), ‘40 years of public management reform in UK central government: promises, promises …’, Policy and Politics, 41, 465–80. 40 years of public management reform in UK central government: promises, promises … Policy and Politics 41 465 80 Google Scholar

RCUK (RESEARCH COUNCILS UK) (n.d.), ‘Pathways to impact’, www.rcuk.ac.uk/innovation/impacts (accessed 5 May 2015). Google Scholar

ROTHBLATT, S. (1976), Tradition and Change in English Liberal Education, London, Faber and Faber. Tradition and Change in English Liberal Education Google Scholar

RTPI (ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2013), Report on Students on Planning Courses at UK Higher Education Institutions, 1: Numbers and Qualifications (report to Education and Lifelong Learning Committee, 16 September 2013 (ELLC 13–12)), London, RTPI. Report on Students on Planning Courses at UK Higher Education Institutions, 1: Numbers and Qualifications Google Scholar

RUSTIN, M. (2016), ‘The neoliberal university and its alternatives’, Soundings, 63, 147–70. The neoliberal university and its alternatives Soundings 63 147 70 Google Scholar

SCHÖN, D.(1987), Educating the Reflective Practitioner, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. Educating the Reflective Practitioner Google Scholar

SHATTOCK, M. (2001), ‘The academic profession in Britain: a study in the failure to adapt to change’, Higher Education, 41, 27–47. The academic profession in Britain: a study in the failure to adapt to change Higher Education 41 27 47 Google Scholar

SHORE, C. (2008), ‘Audit culture and illiberal governance’, Anthropological Theory, 8, 278–98. Audit culture and illiberal governance Anthropological Theory 8 278 98 Google Scholar

SLETTO, B. (2010), ‘Humanising reflective practitioners: learning to embrace the unexpected through service learning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29, 403–15. Humanising reflective practitioners: learning to embrace the unexpected through service learning Journal of Planning Education and Research 29 403 15 Google Scholar

STIFTEL, B. (1999), ‘Faculty labor and intellectual capital: furthering disciplinary development and institutional positioning in the urban planning academy’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 19, 207–10. Faculty labor and intellectual capital: furthering disciplinary development and institutional positioning in the urban planning academy Journal of Planning Education and Research 19 207 10 Google Scholar

STIFTEL, B., RUKMANA, D. and BHUIYAN, A. (2004), ‘Faculty quality at US graduate schools’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 24, 6–22. Faculty quality at US graduate schools Journal of Planning Education and Research 24 6 22 Google Scholar

SULLIVAN, W. M. and MATTHEWS, R. (2008), A New Agenda for Higher Education, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. A New Agenda for Higher Education Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (1981), ‘Developments within the education of British town planners’, in A. H. Thomas and W. K. Thomas (eds), British Planning Education in the 1970s, Oxford, Oxford Polytechnic, 1–20. Developments within the education of British town planners British Planning Education in the 1970s 1 20 Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2005), ‘Pressures, purpose and collegiality in UK planning education’, Planning Theory and Practice, 6, 238–47. Pressures, purpose and collegiality in UK planning education Planning Theory and Practice 6 238 47 Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2012), ‘Values and the planning school’, Planning Theory, 11, 400–17. Values and the planning school Planning Theory 11 400 17 Google Scholar

VIDLER, E. and CLARKE, J. (2005), ‘Creating citizen-consumers: New Labour and the remaking of public services’, Public Policy and Administration, 20, 19–37. Creating citizen-consumers: New Labour and the remaking of public services Public Policy and Administration 20 19 37 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G., HEALEY, P., HULL, A. and DAVOUDI, S. (2000), Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain, Basingstoke, Macmillan Press. Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain Google Scholar

ALLEN, C. and IMRIE, R. (eds) (2010), The Knowledge Business: The Commodification of Urban and Housing Research, Farnham, Ashgate. The Knowledge Business: The Commodification of Urban and Housing Research Google Scholar

ALVESSON, M. and WILLMOTT, H. (2002), ‘Identity regulation as organisational control: producing the appropriate individual’, Journal of Management Studies, 39, 619–44. Identity regulation as organisational control: producing the appropriate individual Journal of Management Studies 39 619 44 Google Scholar

BARZUN, J. (1993), The American University, 2nd edn, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. The American University Google Scholar

BECHER, T. and TROWLER, P. R. (2001), Academic Tribes and Territories, 2nd edn, Buckingham, Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press. Academic Tribes and Territories Google Scholar

BEVIR, M. (2011), ‘Public administration as storytelling’, Public Administration, 89, 183–95. Public administration as storytelling Public Administration 89 183 95 Google Scholar

BEVIR, M., RHODES, R.A. and WELLER, P. (2003), ‘Traditions of governance: interpreting the changing role of the public sector’, Public Administration, 81, 1–17. Traditions of governance: interpreting the changing role of the public sector Public Administration 81 1 17 Google Scholar

BODEN, R. and NEDEVA, M. (2010), ‘Employing discourse: universities and graduate “employability”’, Journal of Education Policy, 25, 37–54. Employing discourse: universities and graduate “employability” Journal of Education Policy 25 37 54 Google Scholar

BURAWOY, M. (2011), ‘Redefining the “public university”: global and national contexts’, in J. A. Holmwood (ed.), Manifesto for the Public University, London, Bloomsbury Academic, 27–41. Redefining the “public university”: global and national contexts Manifesto for the Public University 27 41 Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. (2006), ‘Just planning: the art of situated ethical judgement’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26, 92–106. Just planning: the art of situated ethical judgement Journal of Planning Education and Research 26 92 106 Google Scholar

CHOWDRY, H. ET AL. (2010), ‘Widening participation in higher education: analysis using linked administrative data’, IFS working paper W10/04, London, Institute for Fiscal Studies, (accessed 1 May 2015). Widening participation in higher education: analysis using linked administrative data Google Scholar

COLLINI, S. (2012), What Are Universities For?, London, Penguin. What Are Universities For? Google Scholar

DEEM, R. (2004), ‘The knowledge worker, the manager-academic and the contemporary UK university: new and old forms of public management?’, Financial Accountability and Management, 20, 107–28. The knowledge worker, the manager-academic and the contemporary UK university: new and old forms of public management? Financial Accountability and Management 20 107 28 Google Scholar

DEEM, R. and BREHONY, K. (2005), ‘Management in ideology: the case of “new managerialism” in higher education’, Oxford Review of Education, 31, 217–35. Management in ideology: the case of “new managerialism” in higher education Oxford Review of Education 31 217 35 Google Scholar

DEEM, R., HILLYARD, S. and REED, M. (2007), Knowledge, Higher Education and the New Managerialism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Knowledge, Higher Education and the New Managerialism Google Scholar

DEWAR, D. (2004), ‘Planning school facing axe threat at Aberdeen’, Planning, 1573, 1. Planning school facing axe threat at Aberdeen Planning 1573 1 Google Scholar

DEWEY, J. (2012), Democracy and Education, Hollywood, FL, Simon and Brown. Democracy and Education Google Scholar

EDWARDS, M. M. and BATES, L. K. (2011), ‘Planning’s core curriculum: knowledge, practice and implementation’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 31, 172–83. Planning’s core curriculum: knowledge, practice and implementation Journal of Planning Education and Research 31 172 83 Google Scholar

ELLIS, G., MURTAGH, B. and COPELAND, L. (2010), The Future of the Planning Academy, London, RTPI. The Future of the Planning Academy Google Scholar

ERAUT, M. (1994), Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence, London, The Falmer Press. Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence Google Scholar

EVANS, M. (2004), Killing Thinking: The Death of the Universities, London, Continuum. Killing Thinking: The Death of the Universities Google Scholar

FULLER, S. (1997), Science, Buckingham, Open University Press. Science Google Scholar

GEE, V. E. and MACAULAY, C. (eds) (2000), Transfer of Learning in Professional and Vocational Education, London, Routledge. Transfer of Learning in Professional and Vocational Education Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006a), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, 2nd edn, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006b), ‘Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space’, European Planning Studies, 14, 299–320. Transforming governance: challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space European Planning Studies 14 299 320 Google Scholar

HENKEL, M. (1998), ‘Higher education’, in M. Laffin (ed.), Beyond Bureaucracy? The Professions in the Contemporary Public Sector, Aldershot, Ashgate, 162–82. Higher education Beyond Bureaucracy? The Professions in the Contemporary Public Sector 162 82 Google Scholar

HESBURGH, T. M. (ed.) (1994), The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University, London, University of Notre Dame Press. The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University Google Scholar

HOLMWOOD, J. (ed.) (2011), A Manifesto for the Public University, London, Bloomsbury Academic. A Manifesto for the Public University Google Scholar

INCH, A. (2010), ‘Culture change as identity regulation the micro-politics of producing spatial planners in England’, Planning Theory and Practice, 11, 359–74. Culture change as identity regulation the micro-politics of producing spatial planners in England Planning Theory and Practice 11 359 74 Google Scholar

INCH, A. (2012), ‘“Culture work”, spatial planning and the politics of renewing public sector planning professionalism in England’, Town Planning Review, 83, 513–32. “Culture work”, spatial planning and the politics of renewing public sector planning professionalism in England Town Planning Review 83 513 32 Google Scholar

JOHNSON, T. (1972), Professions and Power, Basingstoke, Macmillan. Professions and Power Google Scholar

KLINGE, M. (2004), ‘Teachers’, in W. Rüegg (ed.), A History of the University in Europe, Volume 3, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 123–61. Teachers A History of the University in Europe, Volume 3 123 61 Google Scholar

LARNER, W. and LE HERON, R. (2003), ‘The neo-liberalising university? Spaces of policy, practice and performance’, New Zealand Sociology, 18, 102–14. The neo-liberalising university? Spaces of policy, practice and performance New Zealand Sociology 18 102 14 Google Scholar

LOWNDES, V. (2001), ‘Rescuing Aunt Sally: taking institutional theory seriously in urban politics’, Urban Studies, 38, 1953–71. Rescuing Aunt Sally: taking institutional theory seriously in urban politics Urban Studies 38 1953 71 Google Scholar

LOWNDES, V. (2005), ‘Something old, something new, something borrowed … How institutions change (and stay the same) in local governance’, Policy Studies, 26, 291–309. Something old, something new, something borrowed … How institutions change (and stay the same) in local governance Policy Studies 26 291 309 Google Scholar

MCARTHUR, J. (2013), Re-thinking Knowledge in Higher Education: Adorno and Social Justice, London, Bloomsbury Academic. Re-thinking Knowledge in Higher Education: Adorno and Social Justice Google Scholar

MACINTYRE, A. (1990), Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry, London, Duckworth. Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry Google Scholar

MACINTYRE, A. (2009), God, Philosophy, Universities, London, Continuum. God, Philosophy, Universities Google Scholar

MCLENNAN, G., OSBORNE, T. and VAUX, J. (2005), ‘Universities in “the condition of publicity”: how LSE engages with the wider world’, Globalisation, Societies and Education, 3, 241–60. Universities in “the condition of publicity”: how LSE engages with the wider world Globalisation, Societies and Education 3 241 60 Google Scholar

NATIONAL STATISTICS (2014), ‘Participation rates in higher education: academic years 2006/2007–2012/2013 (provisional) statistical first release’, 28 August 2014, London, National Statistics, www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/347864/HEIPR_PUBLICATION_2012-13.pdf (accessed 1 May 2015). Google Scholar

NICHOLLS, G. (2001), Professional Development in Higher Education, London, Kogan Page. Professional Development in Higher Education Google Scholar

NUSSBAUM, M. (1997), Cultivating Humanity, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Cultivating Humanity Google Scholar

POLLITT, C. (2013), ‘40 years of public management reform in UK central government: promises, promises …’, Policy and Politics, 41, 465–80. 40 years of public management reform in UK central government: promises, promises … Policy and Politics 41 465 80 Google Scholar

RCUK (RESEARCH COUNCILS UK) (n.d.), ‘Pathways to impact’, www.rcuk.ac.uk/innovation/impacts (accessed 5 May 2015). Google Scholar

ROTHBLATT, S. (1976), Tradition and Change in English Liberal Education, London, Faber and Faber. Tradition and Change in English Liberal Education Google Scholar

RTPI (ROYAL TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2013), Report on Students on Planning Courses at UK Higher Education Institutions, 1: Numbers and Qualifications (report to Education and Lifelong Learning Committee, 16 September 2013 (ELLC 13–12)), London, RTPI. Report on Students on Planning Courses at UK Higher Education Institutions, 1: Numbers and Qualifications Google Scholar

RUSTIN, M. (2016), ‘The neoliberal university and its alternatives’, Soundings, 63, 147–70. The neoliberal university and its alternatives Soundings 63 147 70 Google Scholar

SCHÖN, D.(1987), Educating the Reflective Practitioner, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. Educating the Reflective Practitioner Google Scholar

SHATTOCK, M. (2001), ‘The academic profession in Britain: a study in the failure to adapt to change’, Higher Education, 41, 27–47. The academic profession in Britain: a study in the failure to adapt to change Higher Education 41 27 47 Google Scholar

SHORE, C. (2008), ‘Audit culture and illiberal governance’, Anthropological Theory, 8, 278–98. Audit culture and illiberal governance Anthropological Theory 8 278 98 Google Scholar

SLETTO, B. (2010), ‘Humanising reflective practitioners: learning to embrace the unexpected through service learning’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29, 403–15. Humanising reflective practitioners: learning to embrace the unexpected through service learning Journal of Planning Education and Research 29 403 15 Google Scholar

STIFTEL, B. (1999), ‘Faculty labor and intellectual capital: furthering disciplinary development and institutional positioning in the urban planning academy’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 19, 207–10. Faculty labor and intellectual capital: furthering disciplinary development and institutional positioning in the urban planning academy Journal of Planning Education and Research 19 207 10 Google Scholar

STIFTEL, B., RUKMANA, D. and BHUIYAN, A. (2004), ‘Faculty quality at US graduate schools’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 24, 6–22. Faculty quality at US graduate schools Journal of Planning Education and Research 24 6 22 Google Scholar

SULLIVAN, W. M. and MATTHEWS, R. (2008), A New Agenda for Higher Education, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. A New Agenda for Higher Education Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (1981), ‘Developments within the education of British town planners’, in A. H. Thomas and W. K. Thomas (eds), British Planning Education in the 1970s, Oxford, Oxford Polytechnic, 1–20. Developments within the education of British town planners British Planning Education in the 1970s 1 20 Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2005), ‘Pressures, purpose and collegiality in UK planning education’, Planning Theory and Practice, 6, 238–47. Pressures, purpose and collegiality in UK planning education Planning Theory and Practice 6 238 47 Google Scholar

THOMAS, H. (2012), ‘Values and the planning school’, Planning Theory, 11, 400–17. Values and the planning school Planning Theory 11 400 17 Google Scholar

VIDLER, E. and CLARKE, J. (2005), ‘Creating citizen-consumers: New Labour and the remaking of public services’, Public Policy and Administration, 20, 19–37. Creating citizen-consumers: New Labour and the remaking of public services Public Policy and Administration 20 19 37 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G., HEALEY, P., HULL, A. and DAVOUDI, S. (2000), Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain, Basingstoke, Macmillan Press. Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain Google Scholar

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