European Journal of Language Policy

Migration et planification des langues minorées

Le cas du kurde

European Journal of Language Policy (2018), 10, (2), 255–275.

Abstract

La présente contribution porte sur la planification des langues minorées dans les communautés migrantes. Le cas choisi pour cette étude est constitué des travaux de deux séminaires fondés par un groupe d’intellectuels, écrivains, journalistes kurdes vivant en exil: le Séminaire Kurmanji, fondé en 1987 à Paris et le Groupe Vate, fondé en 1996 à Stockholm. Les deux séminaires consacrent leurs travaux respectivement aux dialectes kurmanji et kirmanckî du kurde, langue indo-européenne parlée par une importante population (30 à 35 millions de locuteurs, répartis en Irak, en Iran, en Syrie et en Turquie).

L’examen des activités des deux séminaires montre comment une langue minorée peut faire l’objet d’une planification linguistique dans le contexte migratoire et sans soutien gouvernemental. L’éloignement géographique des groupes par rapport aux territoires d’origine de leur langue, le manque de leur reconnaissance officielle et l’absence d’éducation en langue maternelle kurde conduisent les groupes à focaliser leurs activités sur la planification du corpus (collecte, archivage et création et diffusion de vocabulaires). L’ampleur quantitative et qualitative de leurs travaux comme leur permanence dans le temps (le Séminaire existe depuis 31 ans, le Groupe Vate depuis 22 ans) font de ces groupes des cas exemplaires du rôle que la migration peut paradoxalement jouer dans le renouveau et le développement d’une langue minorée.

This contribution focuses on planning for minority languages in migrant communities. The case chosen for this study consists of the work of two seminars founded by a group of Kurdish intellectuals, writers and journalists living in exile: the Kurmanji Seminary, founded in 1987 in Paris and the Vate Group, founded in 1996 in Stockholm. The two seminars focus respectively on the Kurmanji and Kurmankî dialects of Kurdish, an Indo-European language spoken by a large population (30 to 35 million speakers spread over Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey).

An examination of the activities of the two seminars shows how a minority language can be the subject of language planning in the context of migration and without government support. The geographical distance of the groups from the territories of origin of their language, the lack of their official recognition and the lack of education in Kurdish mother tongue lead the groups to focus their activities on the planning of the corpus (collection, archiving and creation and dissemination of vocabularies). The quantitative and qualitative scale of their work as well as their permanence over time (the Seminary has been in existence for 31 years, the Vate Group for 22 years) make these groups exemplary examples of the role that migration can paradoxically play in the renewal and the development of a minority language.

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Calvet, L-J. (2017) Les langues: quel avenir? Les effets linguistiques de la mondialisation. Paris: CNRS Editions. Les langues: quel avenir? Les effets linguistiques de la mondialisation Google Scholar

De Bot, K., and Weltens, B. (1991) ‘Recapitulation, Regression, and Language Loss’, in H. W. Seliger et R. M. Vago (eds), First Language Attrition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 31–51. ‘Recapitulation, Regression, and Language Loss’ First Language Attrition 31 51 Google Scholar

Demirhan, U. (2007) Ferhenga Destî – Kurdî bi Kûrdî [Dictionnaire de poche le kurde par le kurde] Dogubeyazit: Sewad. Ferhenga Destî – Kurdî bi Kûrdî Google Scholar

Farqini, Z. (2004) Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük [Dictionnaire turc-kurde], İstanbul: İstanbul Kürt Enstitüsü. Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük Google Scholar

Farqini, Z. (2005) Ferhenga Kurdî-Tirkî [Dictionnaire kurde-turc]. Istanbul: Enstituya Kurdi ya Stenbolê. Ferhenga Kurdî-Tirkî Google Scholar

Fishman, J-A. (1966) Language Loyalty in the United States: The Maintenance and Perpet­uation of Non-English Mother Tongues by American Ethnic and Religious Groups. La Haye, Mouton. Language Loyalty in the United States: The Maintenance and Perpetuation of Non-English Mother Tongues by American Ethnic and Religious Groups Google Scholar

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Guespin, L. et Marcellesi, J-B. (1986) ‘Pour la glottopolitique’ Langages 83: 5–83. ‘Pour la glottopolitique’ Langages 83 5 83 Google Scholar

Haarmann, H. (1990) ‘Language Planning in the Light of a General Theory of Language: A Methodological Framework’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86(1): 103–26. ‘Language Planning in the Light of a General Theory of Language: A Methodological Framework’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86 103 26 Google Scholar

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Haugen, E. (1983) ‘The Implementation of Corpus Planning: Theory and Practice’, in J. Cobarrubias et J. Fishman (eds), Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton, 269–89. ‘The Implementation of Corpus Planning: Theory and Practice’ Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives 269 89 Google Scholar

Hornberger, N. (1988) ‘Bilingual Education and Language Maintenance: A Southern Peruvian Quechua Case’, Language 67(2): 339–41. ‘Language Planning in the Light of a General Theory of Language: A Methodological Framework’ Language 67 339 41 Google Scholar

Hornberger, N-H. (2006) ‘Frameworks and Models in Language Policy and Planning’, in T. Ricento (ed.) An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method, Oxford: Blackwell, 24–41. ‘Frameworks and Models in Language Policy and Planning’ An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method 24 41 Google Scholar

Jaspaert, K. et Kroon, S. (1989) ‘Social Determinants of Language Loss’, ITL – Review of Applied Linguistic (83–84): 75–98. ‘Social Determinants of Language Loss’ Review of Applied Linguistic 75 98 Google Scholar

Karademir, F., Gümüş N., İlhan, Z. et Korkut, A. (2013) Kürtçe-Türkçe Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük [Dictionnaire kurde-turc, turc-kurde]. Ankara: Institut de la langue turque. Kürtçe-Türkçe Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük Google Scholar

Lambert, R-D. et Freed, F-B. (1982) The Loss of Language Skills. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. The Loss of Language Skills Google Scholar

Lecharpentier, C. (2013) Gestion de la variation lexicale en langue romani dans le cadre d’une communication interdialectale, Mémoire de Master II, Université de Rouen. Gestion de la variation lexicale en langue romani dans le cadre d’une communication interdialectale Google Scholar

Lezgîn, R. (2009) ‘Toplumsal Kürt Gruplarından Zazalara Genel Bir Bakış’ [Un Aperçu général sur les Zaza qui font partie des groups sociaux kurdes]. http://www.Kirmanckî.net/haber/toplumsal-kurt-guruplarindan-zazalara-genel-bir-bakis-292.htm (consulté le 10 avril 2017). Google Scholar

Malmîsanij, M. (1996) Kırd, Kırmanc, Dımıli veya Zaza Kürtleri [Les Kurdes Kurd, Kırmanc, Dımili ou Zaza]. İstanbul: Deng Yayınları. Kırd, Kırmanc, Dımıli veya Zaza Kürtleri Google Scholar

Matras, Y. et Reershemius, G. (1991) ‘Standardization Beyond the State: The Cases of Yiddish, Kurdish and Romani’, in U. von Gleich and E. Wolff (eds), Standardization of National Languages, Symposium on Language Standardization, Hambourg: Unesco Institute for Education, 103–23. ‘Standardization Beyond the State: The Cases of Yiddish, Kurdish and Romani’ Standardization of National Languages, Symposium on Language Standardization 103 23 Google Scholar

Paul, L. (1998a) ‘The Position of Zazaki among West Iranian Languages’, in Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies held in Cambridge, 11th to 15th September 1995. Part 1. Old and Middle Iranian Studies, Wiesbaden, 163–77. ‘The Position of Zazaki among West Iranian Languages’ Old and Middle Iranian Studies 163 77 Google Scholar

Paul, L. (1998b) Zazaki: Grammatik und Versuch einer Dialektologie. Wiesbaden: Reichert. Zazaki: Grammatik und Versuch einer Dialektologie Google Scholar

Scalbert Yücel, C. (2006) ‘La diaspora kurde en Suède. Conservation, production et diffusion d’un savoir linguistique’, European Journal of Turkish Studies 5: 1–32. ‘La diaspora kurde en Suède. Conservation, production et diffusion d’un savoir linguistique’ European Journal of Turkish Studies 5 1 32 Google Scholar

Seliger, Herbert W. et Vago, R-M. (1991) First Language Attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. First Language Attrition Google Scholar

Sheffer, G. (1993) ‘Ethnic Diasporas: a Threat to Their Hosts?’, in M. Weiner (ed.), Interna­tional Migration and Security, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 263–85. ‘Ethnic Diasporas: a Threat to Their Hosts?’ Interna­tional Migration and Security 263 85 Google Scholar

Sheyholislami, Jaffer (2012) ‘Kurdish in Iran: A case of restricted and controlled tolerance’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 217: 19–47. ‘Kurdish in Iran: A case of restricted and controlled tolerance’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 217 19 47 Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2012) The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2016a) ‘The Languages of Diaspora and Return’, Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, 1(2–3): 1–119. ‘The Languages of Diaspora and Return’ Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition 1 1 119 Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2016b) ‘The Critical Significance of Family Language Policy’, Symposium international ‘Politiques linguistiques familiales et processus de transmissions intergénérationnelles en contexte migratoire’, Université Catholique de l’Ouest, Angers, 26 mai 2016. ‘The Critical Significance of Family Language Policy’, Symposium international ‘Politiques linguistiques familiales et processus de transmissions intergénérationnelles en contexte migratoire’ Universite Catholique de l’Ouest, Angers Google Scholar

Tan, S. (2000) Waneyên rezimanê kurmancî [Les cours de la grammaire du kurmancî]. Istanbul: Weşanên Welat. Waneyên rezimanê kurmancîWaneyên rezimanê kurmancî Google Scholar

Todd, T.L. (1985) A Grammar of Dimili Also Known as Zaza. These de doctorat. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. A Grammar of Dimili Also Known as Zaza Google Scholar

Van Bruinessen, M. (1999) ‘The Kurds in Movement: Migrations, Mobilisations, Communi­cations and the Globalisation of the Kurdish Question’, Islamic Area Studies Project. Working paper 14, 1–17. ‘The Kurds in Movement: Migrations, Mobilisations, Communications and the Globalisation of the Kurdish Question’ Islamic Area Studies Project 1 17 Google Scholar

Akin, S. et Araz, S. (2014) ‘Kürtçe seçmeli dil eğitimi: Sorunlar ve öneriler’ [Enseignement optionnel du kurde: problèmes et perspectives] Taraf Gazetesi, Istanbul, 1–4. ‘Kürtçe seçmeli dil eğitimi: Sorunlar ve öneriler’ Taraf Gazetesi 1 4 Google Scholar

Alcibar, M. (2017) ‘La revitalisation de la langue basque à travers la Korrika’, in M. Dokthou­richvili, J. Boissonneault et A. Reguigui (dirs), Les langues et leurs territoires. Entre conflit et cohabitation. Actes du Colloque international Langues et Territoires 2, Séries Monographiques en sciences humaines, Université Laurentienne, Sudbury, 59–76. ‘La revitalisation de la langue basque à travers la Korrika’ Les langues et leurs territoires. Entre conflit et cohabitation 59 76 Google Scholar

Andersen, R.W. (1982) ‘Determining Linguistic Attributes of Language Attrition’, in D. Lambert et B. Freed (éds.), The Loss of Language Skills. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 83–118. ‘Determining Linguistic Attributes of Language Attrition’ The Loss of Language Skills 83 118 Google Scholar

Ayata, B. (2011) The Politics of Displacement: A Transnational Analysis of the Forced Migration of Kurds in Turkey and Europe. Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University. The Politics of Displacement: A Transnational Analysis of the Forced Migration of Kurds in Turkey and Europe Google Scholar

Blau, J. (1989) ‘Gurânî et Zâzâ’, in R. Schmitt (ed.), Compendium Linguarum Iranicum. Wiesbaden: Dr Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 336–40. #x2018;Gurânî et Zâzâ’ Compendium Linguarum Iranicum 336 40 Google Scholar

Boyer, H. (2010) ‘Les politiques linguistiques’, Mots. Les langages du politique 94: 67–74. ‘Les politiques linguistiques’ Mots. Les langages du politique 94 67 74 Google Scholar

Çaglayan, H. (2014) Aynı Evde Ayrı Diller (Kuşaklararası Dil Değişimi/Eğilimler, Sınırlar, Olanaklar Diyarbakır Örneği) [Des langues différentes dans la même maison (Changement intergénérationnel de langues / Tendances, Limites et possibilités: l’exemple de Diyarbakir)] Disa: Lîs Yayınevi. Aynı Evde Ayrı Diller (Kuşaklararası Dil Değişimi/Eğilimler, Sınırlar, Olanaklar Diyarbakır Örneği) Google Scholar

Calvet, L.-J. (1988) Linguistique et colonialisme. Paris: Payot. Linguistique et colonialisme Google Scholar

Calvet, L-J. (2017) Les langues: quel avenir? Les effets linguistiques de la mondialisation. Paris: CNRS Editions. Les langues: quel avenir? Les effets linguistiques de la mondialisation Google Scholar

De Bot, K., and Weltens, B. (1991) ‘Recapitulation, Regression, and Language Loss’, in H. W. Seliger et R. M. Vago (eds), First Language Attrition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 31–51. ‘Recapitulation, Regression, and Language Loss’ First Language Attrition 31 51 Google Scholar

Demirhan, U. (2007) Ferhenga Destî – Kurdî bi Kûrdî [Dictionnaire de poche le kurde par le kurde] Dogubeyazit: Sewad. Ferhenga Destî – Kurdî bi Kûrdî Google Scholar

Farqini, Z. (2004) Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük [Dictionnaire turc-kurde], İstanbul: İstanbul Kürt Enstitüsü. Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük Google Scholar

Farqini, Z. (2005) Ferhenga Kurdî-Tirkî [Dictionnaire kurde-turc]. Istanbul: Enstituya Kurdi ya Stenbolê. Ferhenga Kurdî-Tirkî Google Scholar

Fishman, J-A. (1966) Language Loyalty in the United States: The Maintenance and Perpet­uation of Non-English Mother Tongues by American Ethnic and Religious Groups. La Haye, Mouton. Language Loyalty in the United States: The Maintenance and Perpetuation of Non-English Mother Tongues by American Ethnic and Religious Groups Google Scholar

Gippert, J. (2007/2008) ‘Zur dialektalen Stellung des Zazaki”, Die Sprache, Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, 47: 77‒107. ‘Zur dialektalen Stellung des Zazaki” Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 47 77 107 Google Scholar

Guespin, L. et Marcellesi, J-B. (1986) ‘Pour la glottopolitique’ Langages 83: 5–83. ‘Pour la glottopolitique’ Langages 83 5 83 Google Scholar

Haarmann, H. (1990) ‘Language Planning in the Light of a General Theory of Language: A Methodological Framework’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86(1): 103–26. ‘Language Planning in the Light of a General Theory of Language: A Methodological Framework’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 86 103 26 Google Scholar

Hassanpour, A. (1998) ‘The Identity of Hewrami Speakers: Reflections on the Theory and Ideology of Comparative Philology’, in A. Soltani (ed.), Anthology of Gorani Kurdish Poetry, London, Soane Trust for Kurdistan, 35–49. ‘The Identity of Hewrami Speakers: Reflections on the Theory and Ideology of Comparative Philology’ Anthology of Gorani Kurdish Poetry 35 49 Google Scholar

Haugen, E. (1983) ‘The Implementation of Corpus Planning: Theory and Practice’, in J. Cobarrubias et J. Fishman (eds), Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton, 269–89. ‘The Implementation of Corpus Planning: Theory and Practice’ Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives 269 89 Google Scholar

Hornberger, N. (1988) ‘Bilingual Education and Language Maintenance: A Southern Peruvian Quechua Case’, Language 67(2): 339–41. ‘Language Planning in the Light of a General Theory of Language: A Methodological Framework’ Language 67 339 41 Google Scholar

Hornberger, N-H. (2006) ‘Frameworks and Models in Language Policy and Planning’, in T. Ricento (ed.) An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method, Oxford: Blackwell, 24–41. ‘Frameworks and Models in Language Policy and Planning’ An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method 24 41 Google Scholar

Jaspaert, K. et Kroon, S. (1989) ‘Social Determinants of Language Loss’, ITL – Review of Applied Linguistic (83–84): 75–98. ‘Social Determinants of Language Loss’ Review of Applied Linguistic 75 98 Google Scholar

Karademir, F., Gümüş N., İlhan, Z. et Korkut, A. (2013) Kürtçe-Türkçe Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük [Dictionnaire kurde-turc, turc-kurde]. Ankara: Institut de la langue turque. Kürtçe-Türkçe Türkçe-Kürtçe Sözlük Google Scholar

Lambert, R-D. et Freed, F-B. (1982) The Loss of Language Skills. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. The Loss of Language Skills Google Scholar

Lecharpentier, C. (2013) Gestion de la variation lexicale en langue romani dans le cadre d’une communication interdialectale, Mémoire de Master II, Université de Rouen. Gestion de la variation lexicale en langue romani dans le cadre d’une communication interdialectale Google Scholar

Lezgîn, R. (2009) ‘Toplumsal Kürt Gruplarından Zazalara Genel Bir Bakış’ [Un Aperçu général sur les Zaza qui font partie des groups sociaux kurdes]. http://www.Kirmanckî.net/haber/toplumsal-kurt-guruplarindan-zazalara-genel-bir-bakis-292.htm (consulté le 10 avril 2017). Google Scholar

Malmîsanij, M. (1996) Kırd, Kırmanc, Dımıli veya Zaza Kürtleri [Les Kurdes Kurd, Kırmanc, Dımili ou Zaza]. İstanbul: Deng Yayınları. Kırd, Kırmanc, Dımıli veya Zaza Kürtleri Google Scholar

Matras, Y. et Reershemius, G. (1991) ‘Standardization Beyond the State: The Cases of Yiddish, Kurdish and Romani’, in U. von Gleich and E. Wolff (eds), Standardization of National Languages, Symposium on Language Standardization, Hambourg: Unesco Institute for Education, 103–23. ‘Standardization Beyond the State: The Cases of Yiddish, Kurdish and Romani’ Standardization of National Languages, Symposium on Language Standardization 103 23 Google Scholar

Paul, L. (1998a) ‘The Position of Zazaki among West Iranian Languages’, in Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies held in Cambridge, 11th to 15th September 1995. Part 1. Old and Middle Iranian Studies, Wiesbaden, 163–77. ‘The Position of Zazaki among West Iranian Languages’ Old and Middle Iranian Studies 163 77 Google Scholar

Paul, L. (1998b) Zazaki: Grammatik und Versuch einer Dialektologie. Wiesbaden: Reichert. Zazaki: Grammatik und Versuch einer Dialektologie Google Scholar

Scalbert Yücel, C. (2006) ‘La diaspora kurde en Suède. Conservation, production et diffusion d’un savoir linguistique’, European Journal of Turkish Studies 5: 1–32. ‘La diaspora kurde en Suède. Conservation, production et diffusion d’un savoir linguistique’ European Journal of Turkish Studies 5 1 32 Google Scholar

Seliger, Herbert W. et Vago, R-M. (1991) First Language Attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. First Language Attrition Google Scholar

Sheffer, G. (1993) ‘Ethnic Diasporas: a Threat to Their Hosts?’, in M. Weiner (ed.), Interna­tional Migration and Security, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 263–85. ‘Ethnic Diasporas: a Threat to Their Hosts?’ Interna­tional Migration and Security 263 85 Google Scholar

Sheyholislami, Jaffer (2012) ‘Kurdish in Iran: A case of restricted and controlled tolerance’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 217: 19–47. ‘Kurdish in Iran: A case of restricted and controlled tolerance’ International Journal of the Sociology of Language 217 19 47 Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2012) The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2016a) ‘The Languages of Diaspora and Return’, Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, 1(2–3): 1–119. ‘The Languages of Diaspora and Return’ Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition 1 1 119 Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2016b) ‘The Critical Significance of Family Language Policy’, Symposium international ‘Politiques linguistiques familiales et processus de transmissions intergénérationnelles en contexte migratoire’, Université Catholique de l’Ouest, Angers, 26 mai 2016. ‘The Critical Significance of Family Language Policy’, Symposium international ‘Politiques linguistiques familiales et processus de transmissions intergénérationnelles en contexte migratoire’ Universite Catholique de l’Ouest, Angers Google Scholar

Tan, S. (2000) Waneyên rezimanê kurmancî [Les cours de la grammaire du kurmancî]. Istanbul: Weşanên Welat. Waneyên rezimanê kurmancîWaneyên rezimanê kurmancî Google Scholar

Todd, T.L. (1985) A Grammar of Dimili Also Known as Zaza. These de doctorat. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. A Grammar of Dimili Also Known as Zaza Google Scholar

Van Bruinessen, M. (1999) ‘The Kurds in Movement: Migrations, Mobilisations, Communi­cations and the Globalisation of the Kurdish Question’, Islamic Area Studies Project. Working paper 14, 1–17. ‘The Kurds in Movement: Migrations, Mobilisations, Communications and the Globalisation of the Kurdish Question’ Islamic Area Studies Project 1 17 Google Scholar

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