Labour History Review

'Boisterous Workers': Young Women, Industrial Rationalization and Workplace Militancy in Interwar England

Labour History Review (2003), 68, (3), 293–310.

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J. B. Priestley, English Journey, London, Gollancz, 1934, p. 133. English Journey 133 Google Scholar

R. Strachey, Careers and Openings for Women, London, Faber, 1935, p. 52. Careers and Openings for Women 52 Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 7 December 1931, p. 7. Google Scholar

A. Davies, Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Manchester and Salford 1900-1939, Buckingham, Open University Press, 1992; D. Fowler, The First Teenagers, London, Woburn Press, 1995; C. Langhamer, Women's Leisure in England, 1920-1960, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2000. Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Manchester and Salford 1900-1939 Google Scholar

Ministry of Labour, Average Earnings and Hours Enquiries, 1924, published in Ministry of Labour Gazette, June 1926-Sept 1927; 1928, Ministry of Labour Gazette, October-December 1929; 1931, Ministry of Labour Gazette, January-March 1933; 1935, Ministry of Labour Gazette, February-July 1937. Google Scholar

Ministry of Labour, Annual Report 1933, London, HMSO, 1934, p. 55; Ministry of Labour Gazette, 1936, p. 418. Google Scholar

Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Marriage and Divorce Statistics, FM2, 1, 1974, p. 17, table 3.5. Google Scholar

K. Whitston, ‘Worker resistance and Taylorism in Britain’, International Review of Social History, 42, 1, 1997, PP. 1-24. ‘Worker resistance and Taylorism in Britain’ International Review of Social History 42 1 24 Google Scholar

S. O. Rose, ‘Gender and labor history. The nineteenth-century legacy’, International Review of Social History, 38, 1, 1993, Supplement, p. 161. ‘Gender and labor history. The nineteenth-century legacy’ International Review of Social History 38 161 Google Scholar

A. L. Bowley and M. H. Hogg, Has Poverty Diminished?, London, P. S. King and Son, 1925, p. 197; D. Caradog Jones, The Social Survey of Mersey side, 1, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 1934, pp. 156-60; P. Ford, Work and Wealth in a Modem Port: An Economic Survey of Southampton, London, Allen and Unwin, 1934, pp. 114-16; H. Llewellyn Smith, The New Survey of London Life and Labour, III, London, P. S. King, 1931, p. 90; B. S. Rowntree, Poverty and Progress: A Second Social Survey of York, London, Longmans, 1941, pp. 155-71; H. Tout, The Standard of Living in Bristol, Bristol, Arrowsmith, 1938, p. 46. Has Poverty Diminished? 197 Google Scholar

J. and S. Jewkes, The Juvenile Labour Market, London, Gollancz, 1938, p. 35; Ministry of Labour, Report on an Enquiry into the Personal Circumstances and Industrial History of 3331 Boys and 2701 Girls Registered for Employment at Employment Exchanges and Juvenile Employment Bureaux in June and July 1925, London, HMSO, 1926, p. 36; Ministry of Labour, Annual Report on the Work of Advisory Committees for Juvenile Employment, various years, London, HMSO; A. D. K. Owen et al., A Survey of Juvenile Employment and Welfare in Sheffield, Sheffield, Sheffield Social Survey Committee, 1933, p. 17. The Juvenile Labour Market 35 Google Scholar

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A. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, London, Lawrence & Wishart, 1971, pp. 419-25. Selections from the Prison Notebooks 419 25 Google Scholar

J. Bornat, ‘Home and work; a new context for trade union history’, Oral History, 5, 2, 1977; J. Bornat, ‘"What about that lass of yours being in the union?": textile workers and their union in Yorkshire, 1888-1922’, in L. Davidoff and B. Westover (eds), Our Work, Our Lives, Our Words, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1986, pp. 76-98. ‘Home and work; a new context for trade union history’ Oral History 5 Google Scholar

B. Drake, Women in Trade Unions, London, Labour Research Department, 1920, reprint, London, Virago, 1984, p. 119. Women in Trade Unions Google Scholar

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B. Ferry, ‘Boot and shoe maker’, in R. Gray (ed.), Working Lives, Volume I: 1900-1945, London, Centerprise, 1976, p. 108. Working Lives, Volume I: 1900-1945 108 Google Scholar

J. Smyth, ‘"Ye never got a spell to think aboot it." Young women and employment in the interwar period: a case study of a textile village’, in E. Gordon and E. Breitenbach (eds), The World is Ill Divided. Women's Work in Scotland in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1990, p. 109. The World is Ill Divided. Women's Work in Scotland in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries 109 Google Scholar

E. Roberts, A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working-Class Women 1890-1940, Oxford, Blackwell, 1984, pp. 46-7. A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working-Class Women 1890-1940 46 7 Google Scholar

E. Roberts, Women's Work 1840-1940, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 19-34; C. E. Heim, ‘Industrial organization and regional development in interwar Britain’, Journal of Economic History, 43, 4, 1983. Women's Work 1840-1940 19 34 Google Scholar

Strachey, Careers, 1935, p. 52. Google Scholar

M. Tebbutt, Women's Talk? A Social History of ‘Gossip’ in Working-Class Neighbourhoods, 1880-1960, Aldershot, Scolar Press, 1995. Women's Talk? A Social History of ‘Gossip’ in Working-Class Neighbourhoods, 1880-1960 Google Scholar

R. Roberts, A Ragged Schooling, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1976, p. 186; P. Willis, ‘Shop floor culture, masculinity and the wage form’, in C. Critcher and R. Johnson, Working-Class Culture: Studies in History and Theory, London, Hutchinson, 1979, p. 193. A Ragged Schooling 186 Google Scholar

L. McCullough Thew, The Pit Village and the Store, London, Pluto Press, 1985, p. 225. The Pit Village and the Store 225 Google Scholar

E. Money, ‘Liquorice’, in R. Van Riel (ed.), All in a Day's Work, Pontefract, Yorkshire Art Circus, 1985, p. 31. All in a Day's Work 31 Google Scholar

M. Welch, ‘Leather Worker’, in Gray, Working Lives, p. 56. Google Scholar

Dolly, in Lifetimes, Something in Common, Manchester, Manchester Polytechnic, 1975, p. 16. Google Scholar

D. Gittins, Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure, 1900-39, London, Hutchinson, 1982, pp. 89-93, 157-80. Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure, 1900-39 89 93 Google Scholar

Thew, Pit Village, 1985, p. 225. Google Scholar

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D. Collier and B. L. Hutchins, The Girl In Industry, London, Bell, 1918, p. 26; Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the year 1937, PP 1937-38, x, Cmd 5802, p. 49; Mass Observation, War Factory, London, Gollancz, 1943, p. 43. The Girl In Industry 26 Google Scholar

E. J. Hobsbawm, ‘Custom, wages and work-load’, in E. J. Hobsbawm, Labouring Men: Studies in the History of Labour, London, Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1964, pp. 350-1. Labouring Men: Studies in the History of Labour 350 1 Google Scholar

S. Tolliday, ‘Militancy and organisation, women workers and trade unions in the motor trades in the 1930s’, Oral History, 11, 2, 1983, p. 49. ‘Militancy and organisation, women workers and trade unions in the motor trades in the 1930s’ Oral History 11 49 Google Scholar

C. R. Littler, The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies, London, Heinemann, 1982, p. 121. The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies 121 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Ministry of Labour, Memorandum on Juvenile Transference, 1934, Public Records Office (PRO), LAB 19/93/1484/1934; Oxford Advisory Committee for Juvenile Employment, Annual Report for the Year 1929, London, HMSO, 1930, p. 10. Google Scholar

Department of Employment, British Labour Statistics: Historical Abstract 1886-1968, HMSO, 1971, p. 396, table 197. Google Scholar

Littler, Development of the Labour Process, pp. 99-117. Google Scholar

H. Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1974, pp. 51-60. Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century 51 60 Google Scholar

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M. A. Hamilton, Women at Work: A Brief Introduction to Trade Unionism for Women, London, Labour Book Service, 1941; S. Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, London, Ernest Benn, 1977, pp. 177-270. Women at Work: A Brief Introduction to Trade Unionism for Women Google Scholar

S. Boston, Women Workers and the Trade Unions, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1987, pp. 10-11; 155-84. Women Workers and the Trade Unions 10 11 Google Scholar

S. Bruley, ‘Gender, class and party: the Communist Party and the crisis in the cotton industry in England between the two world wars’, Women's History Review, 2, 1, 1993; Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, pp. 180-200. ‘Gender, class and party: the Communist Party and the crisis in the cotton industry in England between the two world wars’ Women's History Review 2 Google Scholar

Department of Employment, British Labour Statistics, p. 395, table 196. Google Scholar

S. Elsbury and D. Cohen, The Rego Revolt: How the United Clothing Workers' Trade Union was Formed, London, UCWU, 1929. The Rego Revolt: How the United Clothing Workers' Trade Union was Formed Google Scholar

A history of the United Clothing Workers' Union is given in S. W. Lerner, Breakaway Unions and the Small Trade Union, London, Allen and Unwin, 1961, pp. 85-143. Breakaway Unions and the Small Trade Union 85 143 Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 10 December 1931. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Daily Worker, 30 January 1932. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See for example, Tailor and Garment Worker, January 1929 on the Rego dispute; internal management report on LHU meeting with Wolsey workers, MS, 25 January 1931, Leicestershire Records Office, DE 4823. Google Scholar

UCWU, Rego and Polikoff Strike Songs, London, UCWU, 1929. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Boston, Women Workers, p. 176. Google Scholar

See for example, Rowntree, Poverty, pp. 78-93, 127-42. Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 13 May 1931. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Lerner, Breakaway Unions, pp. 89-91. See also J. White, Rothschild Buildings, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980. Google Scholar

E. Mofshovitz, in R. A. Leeson, Strike: A Live History, 1887-1971, Allen and Unwin, 1973, p. 116-17. Strike: A Live History, 1887-1971 116 17 Google Scholar

Littler, Development of the Labour Process, p. 119. Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 4 June 1931; P. Scott, ‘Women, other ‘fresh’ workers, and the new manufacturing workforce of interwar Britain’, International Review of Social History, 45, 3, 2000, pp. 468-70. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, p. 210; Bruley, ‘Gender, class and party’ Google Scholar

K. Middlemas, Politics in Industrial Society, London, Andre Deutsch, 1979, pp. 371-88. Politics in Industrial Society 371 88 Google Scholar

Drake, Women in Trade Unions, p. 132. Google Scholar

TGWU, ‘Women and young persons: industrial legislation: industrial health: safety at work: statutory control of industry’, in TGWU, The Union, Its Work and Problems, London, TGWU, 1939, p. 4; R. Croucher, Engineers at War, 1939-1945, London, Merlin Press, 1982, pp. 28-30; Tolliday, ‘Militancy and organisation’ Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 12 December 1931. Google Scholar

Daily Worker, 30 January 1932, p. 5; Tolliday, ‘Militancy and organisation’, p. 52. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

That this was also true in the textile industry, where older women were instrumental in the ‘more looms’ dispute of the early 1930s, is demonstrated by S. Bowden and D. M. Higgins, ‘"Productivity on the cheap’? The "more looms" experiment and the Lancashire weaving industry during the inter-war years', Business History, 41, 3, July 1999, pp. 21-41. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, p. 210. Google Scholar

J. B. Priestley, English Journey, London, Gollancz, 1934, p. 133. English Journey 133 Google Scholar

R. Strachey, Careers and Openings for Women, London, Faber, 1935, p. 52. Careers and Openings for Women 52 Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 7 December 1931, p. 7. Google Scholar

A. Davies, Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Manchester and Salford 1900-1939, Buckingham, Open University Press, 1992; D. Fowler, The First Teenagers, London, Woburn Press, 1995; C. Langhamer, Women's Leisure in England, 1920-1960, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2000. Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Manchester and Salford 1900-1939 Google Scholar

Ministry of Labour, Average Earnings and Hours Enquiries, 1924, published in Ministry of Labour Gazette, June 1926-Sept 1927; 1928, Ministry of Labour Gazette, October-December 1929; 1931, Ministry of Labour Gazette, January-March 1933; 1935, Ministry of Labour Gazette, February-July 1937. Google Scholar

Ministry of Labour, Annual Report 1933, London, HMSO, 1934, p. 55; Ministry of Labour Gazette, 1936, p. 418. Google Scholar

Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Marriage and Divorce Statistics, FM2, 1, 1974, p. 17, table 3.5. Google Scholar

K. Whitston, ‘Worker resistance and Taylorism in Britain’, International Review of Social History, 42, 1, 1997, PP. 1-24. ‘Worker resistance and Taylorism in Britain’ International Review of Social History 42 1 24 Google Scholar

S. O. Rose, ‘Gender and labor history. The nineteenth-century legacy’, International Review of Social History, 38, 1, 1993, Supplement, p. 161. ‘Gender and labor history. The nineteenth-century legacy’ International Review of Social History 38 161 Google Scholar

A. L. Bowley and M. H. Hogg, Has Poverty Diminished?, London, P. S. King and Son, 1925, p. 197; D. Caradog Jones, The Social Survey of Mersey side, 1, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 1934, pp. 156-60; P. Ford, Work and Wealth in a Modem Port: An Economic Survey of Southampton, London, Allen and Unwin, 1934, pp. 114-16; H. Llewellyn Smith, The New Survey of London Life and Labour, III, London, P. S. King, 1931, p. 90; B. S. Rowntree, Poverty and Progress: A Second Social Survey of York, London, Longmans, 1941, pp. 155-71; H. Tout, The Standard of Living in Bristol, Bristol, Arrowsmith, 1938, p. 46. Has Poverty Diminished? 197 Google Scholar

J. and S. Jewkes, The Juvenile Labour Market, London, Gollancz, 1938, p. 35; Ministry of Labour, Report on an Enquiry into the Personal Circumstances and Industrial History of 3331 Boys and 2701 Girls Registered for Employment at Employment Exchanges and Juvenile Employment Bureaux in June and July 1925, London, HMSO, 1926, p. 36; Ministry of Labour, Annual Report on the Work of Advisory Committees for Juvenile Employment, various years, London, HMSO; A. D. K. Owen et al., A Survey of Juvenile Employment and Welfare in Sheffield, Sheffield, Sheffield Social Survey Committee, 1933, p. 17. The Juvenile Labour Market 35 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, London, Lawrence & Wishart, 1971, pp. 419-25. Selections from the Prison Notebooks 419 25 Google Scholar

J. Bornat, ‘Home and work; a new context for trade union history’, Oral History, 5, 2, 1977; J. Bornat, ‘"What about that lass of yours being in the union?": textile workers and their union in Yorkshire, 1888-1922’, in L. Davidoff and B. Westover (eds), Our Work, Our Lives, Our Words, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1986, pp. 76-98. ‘Home and work; a new context for trade union history’ Oral History 5 Google Scholar

B. Drake, Women in Trade Unions, London, Labour Research Department, 1920, reprint, London, Virago, 1984, p. 119. Women in Trade Unions Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

B. Ferry, ‘Boot and shoe maker’, in R. Gray (ed.), Working Lives, Volume I: 1900-1945, London, Centerprise, 1976, p. 108. Working Lives, Volume I: 1900-1945 108 Google Scholar

J. Smyth, ‘"Ye never got a spell to think aboot it." Young women and employment in the interwar period: a case study of a textile village’, in E. Gordon and E. Breitenbach (eds), The World is Ill Divided. Women's Work in Scotland in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1990, p. 109. The World is Ill Divided. Women's Work in Scotland in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries 109 Google Scholar

E. Roberts, A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working-Class Women 1890-1940, Oxford, Blackwell, 1984, pp. 46-7. A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working-Class Women 1890-1940 46 7 Google Scholar

E. Roberts, Women's Work 1840-1940, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 19-34; C. E. Heim, ‘Industrial organization and regional development in interwar Britain’, Journal of Economic History, 43, 4, 1983. Women's Work 1840-1940 19 34 Google Scholar

Strachey, Careers, 1935, p. 52. Google Scholar

M. Tebbutt, Women's Talk? A Social History of ‘Gossip’ in Working-Class Neighbourhoods, 1880-1960, Aldershot, Scolar Press, 1995. Women's Talk? A Social History of ‘Gossip’ in Working-Class Neighbourhoods, 1880-1960 Google Scholar

R. Roberts, A Ragged Schooling, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1976, p. 186; P. Willis, ‘Shop floor culture, masculinity and the wage form’, in C. Critcher and R. Johnson, Working-Class Culture: Studies in History and Theory, London, Hutchinson, 1979, p. 193. A Ragged Schooling 186 Google Scholar

L. McCullough Thew, The Pit Village and the Store, London, Pluto Press, 1985, p. 225. The Pit Village and the Store 225 Google Scholar

E. Money, ‘Liquorice’, in R. Van Riel (ed.), All in a Day's Work, Pontefract, Yorkshire Art Circus, 1985, p. 31. All in a Day's Work 31 Google Scholar

M. Welch, ‘Leather Worker’, in Gray, Working Lives, p. 56. Google Scholar

Dolly, in Lifetimes, Something in Common, Manchester, Manchester Polytechnic, 1975, p. 16. Google Scholar

D. Gittins, Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure, 1900-39, London, Hutchinson, 1982, pp. 89-93, 157-80. Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure, 1900-39 89 93 Google Scholar

Thew, Pit Village, 1985, p. 225. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

D. Collier and B. L. Hutchins, The Girl In Industry, London, Bell, 1918, p. 26; Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the year 1937, PP 1937-38, x, Cmd 5802, p. 49; Mass Observation, War Factory, London, Gollancz, 1943, p. 43. The Girl In Industry 26 Google Scholar

E. J. Hobsbawm, ‘Custom, wages and work-load’, in E. J. Hobsbawm, Labouring Men: Studies in the History of Labour, London, Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1964, pp. 350-1. Labouring Men: Studies in the History of Labour 350 1 Google Scholar

S. Tolliday, ‘Militancy and organisation, women workers and trade unions in the motor trades in the 1930s’, Oral History, 11, 2, 1983, p. 49. ‘Militancy and organisation, women workers and trade unions in the motor trades in the 1930s’ Oral History 11 49 Google Scholar

C. R. Littler, The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies, London, Heinemann, 1982, p. 121. The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies 121 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Ministry of Labour, Memorandum on Juvenile Transference, 1934, Public Records Office (PRO), LAB 19/93/1484/1934; Oxford Advisory Committee for Juvenile Employment, Annual Report for the Year 1929, London, HMSO, 1930, p. 10. Google Scholar

Department of Employment, British Labour Statistics: Historical Abstract 1886-1968, HMSO, 1971, p. 396, table 197. Google Scholar

Littler, Development of the Labour Process, pp. 99-117. Google Scholar

H. Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1974, pp. 51-60. Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century 51 60 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

M. A. Hamilton, Women at Work: A Brief Introduction to Trade Unionism for Women, London, Labour Book Service, 1941; S. Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, London, Ernest Benn, 1977, pp. 177-270. Women at Work: A Brief Introduction to Trade Unionism for Women Google Scholar

S. Boston, Women Workers and the Trade Unions, London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1987, pp. 10-11; 155-84. Women Workers and the Trade Unions 10 11 Google Scholar

S. Bruley, ‘Gender, class and party: the Communist Party and the crisis in the cotton industry in England between the two world wars’, Women's History Review, 2, 1, 1993; Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, pp. 180-200. ‘Gender, class and party: the Communist Party and the crisis in the cotton industry in England between the two world wars’ Women's History Review 2 Google Scholar

Department of Employment, British Labour Statistics, p. 395, table 196. Google Scholar

S. Elsbury and D. Cohen, The Rego Revolt: How the United Clothing Workers' Trade Union was Formed, London, UCWU, 1929. The Rego Revolt: How the United Clothing Workers' Trade Union was Formed Google Scholar

A history of the United Clothing Workers' Union is given in S. W. Lerner, Breakaway Unions and the Small Trade Union, London, Allen and Unwin, 1961, pp. 85-143. Breakaway Unions and the Small Trade Union 85 143 Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 10 December 1931. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Daily Worker, 30 January 1932. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See for example, Tailor and Garment Worker, January 1929 on the Rego dispute; internal management report on LHU meeting with Wolsey workers, MS, 25 January 1931, Leicestershire Records Office, DE 4823. Google Scholar

UCWU, Rego and Polikoff Strike Songs, London, UCWU, 1929. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Boston, Women Workers, p. 176. Google Scholar

See for example, Rowntree, Poverty, pp. 78-93, 127-42. Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 13 May 1931. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Lerner, Breakaway Unions, pp. 89-91. See also J. White, Rothschild Buildings, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980. Google Scholar

E. Mofshovitz, in R. A. Leeson, Strike: A Live History, 1887-1971, Allen and Unwin, 1973, p. 116-17. Strike: A Live History, 1887-1971 116 17 Google Scholar

Littler, Development of the Labour Process, p. 119. Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 4 June 1931; P. Scott, ‘Women, other ‘fresh’ workers, and the new manufacturing workforce of interwar Britain’, International Review of Social History, 45, 3, 2000, pp. 468-70. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, p. 210; Bruley, ‘Gender, class and party’ Google Scholar

K. Middlemas, Politics in Industrial Society, London, Andre Deutsch, 1979, pp. 371-88. Politics in Industrial Society 371 88 Google Scholar

Drake, Women in Trade Unions, p. 132. Google Scholar

TGWU, ‘Women and young persons: industrial legislation: industrial health: safety at work: statutory control of industry’, in TGWU, The Union, Its Work and Problems, London, TGWU, 1939, p. 4; R. Croucher, Engineers at War, 1939-1945, London, Merlin Press, 1982, pp. 28-30; Tolliday, ‘Militancy and organisation’ Google Scholar

Leicester Evening Mail, 12 December 1931. Google Scholar

Daily Worker, 30 January 1932, p. 5; Tolliday, ‘Militancy and organisation’, p. 52. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

That this was also true in the textile industry, where older women were instrumental in the ‘more looms’ dispute of the early 1930s, is demonstrated by S. Bowden and D. M. Higgins, ‘"Productivity on the cheap’? The "more looms" experiment and the Lancashire weaving industry during the inter-war years', Business History, 41, 3, July 1999, pp. 21-41. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Lewenhak, Women and Trade Unions, p. 210. Google Scholar

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Todd, Selina