Labour History Review

Second thoughts on revolutionary syndicalism

Labour History Review (1998), 63, (2), 182–196.

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Larry Peterson, ‘The One Big Union in International Perspective: Revolutionary Industrial Unionism, 1900-1925’, in James Cronin and Carmen Sirianni (eds), Work, Community and Power, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983, pp. 49-87; Peter Schöttler, ‘Syndikalismus in der europäischen Arbeiterbewegung: Neuere Forschungen in Frankreich, England und Deutschland’, in Klaus Tenfelde (ed.), Geschichte der Arbeiterschaft und der Arbeiterbewegung, Munich: Oldenbourg, 1985, pp. 419-75; Marcel van der Linden and Wayne Thorpe, ‘The Rise and Fall of Revolutionary Syndicalism’, in van der Linden and Thorpe (eds), Revolutionary Syndicalism: An International Perspective, Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1990, pp. 1-24. Older comparative attempts are: Hans Bötcher, Zur revolutionären Gewerkschaftsbewegung in Amerika, Deutschland und England. Eine vergleichende Betrachtung, Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1922 and Philip Holgate, ‘Aspects of Syndicalism in Spain, Sweden and USA’, Anarchy, 1, 2 (1961), pp. 56-64 Work, Community and Power 49 87 Google Scholar

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Erik Olssen, review of Van der Linden and Thorpe, Revolutionary Syndicalism, International Review of Social History, 37 (1992), pp. 107-9, quotation from p. 108 Google Scholar

I have been inspired here by the three ‘fundamental modes of ideological interpellation’ in: Göran Therborn, The Ideology of Power and the Power of Ideology, Verso, 1980, p. 18 Google Scholar

Bert Altena, ‘Een broeinest der anarchie’. Arbeiders, arbeidersbeweging en maatschappelijke ontwikkeling, Vlissingen 1875-1929, 2 vols, Haarlem: Thesis Publishers, 1989. See also the debate on this issue between Altena and myself in Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 105 (1990), pp. 605-13 ‘Een broeinest der anarchie’. Arbeiders, arbeidersbeweging en maatschappelijke ontwikkeling, Vlissingen 1875-1929 2 Google Scholar

Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society, Cambridge: CUP, 1984, pp. 41-5, 374-5. The distinction between both levels remains problematic, despite their obvious meaning. Edward Thompson once remarked: ‘The sailor "knows" his seas’ (The Poverty of Theory, Merlin, 1978, p. 199), to indicate that there is such a thing as practical consciousness. But Paul Hirst has noted here: ‘Of course sailors do, but they also know where not to go in order to avoid the sea monsters and they know the fate awaits the poor fool who set out into the Atlantic to sail to Cathay. These things form a single "knowledge", confirmed a hundred times over by "experience".’ - Paul Q. Hirst, Marxism and Historical Writing, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985, p. 73. Anderson notes that the concept of ‘experience’ in ordinary language contains an ambiguity: ‘On the one hand, me word denotes an occurrence or episode as it is lived by the participants, the subjective texture of objective actions […]. On the other, it indicates a subsequent process of learning from such occurrences, a subjective alteration capable of modifying ensuing objective actions’. - Arguments Within English Marxism, Verso, 1980, p. 26. Anderson states the distinction between the two as follows: the first type is ‘a set of mental and emotional responses as it were "given with" a set of lived events to which they correspond’ (what Sartre called l'expérience-qui-comporte-sa-propre-interprétation. - ‘Réponse à Claude Lefort’, Les Temps Modernes, April 1953, pp. 1577-9, 1588-9). The second type is experience as an objective sector of "social being", which is then processed or handled by the subject to yield a particular "social consciousness". The possibility of different ways of "handling" the same experience is epistomologically secured.' Anderson, Arguments, pp. 29-30 The Constitution of Society 41 5 Google Scholar

On Germany see among others: Hans Manfred Bock, ‘Anarchosyndikalismus in Deutschland. Eine Zwischenbilanz’, Internationale wissenschaftliche Korrespondenz zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung [hereafter IWK], 25 (1989), pp. 293-358; Hans Manfred Bock, ‘Nachwort zur Neuausgabe 1993’, Syndikalismus und Linkskommunismus von 1918 bis 1923, second edition, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1993, pp. 475-93; Dieter Nelles, ‘Syndikalismus und Unionismus: Neuere Ergebnisse und Perspektiven der Forschung’, IWK, 31 (1995), pp. 348-56; Larry Peterson, German Communism, Workers' Protest, and Labor Unions: The Politics of the United Front in Rhineland-Westphalia 1920-1924, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993; Hartmut Rübner, Freiheit und Brot: Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands. Eine Studie zur Geschichte des Anarchosyndikalismus, Berlin and Cologne: Libertad, 1994. On Eastern Europe: Samuel Goldberger, ‘Ervin Szabó, Anarcho-Syndicalism and Revolution in Turn-of-the-Century Hungary’ (PhD Dissertation, Columbia University, 1985), 603 pp.; Lucjan Kieszczyhski, ‘Syndykalizm Polski’ [Polish Syndicalism], Kwartalnik Historii Ruchu Zawodowego, 22, 1/2 (1983), pp. 98-108; Jacek Salwiński, ‘Krakowscy anarchosyndikalisci Augustyna Wróblewskiego (przed pierwsza wojna swiatowa)’ [Augustyn Wróblewski and the Cracow Anarcho-syndicalists Before World War I], Studia Historyczne, 34 (1991), pp. 247-60; Václav Tomek, ‘Tschechischer Anarchismus um die Jahrhundertwende’, Archiv für die Geschichte des Widerstandes und der Arbeit, No. 12 (1992), pp. 97-130; Václav Tomek, Anarchismus als eigenständige politische Partei oder als breite Gefühls- und Ideenströmung. Dokumente zu einer Diskussion über die Zukunft des tschechischen Anarchismus im Jahr 1914', Archiv für die Geschichte des Widerstandes und der Arbeit, No. 13 (1994), pp. 63-90 Google Scholar

Gérard Noiriel, Les ouvriers dans la société française, XIXe-XXe siècle, Paris: Seuil, 1986, chapter 3 Les ouvriers dans la société française, XIXe-XXe siècle Google Scholar

There are of course exceptions to the rule. See for example Michel Pigenet, ‘Le métier ou l'industrie? Les structures d'organisation et les enjeux au tournant du siècle’, Cahiers d'histoire de l'institut de recherches marxistes, No. 62 (1996), pp. 25-41 Google Scholar

Writings of Leon Trotsky (1937-38), New York: Pathfinder, 1976, p. 82 Google Scholar

Peter Schöttler, Die Entstehung der ‘Bourses du Travail’: Sozialpolitik und französischer Syndikalismus am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts, Frankfurt/Main and New York: Campus, 1982. French translation: Naissance des Bourses du Travail, Paris: PUF, 1988. See also Schöttler's ‘Politique sociale ou lutte des classes: notes sur le syndicalisme "apolitique" des bourses du travail’, Le mouvement social, No. 116 (1981), pp. 3-20, and ‘Zwischen Arbeitsvermittlung und Arbeitskampf: Die Bourses du Travail während der Belle Epoque’, in: Ulrike Brummert (ed.), Jean Jaurès. Frankreich, Deutschland und die Zweite Internationale am Vorabend des Ersten Weltkrieges, Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1989, pp. 131-60. On labour exchanges now also Rolande Trempé, Solidaires. Les Bourses du Travail, Paris: Scandéditions, 1993 Die Entstehung der ‘Bourses du Travail’: Sozialpolitik und französischer Syndikalismus am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts Google Scholar

Michel Pigenet, ‘Prestations et services dans le mouvement syndical français (1860-1914)’, Cahiers d'histoire de l'institut de recherches marxistes, No. 51 (1993), pp. 7-28; ‘Les finances, une approche des problèmes de structure et d'orientation de la CGT (1895-1914)’, Le mouvement social, No. 172 (1995), pp. 53-88; Claude Geslin, ‘Les finances syndicales en Bretagne avant 1914’, Annales de Bretagne et des Pays de l'Ouest, 102, 3 (1995), pp. 11-36 ‘Prestations et services dans le mouvement syndical français (1860-1914)’ Cahiers d'histoire de l'institut de recherches marxistes 7 28 Google Scholar

What is remarkable is that the labour exchanges as such (except for Schöttler's work) have hardly been studied. This is even more true of Italy; the only relevant work I know of is already more than a hundred years old: Werner Sombart, ‘Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des italienischen Proletariats: IV, Die Arbeiterkammern (Camere del lavoro) in Italien’, Archiv für Soziale Gesetzgebung und Statistik, 8 (1895), pp. 521-74 Google Scholar

The stream of publications about Sorel continues. In the last ten years, the following studies appeared among others: Jacques Julliard, Autonomie ouvrière. Etudes sur le syndicalisme d'action (Paris: Seuil, 1988), pp. 231-55; Bas van Stokkom, Georges Sorel: de ontnuchtering van de verlichting, Zeist: Kerkebosch, 1990; Gian Biagio Furiozzi, ‘Il mito bolscevico in Sorel’, Socialismo Storia, 3 (1991), pp. 557-71; E. A. Samarskaia, ‘Zhorzh Sorel’: Vechnyi eretik (1847-1922)' [Georges Sorel (1847-1922): The Eternal Heretic], Novaia i Noveishaia Istoria, 1994, 2, pp. 103-24; and Giovanna Cavallari, Georges Sorel: archeologia di un rivoluzionario, Naples: Jovene, 1994. See also the journal Mil neuf cent: Cahiers Georges Sorel. Autonomie ouvrière. Etudes sur le syndicalisme d'action 231 55 Google Scholar

Joseph White, Tom Mann, Manchester University Press, 1991; Marco Gervasoni, ‘Il linguaggio politico del sindacalismo d'azione diretta in Francia: la rappresentazione del sociale e la concezione dell'autonomia della C. G.T di fronte allo stato repubblicano (1895-1914)’, Società e storia, No. 74 (1996), pp. 771-820; ‘"Libertà" e "autonomia" nell'immaginario delle Borse del Lavoro francesi tra anarchismo e socialismo’, Rivista storica dell'anarchismo, 3, 1 (1996), pp. 5-29 Tom Mann Google Scholar

For example: Edgardo Bilsky, ‘Aux origines de la tradition sorélienne en Argentine: le syndicalisme révolutionnaire (1904-1910)’, Cahiers des Amériques Latines, 9 (1990), pp. 81-95; Susanna De Angelis, ‘Sergio Panunzio: rivoluzione e/o stato dei sindacati’, Storia contemporanea, 11 (1980), pp. 969-87; Paolo Favilli, ‘Marxismo e sindacalismo rivoluzionario in Italia’, Società e storia, No. 64 (1994), pp. 315-59 and 65 (1994), pp. 559-609; John Laurent, ‘Tom Mann on Science, Technology, and Society’, Science & Society, 53 (1989), pp. 84-93; Mario Sznajder, ‘I miti del sindacalismo rivoluzionario’, Storia Contemporanea, 24 (1993), pp. 21-57; Sándor Vadász, ‘A francia anarchoszindikalizmus ideológiája’ [The Ideology of French Anarcho-Syndicalism], Párttörténeti Közlemények, 1982, 1, pp. 59-89; Homme Wedman, ‘Christiaan Cornelissen: Marxism and Revolutionary Syndicalism’, in Marcel van der Linden (ed.), Die Rezeption der Marxschen Theorie in den Niederlanden, Trier: Karl-Marx-Haus, 1992, pp. 84-105 ‘Aux origines de la tradition sorélienne en Argentine: le syndicalisme révolutionnaire (1904-1910)’ Cahiers des Amériques Latines 9 81 95 Google Scholar

Wayne Thorpe, ‘The Workers Themselves’: Revolutionary Syndicalism and International Labour, 1913-1922, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989; ‘Syndicalist Internationalism before World War II’, in Van der Linden and Thorpe, Revolutionary Syndicalism, pp. 237-60. See also: Susan Milner, The Dilemmas of Internationalism. French Syndicalism and the International Labour Movement, 1900-1914, Oxford: Berg, 1990 ‘The Workers Themselves’: Revolutionary Syndicalism and International Labour, 1913-1922 Google Scholar

Salvatore Salerno, Red November, Black November: Culture and Community in the Industrial Workers of the World, Albany: SUNY Press, 1989, pp. 93-115 Red November, Black November: Culture and Community in the Industrial Workers of the World 93 115 Google Scholar

John W. F. Dulles, Anarchists and Communists in Brazil, 1900-1935, Austin: Texas University Press, 1973, chapter 1; Guy Bourdé, Urbanisation et immigration en Amérique Latine: Buenos Aires (XIXe et XXe siècles), Paris: Aubier, 1974, parts 3 and 4 Anarchists and Communists in Brazil, 1900-1935 Google Scholar

Erik Olssen, The Red Feds. Revolutionary Industrial Unionism and the New Zealand Federation of Labour 1908-1914, Oxford University Press, 1988; Verity Burgman, Revolutionary Industrial Unionism: The IWW in Australia, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1996; Peter DeShazo, Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile, 1902-1927, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. On international IWW activities: Patrick Renshaw, The Wobblies: The Story of Syndicalism in the United States, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1967, pp. 275-93 The Red Feds. Revolutionary Industrial Unionism and the New Zealand Federation of Labour 1908-1914 Google Scholar

Norman Caulfield, ‘Wobblies and Mexican workers in Mining and Petroleum, 1905-1924’, International Review of Social History, 40 (1995), pp. 51-75 ‘Wobblies and Mexican workers in Mining and Petroleum, 1905-1924’ International Review of Social History 40 51 75 Google Scholar

S. Fanny Simon, ‘Anarchism and Anarcho-Syndicalism in South America’, Hispanic American Historical Review, 26 (1946), pp. 38-59, here p. 53 ‘Anarchism and Anarcho-Syndicalism in South America’ Hispanic American Historical Review 26 38 59 Google Scholar

But see Michele Battini, ‘L'etica dei produttori e le culture del sindacalismo francese, 1886-1910’, Critica Storica, 20 (1984), pp. 548-620, or Salerno, Red November, Black November. ‘L'etica dei produttori e le culture del sindacalismo francese, 1886-1910’ Critica Storica 20 548 620 Google Scholar

Marshall Sahlins, Culture and Practical Reason, Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1976, p. 207 Culture and Practical Reason 207 Google Scholar

John Tosh, ‘What Should Historians do with Masculinity? Reflections on Nineteenth-century Britain’, History Workshop Journal, No. 38 (1994), pp. 179-202, here 180 ‘What Should Historians do with Masculinity? Reflections on Nineteenth-century Britain’ History Workshop Journal 179 202 Google Scholar

Francis Shor, ‘Masculine Power and Virile Syndicalism: A Gendered Analysis of the IWW in Australia’, Labour History, No. 63 (1992), pp. 83-99 ‘Masculine Power and Virile Syndicalism: A Gendered Analysis of the IWW in Australia’ Labour History 83 99 Google Scholar

Eva Blomberg, Män i mörker. Arbetsgivare, reformister och syndikalister. Politik och identitet i svensk gruvindustri 1910-1940, Stockholm: Almquist & Wickseil International, 1995, especially pp. 300-45 Män i mörker. Arbetsgivare, reformister och syndikalister. Politik och identitet i svensk gruvindustri 1910-1940 Google Scholar

For instance, Martha A. Ackelsberg, Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1991; Jacqueline Heinen, ‘Espagne (1936-1938): Les femmes dans la guerre civile’, in Annick Mahaim, Alix Holt and Jacqueline Heinen, Femmes et mouvement ouvrier: Allemagne d'avant 1914, Révolution russe, Révolution espagnole, Paris: La Brèche, 1979, pp. 131-223; Mary Nash, Mujer y movimiento obrero en España, Barcelona: Fontamara, 1981; Mary Nash, Defying Male Civilization: Women in the Spanish Civil War, Denver: Arden Press, 1995; Cornelia Regin, ‘Hausfrau und Revolution. Die Frauenpolitik der Anarchosyndikalisten in der Weimarer Republik’, IWK, 25 (1989), pp. 379-98; Michael Seidman, ‘Women's Subversive Individualism in Barcelona during the 1930s’, International Review of Social History, 37 (1992), pp. 161-76; Jeremy Jennings, ‘The CGT and the Couriau Affair: Syndicalist Responses to Female Labour in France before 1914’, European History Quarterly, 21 (1991), pp. 321-37 Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women Google Scholar

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Pieter van Duin, ‘South Africa’, in Marcel van der Linden and Jürgen Rojahn (eds), The Formation of Labour Movements, 1870-1914, Leiden: Brill, 1990, vol. II, pp. 623-52, here 649. The only serious study of the South African IWW I know of is: John Philips, ‘The South African Wobblies: The Origin of Industrial Unions in South Africa’, Ufahuma, 8, 3 (1978), pp. 122-38 The Formation of Labour Movements, 1870-1914 II 623 52 Google Scholar

For example F. F. Ridley, Revolutionary Syndicalism in France, Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp. 11-15 Revolutionary Syndicalism in France 11 15 Google Scholar

Daniel Bell distinguishes ‘five different elements that are often lumped together and confused as national character when writers use the term. These are: 1. national creed; 2. national images; 3. national style; 4. national consciousness; 5. modal personalities.’ Daniel Bell, ‘National Character Revisited’ (1968), in Bell, Sociological Journeys. Essays 1960-1980, Heinemann, 1980, pp. 167-83, quotations from 181 Google Scholar

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Gerald C. Friedman, ‘Revolutionary Unions and French Labour: The Rebels behind the Cause; or, Why Did Revolutionary Syndicalism Fail?’, French Historical Studies, 20 (1997), pp. 155-81, here 177 ‘Revolutionary Unions and French Labour: The Rebels behind the Cause; or, Why Did Revolutionary Syndicalism Fail?’ French Historical Studies 20 155 81 Google Scholar

Gerald Friedman, ‘Strike Success and Union Ideology: The United States and France, 1880-1914’, Journal of Economic History, 47 (1988), pp. 1-25, here 10 ‘Strike Success and Union Ideology: The United States and France, 1880-1914’ Journal of Economic History 47 1 25 Google Scholar

Pierre Birnbaum, ‘States, Ideologies and Collective Action in Western Europe’, in Ali Kazançigil (ed.), The State in Global Perspective, Aldershot: Gower/UNESCO, 1986, pp. 232-49, here 237-38 The State in Global Perspective 232 49 Google Scholar

Birnbaum, ‘States’, p. 238. See also Birnbaum's States and Collective Action: The European Experience, Cambridge University Press, 1988, Chapters 4 and 5 Google Scholar

The relationship between the state and the economically dominant class also has a geographic aspect. In his short essay ‘Anarchism, Revolution and Civil War in Spain: The Challenge of Social History’, International Review of Social History, 37 (1992), pp. 398-404, 402, Julián Casanova has proposed that ‘in Spain the main industrial centers (Bilbao and Barcelona) did not coincide with the main political center (Madrid)’; this would explain in part why the anarchists did not take over centralised power during the Civil War. Victor Kiernan, has mooted the idea, that in Western Europe and the USA the capital city is usually geographically separated from the economic centre (he mentions London, Paris, Brussels, Vienna, Madrid, Rome), while this is a different matter further to the East. ‘Here we see government (and finance) and industry closer together in location, because closer in mutual need: the State requiring technology for power-politics, the factories requiring tariffs, subsidies, orders, the kind of patronage that bankers or trading corporations always had greedy beaks upon.’ Examples are Budapest, Berlin, St Petersburg. Victor Kiernan, ‘Victorian London: Unending Purgatory’, New Left Review, No. 76 (1972), pp. 73-90, quotation from p. 79. Perhaps we should incorporate these sorts of observations in our further analyses Google Scholar

Van der Linden and Thorpe, ‘Rise and Fall’, p. 18. See also Marcel van der Linden, ‘Vorläufiges zur vergleichenden Sozialgeschichte des Syndikalismus’, in Heribert Baumann, Francis Bulhof and Gottfried Mergner (eds), Anarchismus in Kunst und Politik. Zum 85. Geburtstag von Arthur Lehning, Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universität Oldenburg, 1984, pp. 41-57, quotation from pp. 53-4 Google Scholar

For example, Altena, ‘Een broeinest der anarchie’, vol. 1, p. 418; Rübner, Freiheit und Brot, pp. 260-1 Google Scholar

Blomberg, Män i mörker. Google Scholar

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Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All. A History of the Industrial Workers of the World, Chicago: Quadrangle, 1969, pp. 447-8 We Shall Be All. A History of the Industrial Workers of the World 447 8 Google Scholar

The literature in this area is rather extensive. One of the first attempts at analysis was Käthe Leichter, ‘Vom revolutionären Syndikalismus zur Verstaatlichung der Gewerkschaften’, in Festschrift für Carl Grünberg zum 70. Geburtstag, Leipzig: Hirschfeld, 1932, pp. 243-81. See also Tobias Abse, ‘Syndicalism and the Origins of Italian Fascism’, Historical Journal, 25 (1982), pp. 247-58; Ferdinando Cordova, Le origine dei sindacati fascisti, 1918-1926, Bari: Laterza, 1974; Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Dal sindacalismo rivoluzionario al corporativismo, Rome: Bonacci, 1984; David D. Roberts, The Syndicalist Tradition and Italian Fascism, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979; John J. Tinghino, Edmondo Rossoni: From Revolutionary Syndicalism to Fascism, New York, Peter Lang, 1991. For an urban case study, see: Alberto DeBernardi, ‘Operai, sindacati e regime negli anni venti. Il caso di Milano’, Società e storia, 40 (1988), 335-78 Google Scholar

The social aspects of the relationship between early communism and syndicalism have been little researched. See however Kathryn E. Amdur, ‘La tradition révolutionnaire entre syndicalisme et communisme dans la France de l'entre-deux-guerres’, Le Mouvement Social, No. 139 (1987), pp. 37-50; and Larry Peterson, ‘Revolutionary Socialism and Industrial Unrest in the Era of the Winnipeg Strike: The Origins of Communist Labour Unionism in Europe and North America’, Labour/Le Travailleur, No. 13 (1984), pp. 115-31 ‘La tradition révolutionnaire entre syndicalisme et communisme dans la France de l'entre-deux-guerres’ Le Mouvement Social 37 50 Google Scholar

About the experiences of syndicalism during the Nazi dictatorship we know a little more in recent years. See Wolfgang Haug, ‘"Eine Flamme erlischt". Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Anarchosyndikalisten) von 1932-1937’, IWK, 25 (1989), pp. 359-78. On the CNT under Franco see José Berruezo, Contribución a la historia de la CNT de España en el exilio, Mexico: Mexicanos Unidos, 1967; Juan M. Molina, El movimiento clandestine en España 1939-1949, Mexico: Mexicanos Unidos, 1976; Walther L. Bernecker, ‘Die Arbeiterbewegung unter dem Franquismus’, in Peter Waldmann et al., Die geheime Dynamik autoritärer Diktaturen. Vier Studien über sozialen Wandel in der Franco-Ära, Munich: Vögel, 1982, pp. 61-198; Sebastian Balfour, Dictatorship, Workers and the City. Labour in Greater Barcelona since 1939, Oxford: Clarendon, 1989, and the epilogue in Julián Casanova, De la calk al frente. El anarcosindicalismo en España, 1931-1939, Barcelona: Crítica, 1997, pp. 238-46 ‘"Eine Flamme erlischt". Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Anarchosyndikalisten) von 1932-1937’ IWK 25 359 78 Google Scholar

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van der Linden, Marcel