On the construction of masculinity see J. Hearn and D. Morgan (eds), Men, Masculinity and Social Theory, London, Unwin Hyman Ltd, 1990; M. Roper and J. Tosh (eds), Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain Since 1800, London, Routledge, 1991. On the importance of locality to the construction of masculinity, see D. Massey (ed.), Space, Place and Gender, London, Polity Press, 1994. On the potential value to labour historians of explorations around masculinity see K. Hunt, ‘Gender and labour history in the 1990s', in Mitteilungsblatt des Instituts fur Soziale Bewegungen, 27, 2002. Google Scholar
P. Ayers, ‘The making of masculinities in interwar Liverpool', in M. Walsh (ed.), Working Out Gender. Perspectives from Labour History, Aldershot, Ashgate, 1999.
Working Out Gender. Perspectives from Labour History Google Scholar
There is no space here to discuss the multitude of ways that this fracturing was experienced and made evident. Although pre-war dockland communities are often nostalgically recalled as safe spaces where bonds of neighbourliness and kinship ensured the survival of all, they could equally be experienced as prisons that circumscribed the fulfilment of aspirations. See P. Ayers, The Liverpool Docklands. Life and Work in Athol Street, Liverpool, Docklands History Books, 1986. Work in progress, ‘The Economics of Daily Life; Gender, Household and Community in Interwar Liverpool’ attempts to address the complexity of inter-war dockland experience. Google Scholar
Full decasualization — opposed by dockworkers — was introduced in 1967. See S. Gilman and S. Burn, ‘Dockland activities: technology and change', in Gould and Hodgkiss, The Resources, pp. 34-5. Google Scholar
Between 1945 and 1965, 73,000 new manufacturing jobs were brought to Merseyside. See, T. Cornfoot, ‘The economy of Merseyside, 1945-1982. Quickening decline or post-industrial change?', in W. Gould and A. Hodgkinson (eds), The Resources of Merseyside, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 1982. Google Scholar
D. R. Lawton, ‘The distribution and structure of population since 1951', in Gould and Hodgkiss, The Resources, p. 155. Google Scholar
See, for example, C. Vereker, J. B. Mays, E. Griffiths and M. Broady, Urban Redevelopment and Social Change. A Study of Social Conditions in Central Liverpool 1955-56, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 1961; M. Kerr, The People of Ship Street, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958. Google Scholar
G. Winn, This Fair Country, London, Hutchinson, 1951, p. 75.
This Fair Country
75 Google Scholar
On the relationship between work, social relations and social practice see summary of F. Le Play's analysis in P. Cooke (ed.), Back to the Future: Modernity, Postmodernity and Locality, London, Unwin, 1990, pp. 33-4. Google Scholar
This was, for Liverpool, a relative concept. Even in the good years of the 1950s and 1960s, unemployment was two-and-a-half times the national average. R. Nabarro, ‘The impact on workers from the inner city of Liverpool's economic decline', in A. Evans and D. Eversley (eds), The Inner City. Employment and Industry, London, Heinemann, 1980, p. 308. Google Scholar
Winn, This Fair, p. 74. Google Scholar
T. Lane, Liverpool Gateway of Empire, London, Lawrence & Wishart, 1987 pp. 144-51. (Revised and republished as Liverpool. City of the Sea, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 1997).
Liverpool Gateway of Empire
51 Google Scholar
Lane, Liverpool, chs 3 and 4. Google Scholar
See, D. H. Morgan, It Will Make a Man of You: Notes on National Service, Masculinity and Autobiography, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1987.
It Will Make a Man of You: Notes on National Service, Masculinity and Autobiography Google Scholar
J. B. Mays, Growing Up in the City, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, p. 87, note 1.
Growing Up in the City
87 Google Scholar
Lane, Liverpool, p. 148. Google Scholar
Although, by 1965, high turnover had forced the company to become less ‘picky'. H. Beynon, Working for Ford, London, Allen Lane, 1973, pp.71, 87. Google Scholar
Lane, Liverpool, pp. 148-55; D. Worlock & D. Sheppard, Better Together: Christian Partnership in a Hurt City, London, Penguin Books, 1988, p. 48. Google Scholar
Although between 1945-71, restructuring created 94,000 new manufacturing jobs, between 1961-71, 50,000 jobs were lost to the city and unemployment was twice the national average over the whole period. See, Nabarro, ‘The impact’, pp. 295-6, 308. Liverpool Daily Post, 19 July 1962, demanded action over the ‘Kirby workless’ complaining that many firms who had relocated to Liverpool were not employing local people. Google Scholar
J. Salt, ‘The impact of the Ford and Vauxhall plants on the employment situation of Merseyside, 1962-1965', Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geographie, 58, 3, p. 259.
‘The impact of the Ford and Vauxhall plants on the employment situation of Merseyside, 1962-1965’
Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geographie
259 Google Scholar
R. Meegan, ‘Paradise postponed: the growth and decline of Merseyside's outer estates', in P. Cooke (ed.), Localities. The Changing Face of Urban Britain, London: Unwin Hyman, 1989, pp. 217-19.
Localities. The Changing Face of Urban Britain
19 Google Scholar
Kerr, The People, p.68. Also, Mays, Growing, p. 100. Google Scholar
Beynon, Working, p. 45. Google Scholar
Ibid., pp. 139-43. This was not particular to Liverpool. On Glasgow, see T. Nicholls and P. Armstrong, Workers Divided, Glasgow, Fontana, 1976. On understanding the various ways in which employees might respond to work discipline see, G. Mars, Cheats at Work; An Anthropology of Workplace Crime, London, Unwin Paperbacks, 1982. For a short discussion of the relevance of workplace theft to the formation of masculinity, see Morgan, Discovering, p. 89. Google Scholar
Liverpool Daily Post, 25 November 1965. Google Scholar
Bill Osgerby identifies a similar process in 1950s and 60s America. B. Osgerby, Playboys in Paradise; Masculinity, Youth and Leisure-style in Modern America, Oxford, Berg, 2001, p. 3. Google Scholar
There were many hundreds of local bands. S. Cohen, Rock Culture in Liverpool: Popular Music in the Making, Oxford, Clarendon, 1991, p. 3, ch. 8; P. Du Noyer, Liverpool: Wondrous Place, London, Virgin Publishing, 2001 pp. 27, 35. See also, A. Bennett, Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music, Identity and Place, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 2000. Google Scholar
For succinct, evocative description/analysis see, Lane, Liverpool, pp. 146-7. Also, Beynon, Working, pp. 70-1; R. Taylor & A. Ward with J. Williams, Three Sides of the Mersey, London, Bolsover Books, 1994, pp. 124-5. Google Scholar
Du Noyer, Liverpool, p. 26. See also, S. Leach, The Rocking City, London, Pharaoh, 1999. Google Scholar
There is a great deal of work to be undertaken into the formal and informal racially exclusionary alliances forged between capital and labour. See, Liverpool Youth Organisations Committee, Special but not Separate, Liverpool: LYOC, 1968; Nabarro, ‘The impact', pp. 316-17. Google Scholar
Lane, Liverpool; Cohen, Rock, p. 17; Gifford Report, 1989. Google Scholar
A. Davies, Leisure, Gender and Poverty. Working-Class Cultures in Salford and Manchester 1900-1939, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1992, p. 54.
Leisure, Gender and Poverty. Working-Class Cultures in Salford and Manchester 1900-1939
54 Google Scholar
Mays, Growing, p. 92. Google Scholar
F. Zweig, The British Worker, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1952, p. 75.
The British Worker
75 Google Scholar
Kerr, The People, pp. 40-51. Google Scholar
Mays, Growing, p. 86. Google Scholar
Fifty years earlier, Eleanor Rathbone argued that ‘man’ albeit in his ‘unconscious mind’, was only too aware of the power over wives and children his role as breadwinner gave him: that the dependency of his family added measurably to the authority and self-esteem of husbands. E. R. Rathbone, The Disinherited Family: A Plea for the Endowment of the Family, London, Edward Arnold, 1924, pp. 270-3; P. Ayers and J. Lambertz, ‘Marriage, money and domestic violence in working-class Liverpool, 1919-1939’, in J. Lewis (ed.), Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1986. Google Scholar
M. Douglas and B. Isherwood, The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption, Middlesex, Penguin Books, 1979, pp. 57, pp. 74-5.
The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption
5 Google Scholar
P. Ayers, ‘The hidden economy of dockland families: Liverpool in the 1930s', in P. Hudson and W. R. Lee (eds), Women's Work and the Family Economy in Historical Perspective, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1991.
Women's Work and the Family Economy in Historical Perspective Google Scholar
F. Zweig, Labour, Life and Poverty, London, Gollancz, 1948, p. 115.
Labour, Life and Poverty
115 Google Scholar
For example, by the mid 1970s, the inner city parish of St Francis Xavier, ‘which used to house 13,000 Roman Catholics had, through demolition and dispersal, fallen to 900'. Warlock and Sheppard, Better, p. 44. Google Scholar
There are obvious exceptions to this. Young shop stewards at Fords ‘ate their meals together in the works canteens, drank together after meetings. They were friends'. But, arguably, their relationship to the workplace made this more necessary. Beynon, Working, p. 74. Google Scholar
This mirrors findings of contemporary studies. See, for example, A. P. Jephcott, Married Women Working, London, Allen & Unwin, 1962; A, Myrdal & V. Klein, Women's Two Roles, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1956. For useful summary of contemporary issues, see J. Lewis, Women in Britain since 1945, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1992, ch. 3. Google Scholar
Beynon, Working, p. 148. Google Scholar
R. B. Kanter, ‘Families, family processes and economic life: towards a systematic analysis of social historical research', American Journal of Sociology, 84, 1978, (Supplement) pp. S334-5.
‘Families, family processes and economic life: towards a systematic analysis of social historical research’
American Journal of Sociology
5 Google Scholar
R. Roberts, R. Finnegan and D. Gallie (eds), Approaches to Economic Life. Economic Restructuring, Unemployment and the Social Division of Labour, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. 6.
Approaches to Economic Life. Economic Restructuring, Unemployment and the Social Division of Labour
6 Google Scholar
D. Massey (ed.), Space, Place and Gender, Cambridge, Polity Press, 1994, pp. 191-2.
Space, Place and Gender
2 Google Scholar
D. Bleitrach and A. Chenu, ‘Modes of domination and everyday life: some notes on recent research', in M. Harloe and E. Lebas (eds), Community, Class and Capital, London, Edward Arnold, 1981 p. 106.
Community, Class and Capital
106 Google Scholar
On local male attitudes towards domestic violence see, J. B. Mays, On the Threshold of Delinquency, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 1959, pp. 114-5; H. Parker, View from the Boys, Newton Abbot, David & Charles, 1974, p. 95; W. Prendergast, Calling All Z Cars, 1966, London, Arrow Books, 1968, p. 106.
On the Threshold of Delinquency
5 Google Scholar
A. Brittan, Masculinity and Power, Oxford, Blackwell, 1989, p.43.
Masculinity and Power
43 Google Scholar