Labour History Review

Britishness, the United Kingdom and the Revolutions of 1848

Labour History Review (1999), 64, (2), 143–158.

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Philippa Levine, The Amateur and the Professional: antiquarians, historians and archaeologists in Victorian England, 1838-1898 (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 70-100 The Amateur and the Professional: antiquarians, historians and archaeologists in Victorian England, 1838-1898 70 100 Google Scholar

For an interesting study of how the events of 1848 confirmed British stereotypes of the French, see Fabrice Bensimon, ‘La caricature anglaise face à la révolution de 1848 en France: l'exemple de trois périodiques’, Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique, ix (1997), pp. 133-49 ‘La caricature anglaise face à la révolution de 1848 en France: l'exemple de trois périodiques’ Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique ix 133 49 Google Scholar

Dorothy Thompson, ‘Seceding from the Seceders: The Decline of the Jacobin Tradition in Ireland, 1790-1850’, in Outsiders: Class, Gender and Nation (London, 1993), pp. 134-63. Richard Davis, The Young Ireland Movement (Dublin, 1987) Outsiders: Class, Gender and Nation 134 63 Google Scholar

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Stanley Palmer, Police and Protest in England and Ireland, 1780-1850 (New York, 1988), pp. 497-501 provides a full account of ‘the Battle at the Widow McCormack's Farmhouse’ Police and Protest in England and Ireland, 1780-1850 497 501 Google Scholar

John Belchem, ‘Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile: Irish Emigrants and the Revolutions of 1848’, Past and Present, 146 (1995), pp. 103-35 ‘Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile: Irish Emigrants and the Revolutions of 1848’ Past and Present 146 103 35 Google Scholar

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John Belchem, ‘Republican Spirit and Military Science: The "Irish Brigade" and Irish-American Nationalism in 1848’, Irish Historical Studies, 29 (1994), pp. 44-64 ‘Republican Spirit and Military Science: The "Irish Brigade" and Irish-American Nationalism in 1848’ Irish Historical Studies 29 44 64 Google Scholar

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Roy Foster, ‘Marginal Men and Micks on the Make: The Uses of Irish Exile c.1840-1922’ in Paddy and Mr Punch (London, 1995), pp. 281-305 Paddy and Mr Punch 281 305 Google Scholar

See my paper, ‘Class, creed and country: the Irish middle-class in Victorian Liverpool’ in R. Swift and S. Gilley (eds), The Irish in Victorian Britain: the local dimension (Dublin, forthcoming) The Irish in Victorian Britain: the local dimension Google Scholar

John Belchem, ‘Liverpool in the year of revolution: the political and associational culture of the Irish immigrant community in 1848’ in Belchem (ed.), Popular Politics, Riot and Labour: essays in Liverpool history 1790-1940 (Liverpool, 1992), pp. 68-97. My findings differ from two earlier studies: W. J. Lowe, ‘The Chartists and the Irish Confederates: Lancashire 1848’, Irish Historical Studies, 24 (1984), pp. 172-96; and Louis R. Bisceglia, ‘The threat of violence: Irish Confederates and Chartists in Liverpool in 1848’, Irish Sword, 14 (1981), pp. 207-15 Popular Politics, Riot and Labour: essays in Liverpool history 1790-1940 68 97 Google Scholar

John Belchem, ‘"Freedom and Friendship to Ireland": Ribbonism in early nineteenth-century Liverpool’, International Review of Social History, 39 (1994), pp. 33-56 ‘"Freedom and Friendship to Ireland": Ribbonism in early nineteenth-century Liverpool’ International Review of Social History 39 33 56 Google Scholar

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James Epstein, Radical Expression: political language, ritual and symbol and England, 1790-1850 (New York, 1994). James Vernon (ed.), Re-reading the constitution: New narratives in the political history of England's long nineteenth century (Cambridge, 1996) Radical Expression: political language, ritual and symbol and England, 1790-1850 Google Scholar

James Vernon, Politics and the People: a study in English political culture c.1815-1867 (Cambridge, 1993) Politics and the People: a study in English political culture c.1815-1867 Google Scholar

Miles Taylor, The Decline of British Radicalism (Oxford, 1995), p. 108 The Decline of British Radicalism 108 Google Scholar

John Belchem, ‘1848: Feargus O'Connor and the Collapse of the Mass Platform’, in J. Epstein and D. Thompson (eds), The Chartist Experience (London, 1982), pp. 269-310 The Chartist Experience 269 310 Google Scholar

‘The Saxon, the Celt, and the Gaul’, Economist, 29 April 1848 Google Scholar

John Saville, 1848: The British State and the Chartist Movement (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 1-2 and 102-29 1848: The British State and the Chartist Movement 1 2 Google Scholar

Henry Weisser, April 10: Challenge and Response in England in 1848 (Lanham, 1983), p. 58 April 10: Challenge and Response in England in 1848 58 Google Scholar

Weisser, April 10, p. 58 Google Scholar

David Goodway, London Chartism, 1838-48 (Cambridge, 1982), pp. 72-80 London Chartism, 1838-48 72 80 Google Scholar

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Punch, xiv, 1848, p. 240. The Times, 2 June and 8 July 1848 Google Scholar

Halifax Guardian, 17 June 1848 Google Scholar

Liverpool Mercury, 13 June 1848 Google Scholar

T. G. McAllister, Terence Bellew McManus (Maynooth, 1972), pp. 11-12 Terence Bellew McManus 11 12 Google Scholar

For McManus's own narrative of events, see Denis Gwynn, Young Ireland and 1848 (Cork, 1949), Appendix 3 Young Ireland and 1848 Google Scholar

Punch, xv, 1848, pp. 154-5. The Times, 18 August and 29 September 1848 Google Scholar

Northern Star, 23 December 1848 Google Scholar

Note the attention accorded to 1848 in the revised edition of L. Perry Curtis Jr., Apes and Angels: the Irishman in Victorian Caricature (Washington, 1997), charting (p. xxii) ‘the emergence of a bestialized or demonized Paddy, bent on murder and mayhem, in cartoons after the rather farcical rebellion of 1848’. The Liverpool Mercury, usually tolerant in tone, wrote in harsh terms of the ‘reckless’ Irish after the events of 1848, see C. M. Scott, ‘A comparative re-examination of Anglo-Irish relations in nineteenth-century Manchester, Liverpool and Newcastle-upon-Tyne’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Durham, 1998, pp. 54, and 183-5 Apes and Angels: the Irishman in Victorian Caricature xxii Google Scholar

While Curtis stresses the longevity (and racialism) of hibernophobia, D. G. Paz, ‘Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Irish Stereotyping, and Anti-Celtic Racism in Mid-Victorian Working-Class Periodicals’, Albion, 18 (1986), pp. 601-16, contends that anti-Irish stories began to fade out of the gutter press in the mid 1850s ‘Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Irish Stereotyping, and Anti-Celtic Racism in Mid-Victorian Working-Class Periodicals’ Albion 18 601 16 Google Scholar

Dale T. Knobel, Paddy and the Republic. Ethnicity and Nationality in Antebellum America (Middletown, 1986), chs 1, 3 and 4 Paddy and the Republic. Ethnicity and Nationality in Antebellum America Google Scholar

For a critical introduction to studies of how the Irish ‘became white’ in the late nineteenth century United States, see David Brundage, ‘"Green over Black": Ireland and Irish-Americans in the new histories of American working-class "whiteness"’, paper presented to the conference on Racialising Class, Classifying Race, Oxford, 11-13 July 1997 ‘"Green over Black": Ireland and Irish-Americans in the new histories of American working-class "whiteness"’ Google Scholar

Taylor, Decline of British Radicalism, p. 105 Google Scholar

R. Quinault, ‘1848 and Parliamentary Reform’, Historical Journal, 31 (1988), pp. 831-51 ‘1848 and Parliamentary Reform’ Historical Journal 31 831 51 Google Scholar

‘The Saxon, the Celt and the Gaul’, Economist, 29 April 1848 Google Scholar

‘The Wisdom and Warnings of 1848’, Economist, 30 December 1848 Google Scholar

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Belchem, John