Labour History Review

The Making of Labour Zionism as a Moral Community: Workers' Tribunals in 1920s Palestine

Labour History Review (2000), 65, (2), 139–165.

Abstract

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See Mitchell Cohen, Zion and State: Nation, Class and the Shaping of Modern Israel, Oxford, 1987, chs 4-6 Zion and State: Nation, Class and the Shaping of Modern Israel Google Scholar

Yoseph Gorny, Achdut Ha-Avoda, 1919-1930: Ideological Foundations and Political Method, Tel Aviv, 1973 [Hebrew]; Michael Shalev, Labour and the Political Economy in Israel, Oxford, 1992; Zachary Lockman, Comrades and Enemies: Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906-1948, Berkeley, 1996 Achdut Ha-Avoda, 1919-1930: Ideological Foundations and Political Method Google Scholar

For community see David De Vries, Idealism and Bureaucracy in 1920s Palestine: The Origins of ‘Red Haifa’, Tel Aviv, 1999. See also David F. Crew, ‘Class and Community: Local Research on Working-Class History in Four Countries’, in Klaus Tenfelde (ed.), Arbeiter und Arbeiterbewegung im Vergleich, Munich, 1986, pp. 279-336; Sally Engle Merry, Getting Justice and Getting Even: Legal Consciousness Among Working-Class Americans, Chicago, 1990; Edward P. Thompson, Customs in Common, London, 1993, chs IV-V Idealism and Bureaucracy in 1920s Palestine: The Origins of ‘Red Haifa’ Google Scholar

The Comrades' Court: A Collection, Tel Aviv, 1936 [Hebrew] Google Scholar

Sally Engle Merry, ‘The Social Organization of Mediation in Nonindustrial Societies: Implications for Informal Community Justice in America’, in Richard L. Abel, (ed.), The Politics of Informal Justice, Vol. 2, New York, 1982, pp. 17-45 The Politics of Informal Justice 2 17 45 Google Scholar

S. W. Baron, The Russian Jews Under Tsars and Societs, New York, 1976, pp. 103-6; Israel Bar-Shira, ‘On Analysing the Nature of the Comrades’ Court', Ha-Mishpat, 4, 3, 1927, pp. 103-7 The Russian Jews Under Tsars and Societs 103 6 Google Scholar

Kai T. Erikson, Wayward Puritans: A Study in the Sociology of Deviance, New York, 1966; Piers Beirne, (ed.), Revolution in Law: Contributions to the Development of Soviet Legal Theory, 1917-1938, Armonk New York, 1990; Richard T. De George, Soviet Ethics and Morality, Ann Arbor, 1969; Peter H. Solomon Jr. Soviet Criminal Justice under Stalin, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 3-48 Wayward Puritans: A Study in the Sociology of Deviance Google Scholar

Harold J. Berman, James W. Spindler, ‘Soviet Comrades’ Courts', Washington Law Review, 38, 1963, pp. 842-57; Israel Bar-Shira, ‘On the Courts of the Histadrut’, Ha-Mishpat, 1, 1, January 1927, pp. 49-52 ‘Soviet Comrades’ Courts' Washington Law Review 38 842 57 Google Scholar

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David De Vries, ‘Proletarianization and National Segregation: Haifa in the 1920s’, Middle Eastern Studies, 30, 4, October 1994, pp. 860-82; M K 107, January 1924, LA/250-27-1-1904; MK 122, February 1924, LA/250-27-1-1866; MK 138, March 1924, LA/250-27-1-1882 ‘Proletarianization and National Segregation: Haifa in the 1920s’ Middle Eastern Studies 30 860 82 Google Scholar

David De Vries, ‘Haifa's Workers during the Third Aliya Crisis: The Tension between the Leadership and the Rank-and-File and the Emergence Bureaucratic Idealism in the Labour Movement in Palestine’, Hatsiyonut, No. 17, pp. 117-53 [Hebrew]; M K 122, February 1924, LA/250-27-1-1866; MK 147, 9 March 1924, LA/250-27-1-1891; MK 635, 16 June 1926, LA/250-27-1-1819 ‘Haifa's Workers during the Third Aliya Crisis: The Tension between the Leadership and the Rank-and-File and the Emergence Bureaucratic Idealism in the Labour Movement in Palestine’ Hatsiyonut 117 53 Google Scholar

MK 148, 9 March 1924, LA/250-27-1-1892; MK 415, 16 May 1925, LA/250-27-1-1990; MK 634, 13 July 1926, LA/250-27-1-1818; Moshe Lissak, ‘Strategies of Class Formation: The Case of the Labour Movement in the Jewish Community of Palestine, 1918-1948’, in Eric Cohen et al. (eds), Comparative Social Dynamics, Boulder, 1985, pp. 245-61 Google Scholar

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Richard D. Schwartz, ‘Social Factors in the Development of Legal Control: A Case Study of Two Israeli Settlements’, The Tale Law Journal, 63, 1954, pp. 471-91; The Comrades' Court and Its Problems, Tel Aviv, 1955 [Hebrew];The 1921-1927 Haifa LC report, LA/250-27-1-273 and 2108 ‘Social Factors in the Development of Legal Control: A Case Study of Two Israeli Settlements’ The Tale Law Journal 63 471 91 Google Scholar

Israel Bar-Shira, ‘On the Courts of the Histadrut’, Ha-Mishpat, 1, 1, January 1927, p. 49; Bar-Shira, On Analysing, pp. 103-7 ‘On the Courts of the Histadrut’ Ha-Mishpat 1 49 Google Scholar

D. H., ‘In the Courts of the Histadrut’, Ha-Mishpat, 2, 1-2, July-August 1927, p. 101; Christine B. Harringron, Sally Engle Merry, ‘Ideological Production: The Making of Community Mediation’, Law and Society Review, 22, 4, 1988, pp. 709-35 Google Scholar

Sources are cited in De Vries, Proletarianization, pp. 860-82; May Seikaly, Haifa: Transformation of an Arab Society, 1918-1939, London, 1995, chs 4, 8, 9; De Vries, Idealism and Bureaucracy, ch. 3 Google Scholar

Dan Giladi, The Jewish Settlement During the Fourth Wave of Immigration, Ramat-Gan, 1974 [Hebrew]; David De Vries, ‘Labour and Authority Struggles Among Industrial Workers in Palestine: The Workers of the Nesher Cement Factory in the 1920s’, Yahadut Zemanenu, Vol. 8, pp. 177-215 [Hebrew] The Jewish Settlement During the Fourth Wave of Immigration Google Scholar

The Histadrut Sixth Council, March 1923, LA/Library; ‘Rules of the Histadrut Comrades’ Courts', Ha-Mishpat, 1, 1, January 1927; Moshe Zmora (Supreme Court Secretary) to the town Comrades' Courts, 4 January 1927, LA/245-2-81; Israel Bar-Shira, ‘On Questions of the Comrades’ Court and its Organization', 16 October 1928, LA/245-2-81 Google Scholar

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The Haifa Labour Exchange, mid-August 1923, and the Executive of the LC, 20 August 1923, LA/250-27-1-615; MK 1476, 14 July 1927, LA/250-27-1-1013; Z. Feller, ‘On the Comrades’ Court', Davar, 16 November 1926; Israel Shivo, ‘On the Issue of the Comrades’ Court', Davar, 12 May 1927 Google Scholar

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MK 105, 25 January 1924, LA/250-27-1-1902; Chaim Shreibman, ‘More on the Question of the Comrades’ Court', Davar, 18 June 1926; Z. Beller, ‘On the Comrades’ Court', Davar, 16 November 1926 Google Scholar

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De Vries, ‘The Making of Workers’ Morality — The Comrades' Court of Histadrut in Palestine's Urban Sector in the 1920s', in The Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies, Jerusalem, 1994, pp. 227-34 [Hebrew]; Robert Wuthnow, Meaning and Moral Order: Explorations in Cultural Analysis, Berkeley, 1987, Chs. 4-5; Barbara Yngvesson, ‘Making Law at the Doorway: The Clerk, the Court, and the Construction of Community in New England Town’, Law and Society Review, 22, 3, 1988, pp. 409-48 The Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies 227 34 Google Scholar

MK 156, March 1924, LA/245-2-80; MK 122, February 1924, 250-27-1-1866; Zmora to the Tel Aviv Building Workers' Union, 28 July 1926, Ha-Mishpat, 1, 2, February 1927, p. 126; Shaul Frenkel to the Haifa Jury of Judges, 9 March 1927, MK 1246, LA/250-27-1-1246; H. Shorer, ‘Clarifications on One Court Case’, Davar, 31 March 1927; A. D. Lichtman, ‘On the Comrades’ Court and its Instances', Davar, 8 June 1927 Google Scholar

For concepts see Jeffrey C. Alexander, ‘Citizen and Enemy as Symbolic Classification: On the Polarizing Discourse of Civil Society’, in Michele Lamont, Marcel Fournier (eds), Cultivating Differences: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality, Chicago and London, 1992, pp. 289-308; MK 644, July 1926, LA/250-27-1-1811; MK 122, February 1924, LA/250-27-1-1866; MK 194, 11 May 1924, LA/250-27-l-32-b; MK 233, 19 January 1924, LA/250-27-1-1910; MK 122, February 1924, 250-27-1-1866; MK (no number), 11 March 1925, LA/250-27-1-870 Cultivating Differences: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality 289 308 Google Scholar

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For boundaries see Anthony P. Cohen, Whalsay: Symbol, Segment and Boundary in Shetland Island Community, Manchester, 1987, pp. 11-21 Whalsay: Symbol, Segment and Boundary in Shetland Island Community 11 21 Google Scholar

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De Vries, Proletarianization, pp. 873-876 Google Scholar

D. H., ‘In the Histadrut Comrades’ Courts', Ha-Mishpat, 2, 1-2, July-August 1927, pp. 102-3; Bar-Shira, On the Questions, LA/245-2-81; Y. H. ‘On Reparing the Histadrut Comrades’ Court', Davar, 11 November 1928; Israel Bar-Shira to the Histadrut Executive, 8 March 1931, LA/245-2-11; The Tel Aviv-Jaffa Comrades' Court report, 1931-1932, LA/250-72-1-2580; The Haifa Comrades' Courts report, 1937, LA/208-1-1407 Google Scholar

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De Vries, David