BHS, LVII (1980)
JAMES JOSEPH CHAMPION, The Periphrastic Futures formed ~y the Romance Reflexes of TlAD () (AD)
plus infinitive. North Carolina Studies in the Rornance Languages and Literatures, Chapel
Hill. 1978. 77 pp. $6.00.
The emergence of VADO ( > voy) etc.) plus infinitive forms in Mediaeval Western Romance,
in Catalonia with past meaning, elsewhere with occasional past but more commonly future
meaning, from the infinitive of purpose after verbs of motion, is compared (31) with Latin and
Romance uses of the present for both future and 'historic ~ present, normally without ambiguity.
The fifteenth century saw it specialize as a future in non-Catalan Iberia, with an a in Castilian
by the sixteenth, since when its spread has been accelerating: the increasing modern use,
particularly in Hispano-Romance (and overwhehningly in Brazil), has hardly been recognized
in modern grammars, prescriptive or transformational. 'This is a slight start on a huge subject.
FRANCISCO MARCOS MARiN, Estudios sobre el pronombre. Gredos, Madrid. 1978. 332 pp.
The pronoun studied by Professor Marcos is the third person atonic. He finds two systems
currently in competition; the etymological, preserving le < ILLI for all singular indirect objects
only, and that based on gender, with le for masculine people, lo for masculine things, and la for
feminines, regardless of case. Leismo, the etymological system plus le for human masculine direct
object, is common enough for it to be seen as a third system (283), but not so common as to
deserve having been prescribed as 'correct'; as Marcos points out (46), the Academy's Esbo;o
(1974) sees lo as the norm here and le as tolerable (3.l0.5c). So do Alcina Franch and Blecua in
their Gramatica Espanola (184.108.40.206), which appeared too late for this study. The extensive
historical survey covers many authors and texts (e.g. The Primera Cronica General, Arcipreste de
Talavera, Bernal Diaz, El Buscon, the Moratines, La Fontana de Oro, Baroja, and the Madrid ABC
in 1973-74), and shows the rise of leismo and the rise and fall of laismo (La for indirect feminine
object) from the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries. There are brief sections on geographical
variations and on se le, and a serious proposal that the source ofleisnlo Inay lie in Latin verbs that
always took personal direct objects in the dative case, with other inherently unstable
constructions, such as the double accusatives, being attracted to (in apparent alternative norm.
Despite Professor Marcos' decision not to analyse any modern spoken language, this is a serious
contribution to an intriguing problem, and will be of use to the many studies on this subject that
are inevitably yet to appear.
B. MILLER, Mujeres en la literatura. Editora Fleischer, Mexico. 1978. 145 pp.
This is a ramshackle assortment of biographical sketches, essays on the depiction of women in
literature, interviews and translations of poems by American women poets. Despite the title,
most of the essays are concerned with women and literature in Mexico but the volume as a
whole lacks coherence and a clear sense of purpose. The rise of the Women's Liberation
Movement has produced a growth industry in feminist literary criticism and although
undoubtedly such an approach can provide fruitful insights and reassessments, it is doubtful
whether these rather slight essays (most of which have already been published) make any
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