Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Abjection, Marriage, and the Burrowing Worm: The Body as Bounded System in the Dança general de la Muerte

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2014), 91, (8), 965–980.

Abstract

This article explores the depiction of the burrowing gusano in the Dança general de la Muerte, arguing that Julia Kristeva's theory of abjection offers a previously untested hermeneutic for interpretation. It argues that the action of the worm in devouring the soft tissue of the corpse can be understood in terms of the blurring of traditional dichotomies between internal/external, self/other, and subject/object. The process, which destabilizes our conventional understanding of structure, system, and order, is predicated on an understanding of the body as a semiotic sign system capable of inscribing the subject within the symbolic order. Death is in this way marked as the intrusion of the real into the symbolic, although a significant complication in the Spanish poem is the representation of Muerte as bride, which allows the reader to queer the text and relate abjection to recent advances in gender studies.

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Álvarez Pellitero, Ana María, 1991. ‘La Danza de la muerte: entre el sermón y el teatro’, Bulletin Hispanique, 93.1: 13-29. ‘La Danza de la muerte: entre el sermón y el teatro’ Bulletin Hispanique 93 13 29 Google Scholar

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Beresford, Andrew M., 2001. ‘"Una oraçión, señora, que le dixeron que sabías, de Sancta Polonia para el dolor de las muelas": Celestina and the Legend of St Apollonia’, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 78: 39-57. ‘"Una oraçión, señora, que le dixeron que sabías, de Sancta Polonia para el dolor de las muelas": Celestina and the Legend of St Apollonia’ Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 78 39 57 Google Scholar

Bierman, Joseph S., 1962. ‘Necrophilia in a Thirteen-Year-Old Boy’, Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 31: 329-36. ‘Necrophilia in a Thirteen-Year-Old Boy’ Psychoanalytic Quarterly 31 329 36 Google Scholar

Binski, Paul, 1996. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation (London: British Museum Press). Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation Google Scholar

Blay Manzanera, Vicenta, 1999. ‘"Sin sentir nadie la mía": el discurso sordo de la mujer poeta en el ocaso de la Edad Media’, in Actes del VII Congrés de l'Associació Hispànica de Literatura Medieval: Castelló de la Plana, 22-26 de setembre de 1997, ed. Santiago Fortuño Llorens & Tomàs Martínez Romero (Castelló de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I), I, pp. 353-71. ‘"Sin sentir nadie la mía": el discurso sordo de la mujer poeta en el ocaso de la Edad Media’ I 353 71 Google Scholar

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Castro Lingl, Vera, 1998. ‘La dama y el pastor and the Ballads of the Cancionero general: The Portrayal of the Experienced Woman’, in ‘Cancionero’ Studies 1998: 133-46. Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1970. ‘El ambiente social e intelectual de la danza de la muerte’, in Actas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas, Celebrado en México, D. F., del 26 al 31 de agosto de 1968, ed. Carlos H. Magis (Mexico: El Colegio de Mexico por la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas), pp. 267-76. Actas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas, Celebrado en México, D. F., del 26 al 31 de agosto de 1968 267 76 Google Scholar

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Deyermond, Alan, 1983. ‘Spain's First Women Writers’, in Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols, ed. Beth Miller (Berkeley: U. of California P.), pp. 27-52. Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols 27 52 Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1996. Point of View in the Ballad: ‘The Prisoner’, ‘The Lady and the Shepherd’, and Others, The Kate Elder Lecture, 7 (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College). Point of View in the Ballad: ‘The Prisoner’, ‘The Lady and the Shepherd’, and Others Google Scholar

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Fulks, Barbara, 1989. ‘The Poet Named Florencia Pinar’, La Corónica, 18 (Fall): 33-44. ‘The Poet Named Florencia Pinar’ La Corónica 18 33 44 Google Scholar

Gaither, John Maxwell, 1970. ‘La dança general de la muerte: Symbol of a Declining Age’, PhD Thesis (St Louis University). DAI (Ann Arbor, MI): 31: 2342A. Google Scholar

Gennero, Mario, 1974. ‘Elementos franciscanos en las danzas de la muerte’, Thesaurus: Boletín del Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 29: 181-85. ‘Elementos franciscanos en las danzas de la muerte’ Thesaurus: Boletín del Instituto Caro y Cuervo 29 181 85 Google Scholar

Gertsman, Elina, 2010. The Dance of Death in the Middle Ages: Image, Text, Performance, Studies in the Visual Cultures of the Middle Ages, 3 (Turnhout: Brepols). The Dance of Death in the Middle Ages: Image, Text, Performance Google Scholar

Grosz, Elizabeth, 1990. ‘The Body of Signification’, in Abjection, Melancholia, and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva, ed. John Fletcher & Andrew Benjamin, Warwick Studies in Philosophy and Literature (London: Routledge), pp. 80-103. Abjection, Melancholia, and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva 80 103 Google Scholar

Guthke, Karl S., 1999. The Gender of Death: A Cultural History in Art and Literature (Cambridge: UP). The Gender of Death: A Cultural History in Art and Literature Google Scholar

Homer, Sean, 2005. Jacques Lacan, Routledge Critical Thinkers (London: Routledge). Jacques Lacan Google Scholar

Hook, David, & J. R. Williamson, 1979. ‘"Pensastes el mundo por vos trastornar": The World Upside-Down in the Dança general de la muerte’, Medium Ævum, 48: 90-101. ‘"Pensastes el mundo por vos trastornar": The World Upside-Down in the Dança general de la muerte’, Medium Ævum 48 90 101 Google Scholar

Infantes, Víctor, 1997. Las danzas de la muerte: génesis y desarrollo de un género medieval (siglos XIII-XVII), Acta Salmanticensia, Estudios Filológicos, 267 (Salamanca: Universidad). Las danzas de la muerte: génesis y desarrollo de un género medieval (siglos XIII-XVII) Google Scholar

Kerkhof, Maxim, 1990. ‘De nuevo sobre la fecha de la Dança general de la muerte’, Incipit, 10: 91-102. ‘De nuevo sobre la fecha de la Dança general de la muerte’, Incipit 10 91 102 Google Scholar

Kovács, Lenke, 2011. ‘Frightened or Fearless: Different Ways of Facing Death in the Sixteenth-Century Majorcan Play Representació de la Mort’, in Mixed Metaphors: The ‘Danse Macabre’ in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Sophie Oosterwijk & Stephanie Knöll (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), pp. 207-36. Mixed Metaphors: The ‘Danse Macabre’ in Medieval and Early Modern Europe 207 36 Google Scholar

Kristeva, Julia, 1982. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection, trans. Leon S. Roudiez (New York: Columbia UP). Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques, 2002 [1966]. "Écrits": The First Complete Edition in English, trans. Bruce Fink (New York: W. W. Norton and Company). "Écrits": The First Complete Edition in English Google Scholar

Lawrance, Jeremy, 2010. ‘Homily and Harangue in Medieval Spain: The Sermon and the Crowds’, Revista de Poética Medieval, 24: 147-83. ‘Homily and Harangue in Medieval Spain: The Sermon and the Crowds’ Revista de Poética Medieval 24 147 83 Google Scholar

Lechte, John, 1990. ‘Horror, Love, Melancholy’, in Julia Kristeva, Critics of the Twentieth Century (London: Routledge), pp. 157-98. Julia Kristeva, Critics of the Twentieth Century 157 98 Google Scholar

Masera, Mariana, 1997. ‘El simbolismo en la lírica tradicional hispánica: un recurso poético’, in ‘Quien hubiese tal ventura’: Studies on Medieval Hispanic Literature in Honour of Alan Deyermond, ed. Andrew M. Beresford (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College), pp. 355-67. ‘Quien hubiese tal ventura’: Studies on Medieval Hispanic Literature in Honour of Alan Deyermond 355 67 Google Scholar

Masera, Mariana, 1998. ‘Tradición oral y tradición escrita en el Cancionero musical de Palacio: el cabello como atributo erótico de la belleza femenina’, in ‘Cancionero’ Studies 1998: 159-71. Google Scholar

McAfee, Noëlle, 2004. ‘Abjection’, in Julia Kristeva, Routledge Critical Thinkers (London: Routledge), pp. 45-57. Julia Kristeva, Routledge Critical Thinkers 45 57 Google Scholar

Mills, Robert, 2005. Suspended Animation: Pain, Pleasure and Punishment in Medieval Culture (London: Reaktion Books). Suspended Animation: Pain, Pleasure and Punishment in Medieval Culture Google Scholar

Merback, Mitchell B., 1999. The Thief, the Cross and the Wheel: Pain and the Spectacle of Punishment in Medieval and Renaissance Europe (London: Reaktion Books). The Thief, the Cross and the Wheel: Pain and the Spectacle of Punishment in Medieval and Renaissance Europe Google Scholar

Morreale, Margherita, 1991. ‘Dança general de la muerte’, Revista de Literatura Medieval, 3: 9-52. Google Scholar

Morreale, Margherita, 1996. ‘La dança general de la muerte (II)’, Revista de Literatura Medieval, 8: 111-77. ‘La dança general de la muerte (II)’ Revista de Literatura Medieval 8 111 77 Google Scholar

Nepaulsingh, Colbert I., 1986. Towards a History of Literary Composition in Medieval Spain (Toronto: U. of Toronto P.). Towards a History of Literary Composition in Medieval Spain Google Scholar

Oliver, Kelly, 1993. Reading Kristeva: Unraveling the Double-Bind (Bloomington: Indiana UP). Reading Kristeva: Unraveling the Double-Bind Google Scholar

Sleeman, Margaret, 1981. ‘Medieval Hair Tokens’, Forum for Modern Language Studies, 17: 322-36. ‘Medieval Hair Tokens’ Forum for Modern Language Studies 17 322 36 Google Scholar

Snow, Joseph, 1984. ‘The Spanish Love Poet: Florencia Pinar’, in Medieval Women Writers, ed. Katharina M. Wilson (Athens: U. of Georgia P.), pp. 320-32. Medieval Women Writers 320 32 Google Scholar

Thompson, Victoria, 2004. ‘The Gravestone, the Grave, and the Wyrm’, in Dying and Death in Later Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon Studies, 4 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press), pp. 132-69. Dying and Death in Later Anglo-Saxon England 132 69 Google Scholar

Walker, Roger M., 1972. ‘"Potest aliquis gustare quod gustatum affert mortem?" (Job vi.6): An Aspect of Imagery and Structure in La danza general de la Muerte’, Medium Ævum, 41: 32-38. ‘"Potest aliquis gustare quod gustatum affert mortem?" (Job vi.6): An Aspect of Imagery and Structure in La danza general de la Muerte’, Medium Ævum 41 32 38 Google Scholar

Weiss, Julian, 1979-80. ‘A Note on Imagery in the Dança general de la muerte’, La Corónica, 8 (Fall): 35-37. ‘A Note on Imagery in the Dança general de la muerte’ La Corónica 8 35 37 Google Scholar

West, Geoffrey, 1970. ‘The Unseemliness of Calisto's Toothache’, Celestinesca, 1: 3-10. ‘The Unseemliness of Calisto's Toothache’ Celestinesca 1 3 10 Google Scholar

Álvarez Pellitero, Ana María, 1991. ‘La Danza de la muerte: entre el sermón y el teatro’, Bulletin Hispanique, 93.1: 13-29. ‘La Danza de la muerte: entre el sermón y el teatro’ Bulletin Hispanique 93 13 29 Google Scholar

Bartholomew, A., K. Milte, & G. Galbally, 1978. ‘Homosexual Necrophilia’, Medicine, Science and the Law, 18.1: 29-35. ‘Homosexual Necrophilia’ Medicine, Science and the Law 18 29 35 Google Scholar

Beresford, Andrew M., 2001. ‘"Una oraçión, señora, que le dixeron que sabías, de Sancta Polonia para el dolor de las muelas": Celestina and the Legend of St Apollonia’, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 78: 39-57. ‘"Una oraçión, señora, que le dixeron que sabías, de Sancta Polonia para el dolor de las muelas": Celestina and the Legend of St Apollonia’ Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 78 39 57 Google Scholar

Bierman, Joseph S., 1962. ‘Necrophilia in a Thirteen-Year-Old Boy’, Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 31: 329-36. ‘Necrophilia in a Thirteen-Year-Old Boy’ Psychoanalytic Quarterly 31 329 36 Google Scholar

Binski, Paul, 1996. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation (London: British Museum Press). Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation Google Scholar

Blay Manzanera, Vicenta, 1999. ‘"Sin sentir nadie la mía": el discurso sordo de la mujer poeta en el ocaso de la Edad Media’, in Actes del VII Congrés de l'Associació Hispànica de Literatura Medieval: Castelló de la Plana, 22-26 de setembre de 1997, ed. Santiago Fortuño Llorens & Tomàs Martínez Romero (Castelló de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I), I, pp. 353-71. ‘"Sin sentir nadie la mía": el discurso sordo de la mujer poeta en el ocaso de la Edad Media’ I 353 71 Google Scholar

Burgwinkle, William E., 2004. Sodomy, Masculinity, and Law in Medieval Literature: France and England, 1050-1230, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature (Cambridge: UP). Sodomy, Masculinity, and Law in Medieval Literature: France and England, 1050-1230 Google Scholar

Calef, Victor, & Edward M. Weinshel, 1972. ‘On Certain Neurotic Equivalents of Necrophilia’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 53: 67-76. ‘On Certain Neurotic Equivalents of Necrophilia’ International Journal of Psychoanalysis 53 67 76 Google Scholar

‘Cancionero’ Studies in Honour of Ian Macpherson, 1998. Ed. Alan Deyermond, Papers of the Medieval Hispanic Research Seminar, 11 (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College). ‘Cancionero’ Studies in Honour of Ian Macpherson Google Scholar

Castro Lingl, Vera, 1998. ‘La dama y el pastor and the Ballads of the Cancionero general: The Portrayal of the Experienced Woman’, in ‘Cancionero’ Studies 1998: 133-46. Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1970. ‘El ambiente social e intelectual de la danza de la muerte’, in Actas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas, Celebrado en México, D. F., del 26 al 31 de agosto de 1968, ed. Carlos H. Magis (Mexico: El Colegio de Mexico por la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas), pp. 267-76. Actas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas, Celebrado en México, D. F., del 26 al 31 de agosto de 1968 267 76 Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1978. ‘The Worm and the Partridge: Reflections on the Poetry of Florencia Pinar’, Mester 7.1-2: 3-8. ‘The Worm and the Partridge: Reflections on the Poetry of Florencia Pinar’ Mester 7 3 8 Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1983. ‘Spain's First Women Writers’, in Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols, ed. Beth Miller (Berkeley: U. of California P.), pp. 27-52. Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols 27 52 Google Scholar

Deyermond, Alan, 1996. Point of View in the Ballad: ‘The Prisoner’, ‘The Lady and the Shepherd’, and Others, The Kate Elder Lecture, 7 (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College). Point of View in the Ballad: ‘The Prisoner’, ‘The Lady and the Shepherd’, and Others Google Scholar

Downing, Lisa, 2003. Desiring the Dead: Necrophilia and Nineteenth-Century French Literature (Oxford: Legenda). Desiring the Dead: Necrophilia and Nineteenth-Century French Literature Google Scholar

Dutton, Brian, 1990-91. El cancionero del siglo XV, c. 1360-1520, 7 vols, Biblioteca Española del Siglo XV, Serie Maior, 1-7 (Salamanca: Universidad). El cancionero del siglo XV, c. 1360-1520 7 Google Scholar

Frenk, Margit (ed.), 2003. Nuevo corpus de la antigua lírica popular hispánica: siglos XV a XVII, 2 vols (Tezontle: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, El Colegio de México, Fondo de Cultura Económica). Nuevo corpus de la antigua lírica popular hispánica: siglos XV a XVII 2 Google Scholar

Fulks, Barbara, 1989. ‘The Poet Named Florencia Pinar’, La Corónica, 18 (Fall): 33-44. ‘The Poet Named Florencia Pinar’ La Corónica 18 33 44 Google Scholar

Gaither, John Maxwell, 1970. ‘La dança general de la muerte: Symbol of a Declining Age’, PhD Thesis (St Louis University). DAI (Ann Arbor, MI): 31: 2342A. Google Scholar

Gennero, Mario, 1974. ‘Elementos franciscanos en las danzas de la muerte’, Thesaurus: Boletín del Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 29: 181-85. ‘Elementos franciscanos en las danzas de la muerte’ Thesaurus: Boletín del Instituto Caro y Cuervo 29 181 85 Google Scholar

Gertsman, Elina, 2010. The Dance of Death in the Middle Ages: Image, Text, Performance, Studies in the Visual Cultures of the Middle Ages, 3 (Turnhout: Brepols). The Dance of Death in the Middle Ages: Image, Text, Performance Google Scholar

Grosz, Elizabeth, 1990. ‘The Body of Signification’, in Abjection, Melancholia, and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva, ed. John Fletcher & Andrew Benjamin, Warwick Studies in Philosophy and Literature (London: Routledge), pp. 80-103. Abjection, Melancholia, and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva 80 103 Google Scholar

Guthke, Karl S., 1999. The Gender of Death: A Cultural History in Art and Literature (Cambridge: UP). The Gender of Death: A Cultural History in Art and Literature Google Scholar

Homer, Sean, 2005. Jacques Lacan, Routledge Critical Thinkers (London: Routledge). Jacques Lacan Google Scholar

Hook, David, & J. R. Williamson, 1979. ‘"Pensastes el mundo por vos trastornar": The World Upside-Down in the Dança general de la muerte’, Medium Ævum, 48: 90-101. ‘"Pensastes el mundo por vos trastornar": The World Upside-Down in the Dança general de la muerte’, Medium Ævum 48 90 101 Google Scholar

Infantes, Víctor, 1997. Las danzas de la muerte: génesis y desarrollo de un género medieval (siglos XIII-XVII), Acta Salmanticensia, Estudios Filológicos, 267 (Salamanca: Universidad). Las danzas de la muerte: génesis y desarrollo de un género medieval (siglos XIII-XVII) Google Scholar

Kerkhof, Maxim, 1990. ‘De nuevo sobre la fecha de la Dança general de la muerte’, Incipit, 10: 91-102. ‘De nuevo sobre la fecha de la Dança general de la muerte’, Incipit 10 91 102 Google Scholar

Kovács, Lenke, 2011. ‘Frightened or Fearless: Different Ways of Facing Death in the Sixteenth-Century Majorcan Play Representació de la Mort’, in Mixed Metaphors: The ‘Danse Macabre’ in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Sophie Oosterwijk & Stephanie Knöll (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), pp. 207-36. Mixed Metaphors: The ‘Danse Macabre’ in Medieval and Early Modern Europe 207 36 Google Scholar

Kristeva, Julia, 1982. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection, trans. Leon S. Roudiez (New York: Columbia UP). Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques, 2002 [1966]. "Écrits": The First Complete Edition in English, trans. Bruce Fink (New York: W. W. Norton and Company). "Écrits": The First Complete Edition in English Google Scholar

Lawrance, Jeremy, 2010. ‘Homily and Harangue in Medieval Spain: The Sermon and the Crowds’, Revista de Poética Medieval, 24: 147-83. ‘Homily and Harangue in Medieval Spain: The Sermon and the Crowds’ Revista de Poética Medieval 24 147 83 Google Scholar

Lechte, John, 1990. ‘Horror, Love, Melancholy’, in Julia Kristeva, Critics of the Twentieth Century (London: Routledge), pp. 157-98. Julia Kristeva, Critics of the Twentieth Century 157 98 Google Scholar

Masera, Mariana, 1997. ‘El simbolismo en la lírica tradicional hispánica: un recurso poético’, in ‘Quien hubiese tal ventura’: Studies on Medieval Hispanic Literature in Honour of Alan Deyermond, ed. Andrew M. Beresford (London: Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary and Westfield College), pp. 355-67. ‘Quien hubiese tal ventura’: Studies on Medieval Hispanic Literature in Honour of Alan Deyermond 355 67 Google Scholar

Masera, Mariana, 1998. ‘Tradición oral y tradición escrita en el Cancionero musical de Palacio: el cabello como atributo erótico de la belleza femenina’, in ‘Cancionero’ Studies 1998: 159-71. Google Scholar

McAfee, Noëlle, 2004. ‘Abjection’, in Julia Kristeva, Routledge Critical Thinkers (London: Routledge), pp. 45-57. Julia Kristeva, Routledge Critical Thinkers 45 57 Google Scholar

Mills, Robert, 2005. Suspended Animation: Pain, Pleasure and Punishment in Medieval Culture (London: Reaktion Books). Suspended Animation: Pain, Pleasure and Punishment in Medieval Culture Google Scholar

Merback, Mitchell B., 1999. The Thief, the Cross and the Wheel: Pain and the Spectacle of Punishment in Medieval and Renaissance Europe (London: Reaktion Books). The Thief, the Cross and the Wheel: Pain and the Spectacle of Punishment in Medieval and Renaissance Europe Google Scholar

Morreale, Margherita, 1991. ‘Dança general de la muerte’, Revista de Literatura Medieval, 3: 9-52. Google Scholar

Morreale, Margherita, 1996. ‘La dança general de la muerte (II)’, Revista de Literatura Medieval, 8: 111-77. ‘La dança general de la muerte (II)’ Revista de Literatura Medieval 8 111 77 Google Scholar

Nepaulsingh, Colbert I., 1986. Towards a History of Literary Composition in Medieval Spain (Toronto: U. of Toronto P.). Towards a History of Literary Composition in Medieval Spain Google Scholar

Oliver, Kelly, 1993. Reading Kristeva: Unraveling the Double-Bind (Bloomington: Indiana UP). Reading Kristeva: Unraveling the Double-Bind Google Scholar

Sleeman, Margaret, 1981. ‘Medieval Hair Tokens’, Forum for Modern Language Studies, 17: 322-36. ‘Medieval Hair Tokens’ Forum for Modern Language Studies 17 322 36 Google Scholar

Snow, Joseph, 1984. ‘The Spanish Love Poet: Florencia Pinar’, in Medieval Women Writers, ed. Katharina M. Wilson (Athens: U. of Georgia P.), pp. 320-32. Medieval Women Writers 320 32 Google Scholar

Thompson, Victoria, 2004. ‘The Gravestone, the Grave, and the Wyrm’, in Dying and Death in Later Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon Studies, 4 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press), pp. 132-69. Dying and Death in Later Anglo-Saxon England 132 69 Google Scholar

Walker, Roger M., 1972. ‘"Potest aliquis gustare quod gustatum affert mortem?" (Job vi.6): An Aspect of Imagery and Structure in La danza general de la Muerte’, Medium Ævum, 41: 32-38. ‘"Potest aliquis gustare quod gustatum affert mortem?" (Job vi.6): An Aspect of Imagery and Structure in La danza general de la Muerte’, Medium Ævum 41 32 38 Google Scholar

Weiss, Julian, 1979-80. ‘A Note on Imagery in the Dança general de la muerte’, La Corónica, 8 (Fall): 35-37. ‘A Note on Imagery in the Dança general de la muerte’ La Corónica 8 35 37 Google Scholar

West, Geoffrey, 1970. ‘The Unseemliness of Calisto's Toothache’, Celestinesca, 1: 3-10. ‘The Unseemliness of Calisto's Toothache’ Celestinesca 1 3 10 Google Scholar

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Beresford, Andrew