Labour History Review

‘Planned Growth of Incomes’ or ‘Emergency Gimmick’? The Labour Party, The Social Partners and Incomes Policy, 1964-70

Labour History Review (2004), 69, (1), 59–81.

Abstract

Previous attempts to explain Britain's failure to develop an effective incomes policy have tended to focus on general causes. These have included the small scale of industry, the weakness of ‘peak associations’ of employers and trade unionists, or fragmentation and lack of expertise in government. While this article does not attempt to challenge the importance of these factors, it will attempt to tell a more detailed and specific story about Labour's attempt to construct a ‘social bargain’ in the late 1960s. Using recently released documents from the archives of central government, unions and employers, this piece will attempt to show that Labour's confusion as to the aims of incomes policy was another important reason for the policy's failure. Ideological divisions at elite policy-making levels made the whole project less than realistic from the start. While the Government was uncertain as to the aims of policy, trade unions and employers were initially sceptical towards, and later totally opposed to, intervention in wage and price setting. This fact meant that, by the time Labour left office in 1970, there were very few proponents of wage and price control left within government, unions or employers associations.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

See Labour Party, Thirteen Wasted Years, London, Labour Party, 1963, p. 55. Thirteen Wasted Years 55 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

E.g. A. Cawson, ‘Pluralism, corporatism and the role of the state’, Government and Opposition, 13, 2, 1978, p. 187; P. C. Schmitter, ‘Still the century of corporatism?’, in P. C. Schmitter and G. Lehmbruch (eds), Trends Towards Corporatist Intermediation, London, SAGE, 1979, p. 13. ‘Pluralism, corporatism and the role of the state’ Government and Opposition 13 187 Google Scholar

R. Tarling and F. Wilkinson, ‘The social contract: post-war incomes policies and their inflationary impact’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1, 4, 1977, p. 411. ‘The social contract: post-war incomes policies and their inflationary impact’ Cambridge Journal of Economics 1 411 Google Scholar

E. Batstone, ‘Labour and productivity’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 2, 1, 1986, table 1, p. 37, and pp. 38-41. ‘Labour and productivity’ Oxford Review of Economic Policy 2 37 Google Scholar

L. Delsen and T. van Veen, ‘The Swedish model: relevant for other European countries?’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 30, 1, 1992, pp. 84-91, 97; J. D. Stephens, The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1979, pp. 140-9. ‘The Swedish model: relevant for other European countries?’ British Journal of Industrial Relations 30 84 91 Google Scholar

M. Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1982, pp. 41, 47-53. The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities 41 Google Scholar

C. Crouch, Industrial Relations and European State Traditions, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1994, p. 289. Industrial Relations and European State Traditions 289 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3626, Report of the Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Trade Associations, London, HMSO, June 1968, pp. 262-3, 271-2. Google Scholar

J. Cronin, Labour and Society in Britain 1918-1979, London, Batsford, 1984, pp. 193-205. Labour and Society in Britain 1918-1979 193 205 Google Scholar

S. N. Broadberry and N. F. R Crafts, ‘British economic policy and industrial performance in the early post-war period’, Business History, 38, 4, 1996, pp. 73, 78-9. This interpretation is challenged by J. Tomlinson and N. Tiratsoo, ‘"An old story freshly told"? A comment on Broadberry and Crafts’ approach to Britain's early post-war economic performance', Business History, 40, 2, 1998, pp. 62-72, and defended by S. N. Broadberry and N. F. R. Crafts, ‘The post-war settlement: not such a good bargain after all’, Business History, 40, 2, 1998, pp. 73-9. ‘British economic policy and industrial performance in the early post-war period’ Business History 38 73 Google Scholar

R. Lowe and N. Rollings, ‘Modernising Britain 1957-64: a classic case of centralisation and fragmentation?’, in R. A. W. Rhodes (ed.), Transforming British Government, London, Macmillan/ESRC, 2000, p. 115. Transforming British Government 115 Google Scholar

D. Jackson, H. A. Turner and F. Wilkinson, Do Trade Unions Cause Inflation?, 2nd edn, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1975, pp. 113-5. Do Trade Unions Cause Inflation? 113 5 Google Scholar

D. Marquand, The Unprincipled Society, London, Jonathan Cape, 1988, pp. 160-74; W. Hutton, The State We're In, London, Vintage, 1996, pp. 46-52, 82-8, 132-6, 156-65. The Unprincipled Society 160 74 Google Scholar

M. Shanks, The Stagnant Society, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1961, pp. 53-68. The Stagnant Society 53 68 Google Scholar

E. Wigham, What's Wrong With the Unions?, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1961, pp. 35-42, 206-12. What's Wrong With the Unions? 35 42 Google Scholar

A. Cairncross, Years of Recovery: British Economic Policy 1945-51, London, Methuen, 1985, pp. 402-8; K. Middlemas, Power, Competition and the State, Vol. 2: Threats to the Post-War Settlement, 1961-74, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1990, pp. 35-8, 50-2, 62-8, 83-4. Years of Recovery: British Economic Policy 1945-51 402 8 Google Scholar

N. Harris, Competition and the Corporate Society: British Conservatives, the State and Industry 1945-1964, London, Methuen, 1972, pp. 157-70. Competition and the Corporate Society: British Conservatives, the State and Industry 1945-1964 157 70 Google Scholar

G. A. Dorfman, Wage Politics in Britain 1945-1967, London, Charles Knight, 1974, pp. 116-7, 141-3; L. Panitch, Social Democracy and Industrial Militancy: The Labour Party, the Trade Unions and Incomes Policy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1976, pp. 236-7 and 240-50. Wage Politics in Britain 1945-1967 116 7 Google Scholar

A. W. Phillips, ‘The relation between unemployment and the rate of change of money wage rates in the United Kingdom 1861-1957’, Economica, NS 25, 100, 1958, pp. 296-9. ‘The relation between unemployment and the rate of change of money wage rates in the United Kingdom 1861-1957’ Economica 100 296 9 Google Scholar

L. A. Dicks-Mireaux and J. C. R. Dow, ‘The determinants of wage inflation: United Kingdom 1946-1956’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 122, 2, 1959, pp. 153-7, 170-2. ‘The determinants of wage inflation: United Kingdom 1946-1956’ Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 122 153 7 Google Scholar

See most recently on the general point I. Favretto, The Long Search for a Third Way: The British Labour Party and the Italian Left Since 1945, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2003, pp. 35-42. The Long Search for a Third Way: The British Labour Party and the Italian Left Since 1945 35 42 Google Scholar

J. Tomlinson, ‘The British "productivity problem" in the 1960s’, Past and Present, 175, 1, 2002, pp. 195-6, 201-7. ‘The British "productivity problem" in the 1960s’ Past and Present 175 195 6 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

J. Leruez, Economic Planning and Politics in Britain, London, Martin Robertson, 1975, p. 165. Economic Planning and Politics in Britain 165 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2577, Machinery of Prices and Incomes Policy, London, HMSO, February 1965, pp. 2-4. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

D. Kunz, ‘"Somewhat mixed up together": Anglo-American defence and financial policy during the 1960s’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 27, 2, 1999, p. 217. ‘"Somewhat mixed up together": Anglo-American defence and financial policy during the 1960s’ Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 27 217 Google Scholar

Brown speech, second reading debate, Prices and Incomes Bill, 14 July 1966, House of Commons Debates (hereafter HC Debs.), vol. 731, cols 1754-5. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

P. Paterson, Tired and Emotional: The Life of Lord George-Brown, London, Chatto and Windus, 1993, p. 190. Tired and Emotional: The Life of Lord George-Brown 190 Google Scholar

C. Clifford, ‘The rise and fall of the Department of Economic Affairs, 1964-69: British Government and indicative planning’, Contemporary British History, 11, 2, 1997, p. 104. ‘The rise and fall of the Department of Economic Affairs, 1964-69: British Government and indicative planning’ Contemporary British History 11 104 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Prices and Incomes Act, 12 August 1966, Public General Acts and Measures 1966, c. 33, pp. 581-8. Google Scholar

Mitchell, National Board, appendix DI, pp. 281-2. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3150, Prices and Incomes Standstill: Period of Severe Restraint, London, HMSO, November 1966, pp. 6-8. Google Scholar

T. Benn, Office Without Power: Diaries 1968-1972, London, Arrow edn, 1989, p. 117, diary entry for November 1968. Office Without Power: Diaries 1968-1972 117 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2639, Prices and Incomes Policy, London, HMSO, April 1965, p. 8. Google Scholar

A. Flanders, The Fawley Productivity Agreements, London, Faber and Faber, 1964, esp. pp. 151-61. The Fawley Productivity Agreements 151 61 Google Scholar

For the tendency of new technology to increase wages in a substantial minority of cases, especially among manual workers, see the study of trends in the 1980s in W. W. Daniel, Workplace Industrial Relations and Technical Change, London, Frances Pinter, 1987, chapt. X, pp. 242-59. Workplace Industrial Relations and Technical Change 242 59 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3150, Period of Severe Restraint, p. 7. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3311 (NBPI report 36), Productivity Agreements, London, HMSO, June 1967, p. 41. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3626, Report of the Royal Commission on Trade Unions, pp. 262-3. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

E. Dell, written answer, ‘Prices and incomes policy (productivity agreements)’, 17 December 1969, HC Debs., vol. 793, col. 351. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 4237, Productivity, Prices and Incomes Policy after 1969, London, HMSO, December 1969, pp. 11, 29-31. Google Scholar

See B. Castle, The Castle Diaries 1964-1970, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984, pp. 730-1, diary entries for 18-20 November 1969. The Castle Diaries 1964-1970 730 1 Google Scholar

J. Boswell and J. Peters, Capitalism in Contention: Business Leaders and Political Economy in Modern Britain, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 35, 46-7. Capitalism in Contention: Business Leaders and Political Economy in Modern Britain 35 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

G. Goodman, The Awkward Warrior: Prank Cousins, His Life and Times, London, David-Poynter, 1979, pp. 487-501. The Awkward Warrior: Prank Cousins, His Life and Times 487 501 Google Scholar

M. Wickham-Jones, Economic Strategy and the Labour Party: Politics and Policy Making 1970-83, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1996, pp. 116-20. Economic Strategy and the Labour Party: Politics and Policy Making 1970-83 116 20 Google Scholar

For grassroots feeling see D. Lockwood, The Blackcoated Worker: A Study in Class Consciousness, 2nd edn, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989, pp. 137-55, 194-8. The Blackcoated Worker: A Study in Class Consciousness 137 55 Google Scholar

B. Carter, Capitalism, Class Conflict and the New Middle Class, London, Routledge, 1985, pp. 170-2, 177-81; J. Melling, ‘Red under the collar? Clive Jenkins, white collar unionism and the politics of the British Left, 1947-65’, Twentieth Century British History, 13, 4, 2002, pp. 415-16, 440-2. Capitalism, Class Conflict and the New Middle Class 170 2 Google Scholar

G. S. Bain, The Growth of White Collar Unionism, Oxford, Clarendon Press, pp. 24-9; R. Price and G. S. Bain, ‘Union growth revisited: 1948-1974 in perspective’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 14, 3, 1976, table 6, p. 347. The Growth of White Collar Unionism 24 9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Brown to Woodcock, 24 November 1964, PRO EW 8/1; Cmnd. 2639, Prices and Incomes, pp. 7-8. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC Congress Report 1965, London, TUC, p. 473; TUC Congress Report 1966, p. 463. Google Scholar

TUC Congress Report 1967, p. 536. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC Economic Review 1968, pp. 88, 92. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Castle speech, second reading debate, Commission for industry and manpower Bill, 8 April 1970, HC Debs., vol. 799, cols 560-2. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3888, In Place of Strife: A Policy for Industrial Relations, London, HMSO, January 1969, pp. 22-3, 28-30. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

B. Pimlott, Harold Wilson, London, HarperCollins edn, 1993, pp. 540-4. Harold Wilson 540 4 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

S. G. B. Henry and P. A. Ormerod, ‘Incomes policy and wage inflation: empirical evidence for the UK 1961-77’, National Institute Economic Review, 85, 1978, table 6, p. 36. ‘Incomes policy and wage inflation: empirical evidence for the UK 1961-77’ National Institute Economic Review 85 36 Google Scholar

J. R. Artus, ‘The 1967 devaluation of the pound sterling’, International Monetary Fund Staff Papers, 22, 3, 1975, tables 2-3, pp. 603, 605. ‘The 1967 devaluation of the pound sterling’ International Monetary Fund Staff Papers 22 603 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2639, Prices and Incomes, p. 9. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

M. Stewart, ‘The distribution of income’, in W. Beckerman (ed.), The Labour Government's Economic Record 1964-1970, London, Duckwork, tables 2.8, 2.10, pp. 89, 92; Jackson et al., Trade Unions, graph 3, P. 73, PP. 95-103, 123-5. The Labour Government's Economic Record 1964-1970 Google Scholar

A. J. H. Dean, ‘Earnings in the public and private sectors 1950-1975’, National Institute Economic Review, 77, 1976, table 1, p. 63. ‘Earnings in the public and private sectors 1950-1975’ National Institute Economic Review 77 63 Google Scholar

R. Undy et al., Change in Trade Unions: The Development of UK Unions Since the 1960s, London, Hutchinson, 1981, p. 31. Change in Trade Unions: The Development of UK Unions Since the 1960s 31 Google Scholar

Cmnd 3074, Standstill, pp. 2-3. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2808, Prices and Incomes Policy: An ‘Early Warning’ System, London, HMSO, November 1965, appendices A-C, pp. 9-11. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

On planning see e.g. A. Ringe and N. Rollings, ‘Responding to relative decline: the creation of the National Economic Development Council’, Economic History Review, 53, 2, 2000, esp. pp. 347-50. ‘Responding to relative decline: the creation of the National Economic Development Council’ Economic History Review 53 347 50 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See Labour Party, Thirteen Wasted Years, London, Labour Party, 1963, p. 55. Thirteen Wasted Years 55 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

E.g. A. Cawson, ‘Pluralism, corporatism and the role of the state’, Government and Opposition, 13, 2, 1978, p. 187; P. C. Schmitter, ‘Still the century of corporatism?’, in P. C. Schmitter and G. Lehmbruch (eds), Trends Towards Corporatist Intermediation, London, SAGE, 1979, p. 13. ‘Pluralism, corporatism and the role of the state’ Government and Opposition 13 187 Google Scholar

R. Tarling and F. Wilkinson, ‘The social contract: post-war incomes policies and their inflationary impact’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1, 4, 1977, p. 411. ‘The social contract: post-war incomes policies and their inflationary impact’ Cambridge Journal of Economics 1 411 Google Scholar

E. Batstone, ‘Labour and productivity’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 2, 1, 1986, table 1, p. 37, and pp. 38-41. ‘Labour and productivity’ Oxford Review of Economic Policy 2 37 Google Scholar

L. Delsen and T. van Veen, ‘The Swedish model: relevant for other European countries?’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 30, 1, 1992, pp. 84-91, 97; J. D. Stephens, The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1979, pp. 140-9. ‘The Swedish model: relevant for other European countries?’ British Journal of Industrial Relations 30 84 91 Google Scholar

M. Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1982, pp. 41, 47-53. The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities 41 Google Scholar

C. Crouch, Industrial Relations and European State Traditions, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1994, p. 289. Industrial Relations and European State Traditions 289 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3626, Report of the Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Trade Associations, London, HMSO, June 1968, pp. 262-3, 271-2. Google Scholar

J. Cronin, Labour and Society in Britain 1918-1979, London, Batsford, 1984, pp. 193-205. Labour and Society in Britain 1918-1979 193 205 Google Scholar

S. N. Broadberry and N. F. R Crafts, ‘British economic policy and industrial performance in the early post-war period’, Business History, 38, 4, 1996, pp. 73, 78-9. This interpretation is challenged by J. Tomlinson and N. Tiratsoo, ‘"An old story freshly told"? A comment on Broadberry and Crafts’ approach to Britain's early post-war economic performance', Business History, 40, 2, 1998, pp. 62-72, and defended by S. N. Broadberry and N. F. R. Crafts, ‘The post-war settlement: not such a good bargain after all’, Business History, 40, 2, 1998, pp. 73-9. ‘British economic policy and industrial performance in the early post-war period’ Business History 38 73 Google Scholar

R. Lowe and N. Rollings, ‘Modernising Britain 1957-64: a classic case of centralisation and fragmentation?’, in R. A. W. Rhodes (ed.), Transforming British Government, London, Macmillan/ESRC, 2000, p. 115. Transforming British Government 115 Google Scholar

D. Jackson, H. A. Turner and F. Wilkinson, Do Trade Unions Cause Inflation?, 2nd edn, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1975, pp. 113-5. Do Trade Unions Cause Inflation? 113 5 Google Scholar

D. Marquand, The Unprincipled Society, London, Jonathan Cape, 1988, pp. 160-74; W. Hutton, The State We're In, London, Vintage, 1996, pp. 46-52, 82-8, 132-6, 156-65. The Unprincipled Society 160 74 Google Scholar

M. Shanks, The Stagnant Society, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1961, pp. 53-68. The Stagnant Society 53 68 Google Scholar

E. Wigham, What's Wrong With the Unions?, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1961, pp. 35-42, 206-12. What's Wrong With the Unions? 35 42 Google Scholar

A. Cairncross, Years of Recovery: British Economic Policy 1945-51, London, Methuen, 1985, pp. 402-8; K. Middlemas, Power, Competition and the State, Vol. 2: Threats to the Post-War Settlement, 1961-74, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1990, pp. 35-8, 50-2, 62-8, 83-4. Years of Recovery: British Economic Policy 1945-51 402 8 Google Scholar

N. Harris, Competition and the Corporate Society: British Conservatives, the State and Industry 1945-1964, London, Methuen, 1972, pp. 157-70. Competition and the Corporate Society: British Conservatives, the State and Industry 1945-1964 157 70 Google Scholar

G. A. Dorfman, Wage Politics in Britain 1945-1967, London, Charles Knight, 1974, pp. 116-7, 141-3; L. Panitch, Social Democracy and Industrial Militancy: The Labour Party, the Trade Unions and Incomes Policy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1976, pp. 236-7 and 240-50. Wage Politics in Britain 1945-1967 116 7 Google Scholar

A. W. Phillips, ‘The relation between unemployment and the rate of change of money wage rates in the United Kingdom 1861-1957’, Economica, NS 25, 100, 1958, pp. 296-9. ‘The relation between unemployment and the rate of change of money wage rates in the United Kingdom 1861-1957’ Economica 100 296 9 Google Scholar

L. A. Dicks-Mireaux and J. C. R. Dow, ‘The determinants of wage inflation: United Kingdom 1946-1956’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 122, 2, 1959, pp. 153-7, 170-2. ‘The determinants of wage inflation: United Kingdom 1946-1956’ Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 122 153 7 Google Scholar

See most recently on the general point I. Favretto, The Long Search for a Third Way: The British Labour Party and the Italian Left Since 1945, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2003, pp. 35-42. The Long Search for a Third Way: The British Labour Party and the Italian Left Since 1945 35 42 Google Scholar

J. Tomlinson, ‘The British "productivity problem" in the 1960s’, Past and Present, 175, 1, 2002, pp. 195-6, 201-7. ‘The British "productivity problem" in the 1960s’ Past and Present 175 195 6 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

J. Leruez, Economic Planning and Politics in Britain, London, Martin Robertson, 1975, p. 165. Economic Planning and Politics in Britain 165 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2577, Machinery of Prices and Incomes Policy, London, HMSO, February 1965, pp. 2-4. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

D. Kunz, ‘"Somewhat mixed up together": Anglo-American defence and financial policy during the 1960s’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 27, 2, 1999, p. 217. ‘"Somewhat mixed up together": Anglo-American defence and financial policy during the 1960s’ Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 27 217 Google Scholar

Brown speech, second reading debate, Prices and Incomes Bill, 14 July 1966, House of Commons Debates (hereafter HC Debs.), vol. 731, cols 1754-5. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

P. Paterson, Tired and Emotional: The Life of Lord George-Brown, London, Chatto and Windus, 1993, p. 190. Tired and Emotional: The Life of Lord George-Brown 190 Google Scholar

C. Clifford, ‘The rise and fall of the Department of Economic Affairs, 1964-69: British Government and indicative planning’, Contemporary British History, 11, 2, 1997, p. 104. ‘The rise and fall of the Department of Economic Affairs, 1964-69: British Government and indicative planning’ Contemporary British History 11 104 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Prices and Incomes Act, 12 August 1966, Public General Acts and Measures 1966, c. 33, pp. 581-8. Google Scholar

Mitchell, National Board, appendix DI, pp. 281-2. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3150, Prices and Incomes Standstill: Period of Severe Restraint, London, HMSO, November 1966, pp. 6-8. Google Scholar

T. Benn, Office Without Power: Diaries 1968-1972, London, Arrow edn, 1989, p. 117, diary entry for November 1968. Office Without Power: Diaries 1968-1972 117 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2639, Prices and Incomes Policy, London, HMSO, April 1965, p. 8. Google Scholar

A. Flanders, The Fawley Productivity Agreements, London, Faber and Faber, 1964, esp. pp. 151-61. The Fawley Productivity Agreements 151 61 Google Scholar

For the tendency of new technology to increase wages in a substantial minority of cases, especially among manual workers, see the study of trends in the 1980s in W. W. Daniel, Workplace Industrial Relations and Technical Change, London, Frances Pinter, 1987, chapt. X, pp. 242-59. Workplace Industrial Relations and Technical Change 242 59 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3150, Period of Severe Restraint, p. 7. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3311 (NBPI report 36), Productivity Agreements, London, HMSO, June 1967, p. 41. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3626, Report of the Royal Commission on Trade Unions, pp. 262-3. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

E. Dell, written answer, ‘Prices and incomes policy (productivity agreements)’, 17 December 1969, HC Debs., vol. 793, col. 351. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 4237, Productivity, Prices and Incomes Policy after 1969, London, HMSO, December 1969, pp. 11, 29-31. Google Scholar

See B. Castle, The Castle Diaries 1964-1970, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984, pp. 730-1, diary entries for 18-20 November 1969. The Castle Diaries 1964-1970 730 1 Google Scholar

J. Boswell and J. Peters, Capitalism in Contention: Business Leaders and Political Economy in Modern Britain, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 35, 46-7. Capitalism in Contention: Business Leaders and Political Economy in Modern Britain 35 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

G. Goodman, The Awkward Warrior: Prank Cousins, His Life and Times, London, David-Poynter, 1979, pp. 487-501. The Awkward Warrior: Prank Cousins, His Life and Times 487 501 Google Scholar

M. Wickham-Jones, Economic Strategy and the Labour Party: Politics and Policy Making 1970-83, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1996, pp. 116-20. Economic Strategy and the Labour Party: Politics and Policy Making 1970-83 116 20 Google Scholar

For grassroots feeling see D. Lockwood, The Blackcoated Worker: A Study in Class Consciousness, 2nd edn, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989, pp. 137-55, 194-8. The Blackcoated Worker: A Study in Class Consciousness 137 55 Google Scholar

B. Carter, Capitalism, Class Conflict and the New Middle Class, London, Routledge, 1985, pp. 170-2, 177-81; J. Melling, ‘Red under the collar? Clive Jenkins, white collar unionism and the politics of the British Left, 1947-65’, Twentieth Century British History, 13, 4, 2002, pp. 415-16, 440-2. Capitalism, Class Conflict and the New Middle Class 170 2 Google Scholar

G. S. Bain, The Growth of White Collar Unionism, Oxford, Clarendon Press, pp. 24-9; R. Price and G. S. Bain, ‘Union growth revisited: 1948-1974 in perspective’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 14, 3, 1976, table 6, p. 347. The Growth of White Collar Unionism 24 9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Brown to Woodcock, 24 November 1964, PRO EW 8/1; Cmnd. 2639, Prices and Incomes, pp. 7-8. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC Congress Report 1965, London, TUC, p. 473; TUC Congress Report 1966, p. 463. Google Scholar

TUC Congress Report 1967, p. 536. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC Economic Review 1968, pp. 88, 92. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Castle speech, second reading debate, Commission for industry and manpower Bill, 8 April 1970, HC Debs., vol. 799, cols 560-2. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 3888, In Place of Strife: A Policy for Industrial Relations, London, HMSO, January 1969, pp. 22-3, 28-30. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

B. Pimlott, Harold Wilson, London, HarperCollins edn, 1993, pp. 540-4. Harold Wilson 540 4 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

S. G. B. Henry and P. A. Ormerod, ‘Incomes policy and wage inflation: empirical evidence for the UK 1961-77’, National Institute Economic Review, 85, 1978, table 6, p. 36. ‘Incomes policy and wage inflation: empirical evidence for the UK 1961-77’ National Institute Economic Review 85 36 Google Scholar

J. R. Artus, ‘The 1967 devaluation of the pound sterling’, International Monetary Fund Staff Papers, 22, 3, 1975, tables 2-3, pp. 603, 605. ‘The 1967 devaluation of the pound sterling’ International Monetary Fund Staff Papers 22 603 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2639, Prices and Incomes, p. 9. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

M. Stewart, ‘The distribution of income’, in W. Beckerman (ed.), The Labour Government's Economic Record 1964-1970, London, Duckwork, tables 2.8, 2.10, pp. 89, 92; Jackson et al., Trade Unions, graph 3, P. 73, PP. 95-103, 123-5. The Labour Government's Economic Record 1964-1970 Google Scholar

A. J. H. Dean, ‘Earnings in the public and private sectors 1950-1975’, National Institute Economic Review, 77, 1976, table 1, p. 63. ‘Earnings in the public and private sectors 1950-1975’ National Institute Economic Review 77 63 Google Scholar

R. Undy et al., Change in Trade Unions: The Development of UK Unions Since the 1960s, London, Hutchinson, 1981, p. 31. Change in Trade Unions: The Development of UK Unions Since the 1960s 31 Google Scholar

Cmnd 3074, Standstill, pp. 2-3. Google Scholar

Cmnd. 2808, Prices and Incomes Policy: An ‘Early Warning’ System, London, HMSO, November 1965, appendices A-C, pp. 9-11. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

On planning see e.g. A. Ringe and N. Rollings, ‘Responding to relative decline: the creation of the National Economic Development Council’, Economic History Review, 53, 2, 2000, esp. pp. 347-50. ‘Responding to relative decline: the creation of the National Economic Development Council’ Economic History Review 53 347 50 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

O'Hara, Glen