Labour History Review

‘Through a Glass Darkly’: Deciphering the Colliery Consultation Minutes of the Nationalised British Coal Industry, 1947-74

Labour History Review (2000), 65, (1), 59–89.

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N. Fishman, ‘The Beginning of the beginning: the National Union of Mineworkers and nationalisation’, in A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howell (eds), Miners, Unions and Palities 1910-1947, Aldershot, 1996, p. 292 Miners, Unions and Palities 1910-1947 292 Google Scholar

A. Flanders and H. Clegg (eds), The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain: Its History, Law and Institutions, Oxford, 1954; and H. Clegg, The Changing System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain, Oxford, 1979, p. 2. There is a longer discussion on pp. 151-6 The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain: Its History, Law and Institutions Google Scholar

See G. Bain (ed.), Industrial Relations in Britain, Oxford, 1983 and P. Edwards (ed.), Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice in Britain, Oxford, 1995; and, by contrast, K. Sisson, Personnel Management, second edition, Oxford, 1994, and J. Storey, Human Resource Management: A Critical Reader, London, 1995 Industrial Relations in Britain Google Scholar

J. H. Goldthorpe, ‘Industrial Relations in Great Britain: A Critique of Reformism’, p. 223, in T. Clarke and L. Clements (eds), Trade Unions under Capitalism, London, 1978. For earlier pluralist scepticism, see W. E. J. McCarthy, The Role of Shop Stewards in British Industrial Relations, Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers' Associations, Paper No. 1, London, 1966. A year before, Allan Flanders bemoaned, ‘the failure of joint consultation to realise the earlier hopes that were placed in it’: ‘Industrial Relations: What is wrong with the system’, in Management and Unions, London, 1975, p. 83 Trade Unions under Capitalism 223 Google Scholar

See N. Millward, M. Stevens, D. Smart and W. Hawes, Workplace Industrial Relations in Transition, Aldershot, 1992 Workplace Industrial Relations in Transition Google Scholar

J. Storey, J. and K. Sisson, Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations, Buckingham, 1993. See also J. Black and P. Ackers, ‘Between Adversarial Relations and Incorporation’, in T. Elger and C. Smith, Global Japanization, London, 1994; and M. Marchington, J. Goodman, A. Wilkinson and P. Ackers, New Developments in Employee Involvement, Employment Department, Research Series 1, London, 1992 Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations Google Scholar

M. Marchington, ‘The Dynamics of Joint Consultation’, in Sisson, Personnel Management, pp. 662-93, provides an excellent, up-to-date survey of the literature Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See P. Ackers and J. Payne, ‘British Trade Unions and Social Partnership: Rhetoric, Reality and Strategy’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(3) June, 1998, pp. 530-50; and ‘Before the Storm: The Prospects for Social Partnership and the Experience of Nationalisation in The British Coal Industry, 1947-74’, Conference on British Trade Unionism, Workers Struggles and Economic Performance, 1940-1979, Warwick University, September 1997 ‘British Trade Unions and Social Partnership: Rhetoric, Reality and Strategy’ The International Journal of Human Resource Management 9 Google Scholar

See P. Ackers, M. Marchington, A. Wilkinson and J. Goodman, ‘The use of cycles? explaining employee involvement’, Industrial Relations Journal 24 (4), Winter, 1992, pp. 268-83, a critique of H. Ramsay, ‘Cycles of Control: Workers’ Participation in Sociological and Historical Perspective', Sociology, vol. 11, 1977, pp. 481-506 ‘The use of cycles? explaining employee involvement’ Industrial Relations Journal 24 268 83 Google Scholar

Quoted in R. Page Arnot, The Miners. One Union, One History, London, 1979, p. 200 The Miners. One Union, One History 200 Google Scholar

J. Horner, ‘Consultation in the Mines’, in Studies in Industrial Democracy, London, 1974, p. 51 Studies in Industrial Democracy 51 Google Scholar

For former, see J. Krieger, Undermining Capitalism: State Ownership and the Dialectic of Control in the British Coal Industry, London, 1984, and E. Trist, J. Higgin, H. Murray and A. Pollack, Organisational Choice, London, 1963. And for latter: B. J. McCormick, Industrial Relations in the Coal Industry, London, 1979; and T. Hall, King Coal, Harmondsworth, 1981 Undermining Capitalism: State Ownership and the Dialectic of Control in the British Coal Industry Google Scholar

A. R. Griffin, ‘Consultation and Conciliation in the Mining Industry’, Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 3, 1972. See also P. Anthony, ‘The Coal Industry’, in C. Balfour (ed.), Participation in Industry, London, 1973; K. Coates and A. Topham, Industrial Democracy in Great Britain, Nottingham, 1975; G. Baldwin, ‘Joint Consultation at pit level’, in Beyond Nationalisation, Massachusetts, 1955; C. Edwards and E. Heery, Management Control and Union Power: A study of Labour Relations in Coal-Mining, Oxford, 1989; J. Elliot, Conflict and Co-operation, London, 1978; Horner, ‘Consultation in the Mines’; M. Poole, Towards a New Industrial Democracy: Workers Participation in Industry, London, 1986; J. Tomlinson, ‘Productivity, joint consultation and human relations in post-war Britain: the Atdee Government and the workplace’, in J. Melling and M. McKinlay (eds), Management, Labour and Industrial Politics in Modern Europe: The quest for productivity growth during the Twentieth Century, Cheltenham, 1996; H. Townshend-Rose, The British Coal Industry, London, 1951 ‘Consultation and Conciliation in the Mining Industry’ Industrial Relations Journal 3 Google Scholar

As A. Pendleton notes of, ‘The Evolution of Industrial Relations in UK Nationalized Industry’, British Journal of Industrial Relations 35(2), June 1997, pp. 145, 152-3: ‘industrial relations (IR) reform was such an important motive for nationalization’ in general, ‘a fundamental objective was to improve the lot of the worker and to improve relationships between work-force and employer. For the most part, it was assumed that ownership status would itself be a powerful determinant of behaviour’. Strong central trade unions and ‘comprehensive consultative machinery’ were central to this I R blueprint. For instance: ‘By 1980, the water industry exhibited all the typical characteristics of public sector industrial relations … recognition of trade unions and the promotion of collective bargaining as a sound basis for good industrial relations; high density of trade union membership; detailed national agreements applied throughout the industry, regulating pay and conditions of service; a highly formalized and elaborate system of joint consultation; and a commitment to being a good employer (our emphasis) — S. Ogden, ‘Water’, p. 139. Geology and payment systems were a major break on IR centralisation in coal, whose distinctively conflictual traditions and declining economic fortunes led to an earlier breakdown than elsewhere. According to A. Ferner and T. Colling, p. 100, p. 107, ‘Electricity Supply’ maintained ‘consensual industrial relations’ and a ‘grandiose edifice of negotiation and consultation have played a key role in defusing potential sources of trouble and ensuring that the modernization of the industry could be carried out peacefully — Consultation was a pervasive feature of management-union relations at all levels’ which ‘neutralized’ workplace militancy. ‘Railways’ and ‘Steel’ also exhibited consensual relationship and extensive consultation until the Thatcher offensive of the 1980s. See A. Pendleton and J. Winterton, Public Enterprise in Transition: Industrial Relations in State and Privatized Corporations, London, 1993, for these chapters and others. Also see D. Winchester, ‘Industrial Relations in the Public Sector’, in Bain, Industrial Relations; and D. Winchester and S. Bach, ‘The State: The Public Sector’, in Edwards, Industrial Relations. Google Scholar

See P. Ackers, ‘Colliery Deputies in the British Coal Industry Before Nationalisation’, International Review of Social History, 39 (3), December 1994, 383-424, and ‘Life after Death: Mining History without a Coal Industry’, in Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, 1, March 1996, pp. 159-70 ‘Colliery Deputies in the British Coal Industry Before Nationalisation’ International Review of Social History 39 383 424 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

W. Ashworth, The History of the British Coal Industry, Vol. 5, 1946-82: the Nationalised Industry, Oxford, 1996, p. 145 The History of the British Coal Industry, Vol. 5, 1946-82: the Nationalised Industry 145 Google Scholar

NCB, Guide to Consultation in the Coalmining Industry, London, 1968. For ‘stakeholding’ today, see W. Hutton, The State We're In, London, 1995 Google Scholar

As we have argued on a broader front in Ackers and Payne, ‘Before the Storm’ and was almost universally expressed by the leading actors and commentators of the early Nationalised era. See, for instance, F. Williams, Magnificent Journey: The Rise of the Trade Unions, London, 1954, pp. 424-32; and Arnot, The Miners, pp. 88-124 Magnificent Journey: The Rise of the Trade Unions 424 32 Google Scholar

J. Saville, The Labour Movement in Britain, London, 1988, p. 111 The Labour Movement in Britain 111 Google Scholar

Edwards and Heery, Management Control, p. 156 Google Scholar

Hall, King Coal, p. 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See F. Zweig, Men in The Pits, London, 1948; and W. Scott, E. Mumford and J. Kirkby, Coal and Conflict, Liverpool, 1963 Men in The Pits Google Scholar

H. Clegg, A New Approach to Industrial Democracy, Oxford, 1960, p. 41 A New Approach to Industrial Democracy 41 Google Scholar

Hall, King Coal, p. 104. For similar views, see W. Haynes, Nationalisation in Practice: The British Coal Industry, London, 1953, Chapter 11; and Scot et al., ‘Coal and Conflict’, pp. 171-6 Google Scholar

Hall, King Coal, p. 104 Google Scholar

N. Dennis, F. Henriques and C. Slaughter, Coal is our Life: An analysis of a Yorkshire mining community, London, 1956, pp. 98-9 Coal is our Life: An analysis of a Yorkshire mining community 98 9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Haynes, Nationalisation, p. 235 Google Scholar

For the complexity of coal consciousness, see V. Allen. ‘Review of A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howells, Miners, Unions and Polities’, in Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, vol. 4, September 1997, pp. 159-64; and R. Church and Q. Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, Coalfield conflict in Britain, 1889-1966, Cambridge, 1998 Google Scholar

W. Ashworth, The History of the British Coal Industry, p. 145 Google Scholar

K. Marx and F. Engels, Collected Works, Moscow, 1985 Collected Works Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Sayer, Method in Social Science, London, 1992, p. 266. See also C. Brazerman, ‘A Contention Over the term Rhetoric’, in T. Enos, T. and S. C. Brown (eds), Defining the New Rhetorics, London, 1993; and P. Joyce, ‘Refabricating labour history’, Labour History Review 62 (2), pp. 147-52, 1997 Method in Social Science 266 Google Scholar

P. Hamilton, ‘Persuasion and Industrial Relations; A Case of Argument in a Joint Consultative Committee’, Paper presented to British Universities Industrial Association Conference, University of Bath, 4-6 July 1997, p. 16 ‘Persuasion and Industrial Relations; A Case of Argument in a Joint Consultative Committee’ 16 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Dennis et al., Coal is our Life, pp. 98-9, also counted for 1953 when the union branch president attended all 24(?) meetings, the secretary 13 and another branch member 20 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Background information from phone interview with former Area Director, North Notts, 23 February 1998; and A. R. Griffin, Mining in the East Midlands, 1550-1947, London 1971 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See R. Waller, The Dukeries Transformed: The Social and Political Development of a Twentieth Century Coalfield, Oxford, 1983; and D. Gilbert, ‘The Landscape of Spencerism: Mining Politics in the Nottinghamshire Coalfield, 1910-47’, in A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howells (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, 1910-47, Aldershot, 1996; and Griffin, Mining The Dukeries Transformed: The Social and Political Development of a Twentieth Century Coalfield Google Scholar

Background information from phone interviews with former Area Director, North Notts, former workman and Industrial Relations Officer, NottsB, all 23 February 1998. See also P. Gibbon, ‘Analysing the British Miners’ Strike of 1984-5', in Economy and Society, 17'(2), May 1988, pp. 139-94 ‘Analysing the British Miners’ Strike of 1984-5', in Economy and Society 17 139 94 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See R. Samuel, B. Bloomfield and G. Boanas, The Enemy Within: Pit Villages and the Miners' Strike of 1984-5, London, 1986; C. Baylies, The History of the Yorkshire Miners, 1881-1918, London, 1993, pp. 273-300; and J. Winterton and R. Winterton, Coal, Crisis and Conflict. The 1984-85 Miners Strike in Yorkshire, Manchester, 1989, p. 8, The pits to the south of the (South Yorkshire) Area, from YorksA to Manton, which resemble Midlands collieries, were generally to the right politically … The Enemy Within: Pit Villages and the Miners Strike of 1984-5 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See A. Robens, Ten Year Stint, London, 1972, pp. 131-4 Ten Year Stint 131 4 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WarwicksB CCC 17 June 1964 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For this concept, see Marchington et al., New Developments. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Clegg, A New Approach to Industrial Democracy, p. 40 Google Scholar

McCormick, Industrial Relations, pp. 58-9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Fox, ‘Industrial Sociology and Industrial Relations’, Royal Commission on Trade unions and Employers' Associations, Research Paper 3, 1966 Google Scholar

A. Fox, History and Heritage, London, 1985, p. 116 History and Heritage 116 Google Scholar

B. Webb and S. Webb. The History of Trade Unionism 1666-1920, London, 1920, p. xi The History of Trade Unionism 1666-1920 xi Google Scholar

R. J. Evans, In Defence of History, London, 1997, p. 20 In Defence of History 20 Google Scholar

M. Moss, ‘Archives: The Historian and The Future’, in M. Bendey (ed.), Companion to Historiography, London, 1998, p. 961 Companion to Historiography 961 Google Scholar

Evans, In Defence of History, p. 104 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

E. H. Carr, What is History?, Hamondsworth, 1961 What is History? Google Scholar

N. Fishman, ‘The Beginning of the beginning: the National Union of Mineworkers and nationalisation’, in A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howell (eds), Miners, Unions and Palities 1910-1947, Aldershot, 1996, p. 292 Miners, Unions and Palities 1910-1947 292 Google Scholar

A. Flanders and H. Clegg (eds), The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain: Its History, Law and Institutions, Oxford, 1954; and H. Clegg, The Changing System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain, Oxford, 1979, p. 2. There is a longer discussion on pp. 151-6 The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain: Its History, Law and Institutions Google Scholar

See G. Bain (ed.), Industrial Relations in Britain, Oxford, 1983 and P. Edwards (ed.), Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice in Britain, Oxford, 1995; and, by contrast, K. Sisson, Personnel Management, second edition, Oxford, 1994, and J. Storey, Human Resource Management: A Critical Reader, London, 1995 Industrial Relations in Britain Google Scholar

J. H. Goldthorpe, ‘Industrial Relations in Great Britain: A Critique of Reformism’, p. 223, in T. Clarke and L. Clements (eds), Trade Unions under Capitalism, London, 1978. For earlier pluralist scepticism, see W. E. J. McCarthy, The Role of Shop Stewards in British Industrial Relations, Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers' Associations, Paper No. 1, London, 1966. A year before, Allan Flanders bemoaned, ‘the failure of joint consultation to realise the earlier hopes that were placed in it’: ‘Industrial Relations: What is wrong with the system’, in Management and Unions, London, 1975, p. 83 Trade Unions under Capitalism 223 Google Scholar

See N. Millward, M. Stevens, D. Smart and W. Hawes, Workplace Industrial Relations in Transition, Aldershot, 1992 Workplace Industrial Relations in Transition Google Scholar

J. Storey, J. and K. Sisson, Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations, Buckingham, 1993. See also J. Black and P. Ackers, ‘Between Adversarial Relations and Incorporation’, in T. Elger and C. Smith, Global Japanization, London, 1994; and M. Marchington, J. Goodman, A. Wilkinson and P. Ackers, New Developments in Employee Involvement, Employment Department, Research Series 1, London, 1992 Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations Google Scholar

M. Marchington, ‘The Dynamics of Joint Consultation’, in Sisson, Personnel Management, pp. 662-93, provides an excellent, up-to-date survey of the literature Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See P. Ackers and J. Payne, ‘British Trade Unions and Social Partnership: Rhetoric, Reality and Strategy’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(3) June, 1998, pp. 530-50; and ‘Before the Storm: The Prospects for Social Partnership and the Experience of Nationalisation in The British Coal Industry, 1947-74’, Conference on British Trade Unionism, Workers Struggles and Economic Performance, 1940-1979, Warwick University, September 1997 ‘British Trade Unions and Social Partnership: Rhetoric, Reality and Strategy’ The International Journal of Human Resource Management 9 Google Scholar

See P. Ackers, M. Marchington, A. Wilkinson and J. Goodman, ‘The use of cycles? explaining employee involvement’, Industrial Relations Journal 24 (4), Winter, 1992, pp. 268-83, a critique of H. Ramsay, ‘Cycles of Control: Workers’ Participation in Sociological and Historical Perspective', Sociology, vol. 11, 1977, pp. 481-506 ‘The use of cycles? explaining employee involvement’ Industrial Relations Journal 24 268 83 Google Scholar

Quoted in R. Page Arnot, The Miners. One Union, One History, London, 1979, p. 200 The Miners. One Union, One History 200 Google Scholar

J. Horner, ‘Consultation in the Mines’, in Studies in Industrial Democracy, London, 1974, p. 51 Studies in Industrial Democracy 51 Google Scholar

For former, see J. Krieger, Undermining Capitalism: State Ownership and the Dialectic of Control in the British Coal Industry, London, 1984, and E. Trist, J. Higgin, H. Murray and A. Pollack, Organisational Choice, London, 1963. And for latter: B. J. McCormick, Industrial Relations in the Coal Industry, London, 1979; and T. Hall, King Coal, Harmondsworth, 1981 Undermining Capitalism: State Ownership and the Dialectic of Control in the British Coal Industry Google Scholar

A. R. Griffin, ‘Consultation and Conciliation in the Mining Industry’, Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 3, 1972. See also P. Anthony, ‘The Coal Industry’, in C. Balfour (ed.), Participation in Industry, London, 1973; K. Coates and A. Topham, Industrial Democracy in Great Britain, Nottingham, 1975; G. Baldwin, ‘Joint Consultation at pit level’, in Beyond Nationalisation, Massachusetts, 1955; C. Edwards and E. Heery, Management Control and Union Power: A study of Labour Relations in Coal-Mining, Oxford, 1989; J. Elliot, Conflict and Co-operation, London, 1978; Horner, ‘Consultation in the Mines’; M. Poole, Towards a New Industrial Democracy: Workers Participation in Industry, London, 1986; J. Tomlinson, ‘Productivity, joint consultation and human relations in post-war Britain: the Atdee Government and the workplace’, in J. Melling and M. McKinlay (eds), Management, Labour and Industrial Politics in Modern Europe: The quest for productivity growth during the Twentieth Century, Cheltenham, 1996; H. Townshend-Rose, The British Coal Industry, London, 1951 ‘Consultation and Conciliation in the Mining Industry’ Industrial Relations Journal 3 Google Scholar

As A. Pendleton notes of, ‘The Evolution of Industrial Relations in UK Nationalized Industry’, British Journal of Industrial Relations 35(2), June 1997, pp. 145, 152-3: ‘industrial relations (IR) reform was such an important motive for nationalization’ in general, ‘a fundamental objective was to improve the lot of the worker and to improve relationships between work-force and employer. For the most part, it was assumed that ownership status would itself be a powerful determinant of behaviour’. Strong central trade unions and ‘comprehensive consultative machinery’ were central to this I R blueprint. For instance: ‘By 1980, the water industry exhibited all the typical characteristics of public sector industrial relations … recognition of trade unions and the promotion of collective bargaining as a sound basis for good industrial relations; high density of trade union membership; detailed national agreements applied throughout the industry, regulating pay and conditions of service; a highly formalized and elaborate system of joint consultation; and a commitment to being a good employer (our emphasis) — S. Ogden, ‘Water’, p. 139. Geology and payment systems were a major break on IR centralisation in coal, whose distinctively conflictual traditions and declining economic fortunes led to an earlier breakdown than elsewhere. According to A. Ferner and T. Colling, p. 100, p. 107, ‘Electricity Supply’ maintained ‘consensual industrial relations’ and a ‘grandiose edifice of negotiation and consultation have played a key role in defusing potential sources of trouble and ensuring that the modernization of the industry could be carried out peacefully — Consultation was a pervasive feature of management-union relations at all levels’ which ‘neutralized’ workplace militancy. ‘Railways’ and ‘Steel’ also exhibited consensual relationship and extensive consultation until the Thatcher offensive of the 1980s. See A. Pendleton and J. Winterton, Public Enterprise in Transition: Industrial Relations in State and Privatized Corporations, London, 1993, for these chapters and others. Also see D. Winchester, ‘Industrial Relations in the Public Sector’, in Bain, Industrial Relations; and D. Winchester and S. Bach, ‘The State: The Public Sector’, in Edwards, Industrial Relations. Google Scholar

See P. Ackers, ‘Colliery Deputies in the British Coal Industry Before Nationalisation’, International Review of Social History, 39 (3), December 1994, 383-424, and ‘Life after Death: Mining History without a Coal Industry’, in Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, 1, March 1996, pp. 159-70 ‘Colliery Deputies in the British Coal Industry Before Nationalisation’ International Review of Social History 39 383 424 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

W. Ashworth, The History of the British Coal Industry, Vol. 5, 1946-82: the Nationalised Industry, Oxford, 1996, p. 145 The History of the British Coal Industry, Vol. 5, 1946-82: the Nationalised Industry 145 Google Scholar

NCB, Guide to Consultation in the Coalmining Industry, London, 1968. For ‘stakeholding’ today, see W. Hutton, The State We're In, London, 1995 Google Scholar

As we have argued on a broader front in Ackers and Payne, ‘Before the Storm’ and was almost universally expressed by the leading actors and commentators of the early Nationalised era. See, for instance, F. Williams, Magnificent Journey: The Rise of the Trade Unions, London, 1954, pp. 424-32; and Arnot, The Miners, pp. 88-124 Magnificent Journey: The Rise of the Trade Unions 424 32 Google Scholar

J. Saville, The Labour Movement in Britain, London, 1988, p. 111 The Labour Movement in Britain 111 Google Scholar

Edwards and Heery, Management Control, p. 156 Google Scholar

Hall, King Coal, p. 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See F. Zweig, Men in The Pits, London, 1948; and W. Scott, E. Mumford and J. Kirkby, Coal and Conflict, Liverpool, 1963 Men in The Pits Google Scholar

H. Clegg, A New Approach to Industrial Democracy, Oxford, 1960, p. 41 A New Approach to Industrial Democracy 41 Google Scholar

Hall, King Coal, p. 104. For similar views, see W. Haynes, Nationalisation in Practice: The British Coal Industry, London, 1953, Chapter 11; and Scot et al., ‘Coal and Conflict’, pp. 171-6 Google Scholar

Hall, King Coal, p. 104 Google Scholar

N. Dennis, F. Henriques and C. Slaughter, Coal is our Life: An analysis of a Yorkshire mining community, London, 1956, pp. 98-9 Coal is our Life: An analysis of a Yorkshire mining community 98 9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Haynes, Nationalisation, p. 235 Google Scholar

For the complexity of coal consciousness, see V. Allen. ‘Review of A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howells, Miners, Unions and Polities’, in Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, vol. 4, September 1997, pp. 159-64; and R. Church and Q. Outram, Strikes and Solidarity, Coalfield conflict in Britain, 1889-1966, Cambridge, 1998 Google Scholar

W. Ashworth, The History of the British Coal Industry, p. 145 Google Scholar

K. Marx and F. Engels, Collected Works, Moscow, 1985 Collected Works Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Sayer, Method in Social Science, London, 1992, p. 266. See also C. Brazerman, ‘A Contention Over the term Rhetoric’, in T. Enos, T. and S. C. Brown (eds), Defining the New Rhetorics, London, 1993; and P. Joyce, ‘Refabricating labour history’, Labour History Review 62 (2), pp. 147-52, 1997 Method in Social Science 266 Google Scholar

P. Hamilton, ‘Persuasion and Industrial Relations; A Case of Argument in a Joint Consultative Committee’, Paper presented to British Universities Industrial Association Conference, University of Bath, 4-6 July 1997, p. 16 ‘Persuasion and Industrial Relations; A Case of Argument in a Joint Consultative Committee’ 16 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Dennis et al., Coal is our Life, pp. 98-9, also counted for 1953 when the union branch president attended all 24(?) meetings, the secretary 13 and another branch member 20 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Background information from phone interview with former Area Director, North Notts, 23 February 1998; and A. R. Griffin, Mining in the East Midlands, 1550-1947, London 1971 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See R. Waller, The Dukeries Transformed: The Social and Political Development of a Twentieth Century Coalfield, Oxford, 1983; and D. Gilbert, ‘The Landscape of Spencerism: Mining Politics in the Nottinghamshire Coalfield, 1910-47’, in A. Campbell, N. Fishman and D. Howells (eds), Miners, Unions and Politics, 1910-47, Aldershot, 1996; and Griffin, Mining The Dukeries Transformed: The Social and Political Development of a Twentieth Century Coalfield Google Scholar

Background information from phone interviews with former Area Director, North Notts, former workman and Industrial Relations Officer, NottsB, all 23 February 1998. See also P. Gibbon, ‘Analysing the British Miners’ Strike of 1984-5', in Economy and Society, 17'(2), May 1988, pp. 139-94 ‘Analysing the British Miners’ Strike of 1984-5', in Economy and Society 17 139 94 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See R. Samuel, B. Bloomfield and G. Boanas, The Enemy Within: Pit Villages and the Miners' Strike of 1984-5, London, 1986; C. Baylies, The History of the Yorkshire Miners, 1881-1918, London, 1993, pp. 273-300; and J. Winterton and R. Winterton, Coal, Crisis and Conflict. The 1984-85 Miners Strike in Yorkshire, Manchester, 1989, p. 8, The pits to the south of the (South Yorkshire) Area, from YorksA to Manton, which resemble Midlands collieries, were generally to the right politically … The Enemy Within: Pit Villages and the Miners Strike of 1984-5 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See A. Robens, Ten Year Stint, London, 1972, pp. 131-4 Ten Year Stint 131 4 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WarwicksB CCC 17 June 1964 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

For this concept, see Marchington et al., New Developments. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Clegg, A New Approach to Industrial Democracy, p. 40 Google Scholar

McCormick, Industrial Relations, pp. 58-9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Fox, ‘Industrial Sociology and Industrial Relations’, Royal Commission on Trade unions and Employers' Associations, Research Paper 3, 1966 Google Scholar

A. Fox, History and Heritage, London, 1985, p. 116 History and Heritage 116 Google Scholar

B. Webb and S. Webb. The History of Trade Unionism 1666-1920, London, 1920, p. xi The History of Trade Unionism 1666-1920 xi Google Scholar

R. J. Evans, In Defence of History, London, 1997, p. 20 In Defence of History 20 Google Scholar

M. Moss, ‘Archives: The Historian and The Future’, in M. Bendey (ed.), Companion to Historiography, London, 1998, p. 961 Companion to Historiography 961 Google Scholar

Evans, In Defence of History, p. 104 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

E. H. Carr, What is History?, Hamondsworth, 1961 What is History? Google Scholar

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Author details

Ackers, Peter

Payne, Jonathan