Labour History Review

The construction of a ‘traditional’ occupation: welding, 1900-1960

Labour History Review (2001), 66, (1), 41–60.

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C. Casey, Work, Self and Society. After Industrialism, London, 1995, p. 37 Work, Self and Society. After Industrialism 37 Google Scholar

A. Mutch, ‘The impact of information technology on "traditional" occupations: the case of welding’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 13, 2, 1998, pp. 140-9 ‘The impact of information technology on "traditional" occupations: the case of welding’ New Technology, Work and Employment 13 140 9 Google Scholar

A. Callinicos and C. Harman, The Changing Working Class. Essays on Class Structure Today, London, 1987 The Changing Working Class. Essays on Class Structure Today Google Scholar

R. Penn, Class, Power and Technology, Cambridge, 1990, p. 45 Class, Power and Technology 45 Google Scholar

For example, I. Carter, Farm Life in Northeast Scotland 1840-1914, Edinburgh, 1979; I. Roberts, Craft, Class and Control: the Sociology of a Shipbuilding Community, Edinburgh, 1994 Farm Life in Northeast Scotland 1840-1914 Google Scholar

R Joyce, ‘Work’, in F. M. L. Thompson (ed.), The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1914, Vol. 2, Cambridge, 1990, pp. 131-94 The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1914 2 131 94 Google Scholar

C. Evans, ‘A skilled workforce during the transition to industrial society: forgemen in the British iron trade, 1500-1850’, Labour History Review, 63, 2, 1998, pp. 143-59; K. McClelland and A. Reid, ‘Wood, iron and steel: technology, labour and trade union organisation in the shipbuilding industry, 1840-1914’, in R. Harrison and J. Zeitlin (eds), Divisions of Labour: Skilled Workers and Technological Change in Nineteenth Century England, Brighton, 1985, pp. 151-84 ‘A skilled workforce during the transition to industrial society: forgemen in the British iron trade, 1500-1850’ Labour History Review 63 143 59 Google Scholar

M. Glucksmann, Women Assemble: Women Workers and The New Industries in Inter-war Britain, London, 1990 Women Assemble: Women Workers and The New Industries in Inter-war Britain Google Scholar

A. Burton, The Rise and Fall of British Shipbuilding, London, 1994, p. 110; J. B. Radford, Derby Works and Midland Locomotives, London, 1971, p. 48 The Rise and Fall of British Shipbuilding 110 Google Scholar

A. C. Nunes, ‘Gas welding origins’, Welding Journal, June 1977, pp. 15-23 ‘Gas welding origins’ Welding Journal 15 23 Google Scholar

W. D. Devine, ‘From shafts to wires: historical perspectives on electrification’, The Journal of Economic History, XLIII, 2, 1983, pp. 347-72 ‘From shafts to wires: historical perspectives on electrification’ The Journal of Economic History XLIII 347 72 Google Scholar

A. N. Kornienko, ‘One hundred years of arc welding’, Metal Construction, March 1982, p. 146 ‘One hundred years of arc welding’ Metal Construction 146 Google Scholar

R. D. Simonson, The History of Welding, Illinois, 1969; K. Winterton, A Brief History of Welding Technology, Canadian Department of Mines, Ottawa, 1961 The History of Welding Google Scholar

‘The Fullager’, Engineering, 13 February 1920, p. 216 Google Scholar

‘Arc welding developments’, Engineering, 30 January 1920, p. 153; ‘Electric welding in building construction’, Engineering, 14 May 1920, p. 655 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

AFL Executive Council cited in B. Mergen, ‘Blacksmiths and welders: identity and phenomenal change’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 25, 3, 1972, p. 357 Google Scholar

‘The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, North Western Section’, Engineering, 3 March 1922, p. 258 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. More, Skill and the English Working Class, 1870-1914, London, 1980, pp. 28-36 Skill and the English Working Class, 1870-1914 28 36 Google Scholar

‘Welding in ship construction’, Engineering, 21 April 1933, p. 442 Google Scholar

E. A. Whittaker, ‘Practical applications of gas welding’, Engineering, 2 November 1923, p. 572 ‘Practical applications of gas welding’ Engineering 572 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

‘The training of welders’, Engineering, 14 March 1930, pp. 349-50 Google Scholar

‘The Institute of Welding’, Engineering, 14 June 1935, p. 631 Google Scholar

Simonson, History of Welding, p. 102 Google Scholar

‘Mr Bulleid's Presidential Address’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 12, 1949, p. 138 Google Scholar

E. A. Krause, The Sociology of Occupations, Boston, 1971, pp. 88-90 The Sociology of Occupations 88 90 Google Scholar

J. Kelly, Trade unions and socialist politics, London, 1988 Trade unions and socialist politics Google Scholar

J. Benders, Optional Options: Work Design and Manufacturing Automation, Aldershot, 1993 Optional Options: Work Design and Manufacturing Automation Google Scholar

This comment is one of a number appended to the main discussion in A. T. Wall, ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1922, p. 272 ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’ 272 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

M. Burawoy, The Politics of Production, London, 1985 The Politics of Production Google Scholar

A. Ayre, ‘Electric welding in United Kingdom shipyards during the past quarter of a century’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 5, 1942, pp. 152-5 ‘Electric welding in United Kingdom shipyards during the past quarter of a century’ Institute of Welding Transactions 5 152 5 Google Scholar

‘IME North Western branch’, Engineering, 21 March 1930, p. 387 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

J. McGoldrick, ‘Industrial relations and the division of labour in the shipbuilding industry since the war’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 20, 1982, pp. 197-219; I. Roberts, Craft, Class and Control: the Sociology of a Shipbuilding Community, Edinburgh, 1994 ‘Industrial relations and the division of labour in the shipbuilding industry since the war’ British Journal of Industrial Relations 20 197 219 Google Scholar

Engineering, 21 March 1930, p. 386 Google Scholar

The continuing debate about mass production versus flexible specialisation is also of relevance: J. Zeitlin, ‘Between selective flexibility and mass production: strategic ambiguity and selective adaptation in the British engineering industry, 1830-1914’ in C. Sabel and J. Zeitlin (eds), Worlds of Possibilities: Flexibility and Mass Production in Western Industrialization, Cambridge, 1997, pp. 241-72 Worlds of Possibilities: Flexibility and Mass Production in Western Industrialization 241 72 Google Scholar

A. T. Wall, ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’, Engineering, 24 February 1922, p. 242 ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’ Engineering 242 Google Scholar

See also More, Skill and the English Working Class Google Scholar

Glucksmann, Women Assemble Google Scholar

F. Hazeldine, ‘Oxy-Acetylene welding’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1919, p. 130; F. Hargreaves, ‘Welding in locomotive construction and repair’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 12, 1949, pp. 98-104 ‘Oxy-Acetylene welding’ 130 Google Scholar

C. Taylor, Life in a Loco Works. First-hand experiences of a Crewe engineering apprentice in wartime, Yeovil, 1995, p. 131 Life in a Loco Works. First-hand experiences of a Crewe engineering apprentice in wartime 131 Google Scholar

K. Gibbs, Swindon Works Apprentice in Steam, Yeovil, 1986 Swindon Works Apprentice in Steam Google Scholar

N. S. C. Macmillan, Locomotive Apprentice at the North British Locomotive Co., Brighton, 1992 Locomotive Apprentice at the North British Locomotive Co. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See also ‘Summer meeting of the Institute of Electrical Engineering in Scotland’, Engineering, 26 June 1936, pp. 692-3 - Babcock and Wilcox of Renfrew; E. H. Lee, ‘Fabrication and welding in the heavy electrical industry’, British Welding Journal, 1, 1954, pp. 385-91 Google Scholar

Thomas Heaton, ‘Some modern methods of welding’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1914, pp. 151-200; Thomas Heaton, ‘Electric welding’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1919, pp. 49-72 ‘Some modern methods of welding’ 151 200 Google Scholar

A point made in the context of the First World War by More, Skill and the English Working Class Google Scholar

J. R. Ferguson, ‘Welding in engineering production’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 11, 1948, pp. 170-80; R. J. W. Rudkin, ‘Trends in modern shipyard welding’, British Welding Journal, 1, 1954, pp. 487-94 ‘Welding in engineering production’ Institute of Welding Transactions 11 170 80 Google Scholar

W. R. Mellanby, ‘Shipyard management of welding’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 11, 1948, pp. 52-65 ‘Shipyard management of welding’ Institute of Welding Transactions 11 52 65 Google Scholar

A. T. Wall, ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’, Engineering, 24 February 1922, p. 242 ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’ Engineering 242 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

National Union of Sheet Metal Workers & Braziers, Executive Committee minutes, WCML, 30 October 1945, p. 5; 6 December 1946, p. 3. This mirrors practice in the USA: see Boilermakers-Blacksmiths Journal, the monthly journal of the International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers, Kansas City, WCML, May 1958, p. 9 Google Scholar

‘Workers, own the machine’, letters from Harry Pollitt, Boilermakers Society Monthly Report, April 1920, p. 30; May, 1920 p. 19 Google Scholar

J. E. Mortimer, History of the Boilermakers' Society, Vol. 2, London, 1982, p. 229 History of the Boilermakers' Society 2 229 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Mutch, ‘Unions and information, Britain 1900-1960: an essay in the history of information’, International Review of Social History, 44, 3, 1999, pp. 395-418 ‘Unions and information, Britain 1900-1960: an essay in the history of information’ International Review of Social History 44 395 418 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC, Annual Report, 1963, p. 107 Google Scholar

TUC, Annual Report, 1953, p. 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC, Annual Report, 1958, pp. 96-102 Google Scholar

Finlay Hart, Demarcation and the Shipbuilding Trades, Communist Party pamphlet, London, 1945, p. 7, cited in J. Foster, The Polities of the UCS Work In, London, 1986, p. 136 Demarcation and the Shipbuilding Trades 7 Google Scholar

AEU Annual Reports, Modern Records Centre (MRC), University of Warwick, 1922-39 Google Scholar

AEU Monthly journal and report, MRC MSS. 259/4/14/35, 1921, p. 56 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

As of course did changes in authority relations and the role of the foreman, changes which were influenced by the technological developments that welding represents: K. Burgess, ‘Authority relations and the division of labour in British industry, with special reference to Clydeside, c.1860-1930’, Social History, 11, 2, 1986, pp. 211-33 ‘Authority relations and the division of labour in British industry, with special reference to Clydeside, c.1860-1930’ Social History 11 211 33 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. More, ‘Reskilling and labour markets in Britain c. 1890-1940: questions and hypotheses’, Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, 2, 1996, pp. 93-110 ‘Reskilling and labour markets in Britain c. 1890-1940: questions and hypotheses’ Historical Studies in Industrial Relations 2 93 110 Google Scholar

J. Lloyd, Light and Liberty. The History of the EEPTU, London, 1990, p. 664 Light and Liberty. The History of the EEPTU 664 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. Casey, Work, Self and Society. After Industrialism, London, 1995, p. 37 Work, Self and Society. After Industrialism 37 Google Scholar

A. Mutch, ‘The impact of information technology on "traditional" occupations: the case of welding’, New Technology, Work and Employment, 13, 2, 1998, pp. 140-9 ‘The impact of information technology on "traditional" occupations: the case of welding’ New Technology, Work and Employment 13 140 9 Google Scholar

A. Callinicos and C. Harman, The Changing Working Class. Essays on Class Structure Today, London, 1987 The Changing Working Class. Essays on Class Structure Today Google Scholar

R. Penn, Class, Power and Technology, Cambridge, 1990, p. 45 Class, Power and Technology 45 Google Scholar

For example, I. Carter, Farm Life in Northeast Scotland 1840-1914, Edinburgh, 1979; I. Roberts, Craft, Class and Control: the Sociology of a Shipbuilding Community, Edinburgh, 1994 Farm Life in Northeast Scotland 1840-1914 Google Scholar

R Joyce, ‘Work’, in F. M. L. Thompson (ed.), The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1914, Vol. 2, Cambridge, 1990, pp. 131-94 The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750-1914 2 131 94 Google Scholar

C. Evans, ‘A skilled workforce during the transition to industrial society: forgemen in the British iron trade, 1500-1850’, Labour History Review, 63, 2, 1998, pp. 143-59; K. McClelland and A. Reid, ‘Wood, iron and steel: technology, labour and trade union organisation in the shipbuilding industry, 1840-1914’, in R. Harrison and J. Zeitlin (eds), Divisions of Labour: Skilled Workers and Technological Change in Nineteenth Century England, Brighton, 1985, pp. 151-84 ‘A skilled workforce during the transition to industrial society: forgemen in the British iron trade, 1500-1850’ Labour History Review 63 143 59 Google Scholar

M. Glucksmann, Women Assemble: Women Workers and The New Industries in Inter-war Britain, London, 1990 Women Assemble: Women Workers and The New Industries in Inter-war Britain Google Scholar

A. Burton, The Rise and Fall of British Shipbuilding, London, 1994, p. 110; J. B. Radford, Derby Works and Midland Locomotives, London, 1971, p. 48 The Rise and Fall of British Shipbuilding 110 Google Scholar

A. C. Nunes, ‘Gas welding origins’, Welding Journal, June 1977, pp. 15-23 ‘Gas welding origins’ Welding Journal 15 23 Google Scholar

W. D. Devine, ‘From shafts to wires: historical perspectives on electrification’, The Journal of Economic History, XLIII, 2, 1983, pp. 347-72 ‘From shafts to wires: historical perspectives on electrification’ The Journal of Economic History XLIII 347 72 Google Scholar

A. N. Kornienko, ‘One hundred years of arc welding’, Metal Construction, March 1982, p. 146 ‘One hundred years of arc welding’ Metal Construction 146 Google Scholar

R. D. Simonson, The History of Welding, Illinois, 1969; K. Winterton, A Brief History of Welding Technology, Canadian Department of Mines, Ottawa, 1961 The History of Welding Google Scholar

‘The Fullager’, Engineering, 13 February 1920, p. 216 Google Scholar

‘Arc welding developments’, Engineering, 30 January 1920, p. 153; ‘Electric welding in building construction’, Engineering, 14 May 1920, p. 655 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

AFL Executive Council cited in B. Mergen, ‘Blacksmiths and welders: identity and phenomenal change’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 25, 3, 1972, p. 357 Google Scholar

‘The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, North Western Section’, Engineering, 3 March 1922, p. 258 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. More, Skill and the English Working Class, 1870-1914, London, 1980, pp. 28-36 Skill and the English Working Class, 1870-1914 28 36 Google Scholar

‘Welding in ship construction’, Engineering, 21 April 1933, p. 442 Google Scholar

E. A. Whittaker, ‘Practical applications of gas welding’, Engineering, 2 November 1923, p. 572 ‘Practical applications of gas welding’ Engineering 572 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

‘The training of welders’, Engineering, 14 March 1930, pp. 349-50 Google Scholar

‘The Institute of Welding’, Engineering, 14 June 1935, p. 631 Google Scholar

Simonson, History of Welding, p. 102 Google Scholar

‘Mr Bulleid's Presidential Address’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 12, 1949, p. 138 Google Scholar

E. A. Krause, The Sociology of Occupations, Boston, 1971, pp. 88-90 The Sociology of Occupations 88 90 Google Scholar

J. Kelly, Trade unions and socialist politics, London, 1988 Trade unions and socialist politics Google Scholar

J. Benders, Optional Options: Work Design and Manufacturing Automation, Aldershot, 1993 Optional Options: Work Design and Manufacturing Automation Google Scholar

This comment is one of a number appended to the main discussion in A. T. Wall, ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1922, p. 272 ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’ 272 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

M. Burawoy, The Politics of Production, London, 1985 The Politics of Production Google Scholar

A. Ayre, ‘Electric welding in United Kingdom shipyards during the past quarter of a century’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 5, 1942, pp. 152-5 ‘Electric welding in United Kingdom shipyards during the past quarter of a century’ Institute of Welding Transactions 5 152 5 Google Scholar

‘IME North Western branch’, Engineering, 21 March 1930, p. 387 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

J. McGoldrick, ‘Industrial relations and the division of labour in the shipbuilding industry since the war’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 20, 1982, pp. 197-219; I. Roberts, Craft, Class and Control: the Sociology of a Shipbuilding Community, Edinburgh, 1994 ‘Industrial relations and the division of labour in the shipbuilding industry since the war’ British Journal of Industrial Relations 20 197 219 Google Scholar

Engineering, 21 March 1930, p. 386 Google Scholar

The continuing debate about mass production versus flexible specialisation is also of relevance: J. Zeitlin, ‘Between selective flexibility and mass production: strategic ambiguity and selective adaptation in the British engineering industry, 1830-1914’ in C. Sabel and J. Zeitlin (eds), Worlds of Possibilities: Flexibility and Mass Production in Western Industrialization, Cambridge, 1997, pp. 241-72 Worlds of Possibilities: Flexibility and Mass Production in Western Industrialization 241 72 Google Scholar

A. T. Wall, ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’, Engineering, 24 February 1922, p. 242 ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’ Engineering 242 Google Scholar

See also More, Skill and the English Working Class Google Scholar

Glucksmann, Women Assemble Google Scholar

F. Hazeldine, ‘Oxy-Acetylene welding’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1919, p. 130; F. Hargreaves, ‘Welding in locomotive construction and repair’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 12, 1949, pp. 98-104 ‘Oxy-Acetylene welding’ 130 Google Scholar

C. Taylor, Life in a Loco Works. First-hand experiences of a Crewe engineering apprentice in wartime, Yeovil, 1995, p. 131 Life in a Loco Works. First-hand experiences of a Crewe engineering apprentice in wartime 131 Google Scholar

K. Gibbs, Swindon Works Apprentice in Steam, Yeovil, 1986 Swindon Works Apprentice in Steam Google Scholar

N. S. C. Macmillan, Locomotive Apprentice at the North British Locomotive Co., Brighton, 1992 Locomotive Apprentice at the North British Locomotive Co. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See also ‘Summer meeting of the Institute of Electrical Engineering in Scotland’, Engineering, 26 June 1936, pp. 692-3 - Babcock and Wilcox of Renfrew; E. H. Lee, ‘Fabrication and welding in the heavy electrical industry’, British Welding Journal, 1, 1954, pp. 385-91 Google Scholar

Thomas Heaton, ‘Some modern methods of welding’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1914, pp. 151-200; Thomas Heaton, ‘Electric welding’, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1919, pp. 49-72 ‘Some modern methods of welding’ 151 200 Google Scholar

A point made in the context of the First World War by More, Skill and the English Working Class Google Scholar

J. R. Ferguson, ‘Welding in engineering production’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 11, 1948, pp. 170-80; R. J. W. Rudkin, ‘Trends in modern shipyard welding’, British Welding Journal, 1, 1954, pp. 487-94 ‘Welding in engineering production’ Institute of Welding Transactions 11 170 80 Google Scholar

W. R. Mellanby, ‘Shipyard management of welding’, Institute of Welding Transactions, 11, 1948, pp. 52-65 ‘Shipyard management of welding’ Institute of Welding Transactions 11 52 65 Google Scholar

A. T. Wall, ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’, Engineering, 24 February 1922, p. 242 ‘Electric welding applied to steel construction, with special reference to ships’ Engineering 242 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

National Union of Sheet Metal Workers & Braziers, Executive Committee minutes, WCML, 30 October 1945, p. 5; 6 December 1946, p. 3. This mirrors practice in the USA: see Boilermakers-Blacksmiths Journal, the monthly journal of the International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers, Kansas City, WCML, May 1958, p. 9 Google Scholar

‘Workers, own the machine’, letters from Harry Pollitt, Boilermakers Society Monthly Report, April 1920, p. 30; May, 1920 p. 19 Google Scholar

J. E. Mortimer, History of the Boilermakers' Society, Vol. 2, London, 1982, p. 229 History of the Boilermakers' Society 2 229 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

A. Mutch, ‘Unions and information, Britain 1900-1960: an essay in the history of information’, International Review of Social History, 44, 3, 1999, pp. 395-418 ‘Unions and information, Britain 1900-1960: an essay in the history of information’ International Review of Social History 44 395 418 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC, Annual Report, 1963, p. 107 Google Scholar

TUC, Annual Report, 1953, p. 103 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TUC, Annual Report, 1958, pp. 96-102 Google Scholar

Finlay Hart, Demarcation and the Shipbuilding Trades, Communist Party pamphlet, London, 1945, p. 7, cited in J. Foster, The Polities of the UCS Work In, London, 1986, p. 136 Demarcation and the Shipbuilding Trades 7 Google Scholar

AEU Annual Reports, Modern Records Centre (MRC), University of Warwick, 1922-39 Google Scholar

AEU Monthly journal and report, MRC MSS. 259/4/14/35, 1921, p. 56 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

As of course did changes in authority relations and the role of the foreman, changes which were influenced by the technological developments that welding represents: K. Burgess, ‘Authority relations and the division of labour in British industry, with special reference to Clydeside, c.1860-1930’, Social History, 11, 2, 1986, pp. 211-33 ‘Authority relations and the division of labour in British industry, with special reference to Clydeside, c.1860-1930’ Social History 11 211 33 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

C. More, ‘Reskilling and labour markets in Britain c. 1890-1940: questions and hypotheses’, Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, 2, 1996, pp. 93-110 ‘Reskilling and labour markets in Britain c. 1890-1940: questions and hypotheses’ Historical Studies in Industrial Relations 2 93 110 Google Scholar

J. Lloyd, Light and Liberty. The History of the EEPTU, London, 1990, p. 664 Light and Liberty. The History of the EEPTU 664 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

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Mutch, Alistair

Mutch, Alistair