Labour History Review

The American connection: George Orwell, ‘literary Trotskyism’ and the New York intellectuals

Labour History Review (1999), 64, (1), 23–43.

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Bernard Crick, ‘Introduction’ to George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty Four, Oxford, 1984, pp. 113-14. Crick's biography, George Orwell: A Life, 1980, remains the standard life and any further discussion of the man is inevitably a debate with Crick Nineteen Eighty Four 113 14 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Writing in the New English Weekly on 12 January 1939, Orwell made clear that as far as he was concerned while Trotsky might now denounce ‘the Russian dictatorship … he is probably as much responsible for it as any man living, and there is no certainty that as a dictator he would be preferable to Stalin, though undoubtedly he has a much more interesting mind. The essential act is the rejection of democracy …’ CEJL 1, p. 4129 Google Scholar

John Rodden, The Politics of Literary Reputation: The Making and Claiming of ‘St. George’ Orwell, Oxford, 1989 The Politics of Literary Reputation: The Making and Claiming of ‘St. George’ Orwell Google Scholar

George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia, 1985, pp. 28-9. For the POUM see Victor Alba and Stephen Schwartz, Spanish Marxism versus Soviet Communism, New Brunswick, 1988 Google Scholar

For Communist policy in Spain see Burnett Bolloten, The Spanish Revolution, Chapel Hill, 1979, and more recently Kevin McDermott and Jeremy Agnew, The Comintern, 1996 Google Scholar

Franz Borkenau, The Communist International, 1938; C. L. R. James, World Revolution, 1937 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘Patriots and Revolutionaries’ in Victor Gollancz, The Betrayal of the Left, 1941, p. 237 ‘Patriots and Revolutionaries’ in Victor Gollancz The Betrayal of the Left 237 Google Scholar

‘Editorial Statement’, Partisan Review 1, 1 (February-March 1934), p. 2. For a discussion of Partisan Review see Alan Wald, The New York Intellectuals, Chapel Hill, 1987; James Gilbert, Writers and Partisans, New York, 1968; Terry Cooney, The Rise of the New York Intellectuals, Madison, 1986; Neil Jumonville, Critical Crossings, Berkeley, 1991; Hugh Wilford, The New York Intellectuals: From Vanguard to Institution, Manchester, 1996, and Harvey Teres, Renewing the Left, New York, 1996 Google Scholar

Partisan Review 5, 3 (August-September 1938); Partisan Review 6, 1 (Fall 1938) Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘War and the Intellectuals: Act Two’, Partisan Review 6, 3 (Spring 1939), pp. 11-12, 15 ‘War and the Intellectuals: Act Two’ Partisan Review 6 11 12 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘The War of the Neutrals’, Partisan Review 6, 5 (Fall 1939) ‘The War of the Neutrals’ Partisan Review 6 Google Scholar

Stephen Spender, ‘September Journal’, Partisan Review 7, 2 (March-April 1940), pp. 92-3 ‘September Journal’ Partisan Review 7 92 3 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘Notes on a Strange War’, Partisan Review 7, 3 (May-June 1940), p. 174 ‘Notes on a Strange War’ Partisan Review 7 174 Google Scholar

Stephen Spender, ‘The Defence of Britain: A Controversy’, Partisan Review 7, 5 (September-October 1940), pp. 405-6 ‘The Defence of Britain: A Controversy’ Partisan Review 7 405 6 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 8, 2 (March-April 1941), pp. 108-9 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 8 108 9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘The British Crisis: A Letter from London’, Partisan Review 9, 4 (July-August 1942), pp. 274-80 ‘The British Crisis: A Letter from London’ Partisan Review 9 274 80 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘A Letter From England’, Partisan Review 10, 2 (March-April 1943), p. 178 ‘A Letter From England’ Partisan Review 10 178 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 10, 4 (July-August 1943), pp. 346-7 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 10 346 7 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 11, 2 (Spring 1944), pp. 138-9 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 11 138 9 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 12, 1 (Winter 1944), pp. 77-80 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 12 77 80 Google Scholar

‘Pacifism and War’, Partisan Review 9, 5 (September-October 1942), pp. 414-21 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald and Clement Greenberg, ‘10 Propositions on the War’, Partisan Review 8, 6 (November-December 1941) ‘10 Propositions on the War’ Partisan Review 8 Google Scholar

S. A. Longstaff, ‘Partisan Review and the Second World War’, Salmagundi 43 (Winter 1979), p. 123 ‘Partisan Review and the Second World War’ Salmagundi 43 123 Google Scholar

S. A. Longstaff, ‘The New York Intellectuals and the Cultural Cold War: 1945-1950, New Politics 4, 2 (Winter 1989) ‘The New York Intellectuals and the Cultural Cold War: 1945-1950 New Politics 4 Google Scholar

See Michael Maddison, ‘1984: A Burnhamite Fantasy’, Political Quarterly 32 (1961). Crick accepts the Burnhamite inspiration of the book in his ‘Introduction’ to the Oxford edition ‘1984: A Burnhamite Fantasy’ Political Quarterly 32 Google Scholar

James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution, Bloomington, 1962. On Burnham see in particular Paul Le Blanc, ‘From Revolutionary Intellectual to Conservative Master-Thinker: The Anti-Democratic Odyssey of James Burnham’, Left History 3, 1 (1995), J. P. Diggins, Up From Communism, New York, 1975, and Samuel Francis, Power and History, Lanham, 1984 The Managerial Revolution Google Scholar

Orwell's essay ‘Second Thoughts on James Burnham’ appeared in the British journal Polemic in May 1946 and was reprinted as a pamphlet by the Socialist Book Centre. Later, in March 1947, he reviewed Burnham's The Struggle for the World for the New York socialist magazine, the New Leader Google Scholar

For the Workers Party see Peter Drucker, Max Shachtman and his Left, New Jersey, 1994; for the theory of bureaucratic collectivism see Ernest E. Haberkern and Arthur Lipow, Neither Capitalism Nor Socialism: Theories of Bureaucratic Collectivism, New Jersey, 1996 Max Shachtman and his Left Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘Trotsky is Dead’, Partisan Review 7, 5 (September-October 1940), pp. 349-52 ‘Trotsky is Dead’ Partisan Review 7 349 52 Google Scholar

James Burnham, ‘The Theory of Managerial Revolution’, Partisan Review 8, 3 (May-June 1941) and Dwight Macdonald, ‘The End of German Capitalism’, Partisan Review 8, 3 (May-June 1941), p. 208 ‘The Theory of Managerial Revolution’ Partisan Review 8 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘The Burnhamian Revolution’, Partisan Review 9, 1 (January-February 1942), p. 81 ‘The Burnhamian Revolution’ Partisan Review 9 81 Google Scholar

For Macdonald see Michael Wreszin, A Rebel In Defence of Tradition, New York, 1994; Gregory Sumner, Dwight Macdonald and the ‘politics circle’, Ithaca, 1996; and Stephen Whitfield, A Critical American, Hamden, Conn, 1984 A Rebel In Defence of Tradition Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘Why Politics’, Politics 1, 1 (February 1944), pp. 6-8 ‘Why PoliticsPolitics 1 6 8 Google Scholar

The best account of Politics is Sumner, op cit. But see also Wilford, op cit., pp. 137-57 and Robert Cummings, ‘Resistance and Victimization: Dwight Macdonald in the 1940s’, New Politics 11, 2 (Winter 1989) and Robert Westbrook, ‘Horrors - Theirs and Ours: The "Politics" Circle and the Good War’, Radical History Review 36 (1986) Google Scholar

Letter from Serge to Orwell, 4 March 1946 in Orwell Archive, University College, London. For Serge see Alan Wald, ‘Victor Serge and the New York Anti-Stalinist Left’ in Susan Weissman (ed.), The Ideas of Victor Serge, 1997 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘Catastrophic Gradualism’, Politics 3, 8 (September 1946), pp. 268-70 ‘Catastrophic Gradualism’ Politics 3 268 70 Google Scholar

Staughton Lynd, ‘Marxism-Leninism and the Language of "Politics" Magazine: The First New Left … and the Third’ from George Abbott White, Simone Weil: Interpretations of a Life, Cambridge, Mass., 1976 Simone Weil: Interpretations of a Life Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 13, 3 (Summer 1946), p. 321 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 13 321 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘The British General Election’, Commentary 6, 1 (1945), p. 17 ‘The British General Election’ Commentary 6 17 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 13, 3 (Summer 1946), pp. 322-3 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 13 322 3 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

‘Orwell offered writers’ blacklist to anti-Soviet propaganda unit', The Guardian 11 July 1996. For the Information Research Department see Jonathan Bloch and Patrick Fitzgerald, British Intelligence and Covert Action, 1983; Stephen Dorril and Robin Ramsay, ‘In Common Cause: The Anti-Communist Crusade in Britain 1945-1960’, Lobster 19 (1989); Lynn Smith, ‘Covert British propaganda: The Information Research Department 1944-77’, Millennium 9, 1 1989; and W. Scott Lucas and C. J. Morris, ‘A Very British Crusade: the Information Research Department and the Beginning of the Cold War’ in Richard J. Aldrich (ed.), British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War, 1992 Google Scholar

Orwell's anti-Stalinism was given a platform in the shortlived journal, Polemic, that was edited by Humphrey Slater. It also involved him along with Arthur Koestler and Bertrand Russell in an abortive attempt to establish a League for the Dignity and Rights of Man. His anti-Stalinism has to be put in context however. In this respect, it is worth asking, which did the most damage to the socialist cause, Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four or the Communist terror in Eastern Europe that was to sweep between 125,000 and 250,000 alleged Titoists into the gulag between 1948 and 1952, a terror wholeheartedly supported by the British Communist Party? Google Scholar

Crick op cit., Michael Sheldon, Orwell: The Authorised Biography, 1991; Stephen Ingle, George Orwell: A Political life, Manchester, 1993; William Steinhoff, The Road to 1984, 1975; Alex Zwerdling, Orwell and the Left, New Haven, 1974; John Rodden, The Politics of Literary Reputation, Oxford, 1989; Peter Davison, George Orwell: A Literary Life, 1996 Google Scholar

‘Editor's Note’, Partisan Review 14, 1 (January-February 1947), pp. 23-4 Google Scholar

Sidney Hook, ‘The Future of Socialism’, Partisan Review 14, 1 (January-February 1947), pp. 29, 35 ‘The Future of Socialism’ Partisan Review 14 29 Google Scholar

Granville Hicks, ‘On Attitudes and Ideas’, Partisan Review 14, 2 (March-April 1947), p. 127 ‘On Attitudes and Ideas’ Partisan Review 14 127 Google Scholar

Arthur Schlesinger Jnr., ‘The Perspective Now’, Partisan Review 14, 3 (May-June 1947), pp. 239-41 ‘The Perspective Now’ Partisan Review 14 239 41 Google Scholar

Victor Serge, ‘The Socialist Imperative’, Partisan Review 14, 5 (September-October 1947), pp. 511-17 ‘The Socialist Imperative’ Partisan Review 14 511 17 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘Toward European Unity’, Partisan Review 14, 4 (July-August 1947), pp. 346-51 ‘Toward European Unity’ Partisan Review 14 346 51 Google Scholar

Bernard Crick, ‘Introduction’ to George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty Four, Oxford, 1984, pp. 113-14. Crick's biography, George Orwell: A Life, 1980, remains the standard life and any further discussion of the man is inevitably a debate with Crick Nineteen Eighty Four 113 14 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Writing in the New English Weekly on 12 January 1939, Orwell made clear that as far as he was concerned while Trotsky might now denounce ‘the Russian dictatorship … he is probably as much responsible for it as any man living, and there is no certainty that as a dictator he would be preferable to Stalin, though undoubtedly he has a much more interesting mind. The essential act is the rejection of democracy …’ CEJL 1, p. 4129 Google Scholar

John Rodden, The Politics of Literary Reputation: The Making and Claiming of ‘St. George’ Orwell, Oxford, 1989 The Politics of Literary Reputation: The Making and Claiming of ‘St. George’ Orwell Google Scholar

George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia, 1985, pp. 28-9. For the POUM see Victor Alba and Stephen Schwartz, Spanish Marxism versus Soviet Communism, New Brunswick, 1988 Google Scholar

For Communist policy in Spain see Burnett Bolloten, The Spanish Revolution, Chapel Hill, 1979, and more recently Kevin McDermott and Jeremy Agnew, The Comintern, 1996 Google Scholar

Franz Borkenau, The Communist International, 1938; C. L. R. James, World Revolution, 1937 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘Patriots and Revolutionaries’ in Victor Gollancz, The Betrayal of the Left, 1941, p. 237 ‘Patriots and Revolutionaries’ in Victor Gollancz The Betrayal of the Left 237 Google Scholar

‘Editorial Statement’, Partisan Review 1, 1 (February-March 1934), p. 2. For a discussion of Partisan Review see Alan Wald, The New York Intellectuals, Chapel Hill, 1987; James Gilbert, Writers and Partisans, New York, 1968; Terry Cooney, The Rise of the New York Intellectuals, Madison, 1986; Neil Jumonville, Critical Crossings, Berkeley, 1991; Hugh Wilford, The New York Intellectuals: From Vanguard to Institution, Manchester, 1996, and Harvey Teres, Renewing the Left, New York, 1996 Google Scholar

Partisan Review 5, 3 (August-September 1938); Partisan Review 6, 1 (Fall 1938) Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘War and the Intellectuals: Act Two’, Partisan Review 6, 3 (Spring 1939), pp. 11-12, 15 ‘War and the Intellectuals: Act Two’ Partisan Review 6 11 12 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘The War of the Neutrals’, Partisan Review 6, 5 (Fall 1939) ‘The War of the Neutrals’ Partisan Review 6 Google Scholar

Stephen Spender, ‘September Journal’, Partisan Review 7, 2 (March-April 1940), pp. 92-3 ‘September Journal’ Partisan Review 7 92 3 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘Notes on a Strange War’, Partisan Review 7, 3 (May-June 1940), p. 174 ‘Notes on a Strange War’ Partisan Review 7 174 Google Scholar

Stephen Spender, ‘The Defence of Britain: A Controversy’, Partisan Review 7, 5 (September-October 1940), pp. 405-6 ‘The Defence of Britain: A Controversy’ Partisan Review 7 405 6 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 8, 2 (March-April 1941), pp. 108-9 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 8 108 9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘The British Crisis: A Letter from London’, Partisan Review 9, 4 (July-August 1942), pp. 274-80 ‘The British Crisis: A Letter from London’ Partisan Review 9 274 80 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘A Letter From England’, Partisan Review 10, 2 (March-April 1943), p. 178 ‘A Letter From England’ Partisan Review 10 178 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 10, 4 (July-August 1943), pp. 346-7 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 10 346 7 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 11, 2 (Spring 1944), pp. 138-9 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 11 138 9 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 12, 1 (Winter 1944), pp. 77-80 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 12 77 80 Google Scholar

‘Pacifism and War’, Partisan Review 9, 5 (September-October 1942), pp. 414-21 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald and Clement Greenberg, ‘10 Propositions on the War’, Partisan Review 8, 6 (November-December 1941) ‘10 Propositions on the War’ Partisan Review 8 Google Scholar

S. A. Longstaff, ‘Partisan Review and the Second World War’, Salmagundi 43 (Winter 1979), p. 123 ‘Partisan Review and the Second World War’ Salmagundi 43 123 Google Scholar

S. A. Longstaff, ‘The New York Intellectuals and the Cultural Cold War: 1945-1950, New Politics 4, 2 (Winter 1989) ‘The New York Intellectuals and the Cultural Cold War: 1945-1950 New Politics 4 Google Scholar

See Michael Maddison, ‘1984: A Burnhamite Fantasy’, Political Quarterly 32 (1961). Crick accepts the Burnhamite inspiration of the book in his ‘Introduction’ to the Oxford edition ‘1984: A Burnhamite Fantasy’ Political Quarterly 32 Google Scholar

James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution, Bloomington, 1962. On Burnham see in particular Paul Le Blanc, ‘From Revolutionary Intellectual to Conservative Master-Thinker: The Anti-Democratic Odyssey of James Burnham’, Left History 3, 1 (1995), J. P. Diggins, Up From Communism, New York, 1975, and Samuel Francis, Power and History, Lanham, 1984 The Managerial Revolution Google Scholar

Orwell's essay ‘Second Thoughts on James Burnham’ appeared in the British journal Polemic in May 1946 and was reprinted as a pamphlet by the Socialist Book Centre. Later, in March 1947, he reviewed Burnham's The Struggle for the World for the New York socialist magazine, the New Leader Google Scholar

For the Workers Party see Peter Drucker, Max Shachtman and his Left, New Jersey, 1994; for the theory of bureaucratic collectivism see Ernest E. Haberkern and Arthur Lipow, Neither Capitalism Nor Socialism: Theories of Bureaucratic Collectivism, New Jersey, 1996 Max Shachtman and his Left Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘Trotsky is Dead’, Partisan Review 7, 5 (September-October 1940), pp. 349-52 ‘Trotsky is Dead’ Partisan Review 7 349 52 Google Scholar

James Burnham, ‘The Theory of Managerial Revolution’, Partisan Review 8, 3 (May-June 1941) and Dwight Macdonald, ‘The End of German Capitalism’, Partisan Review 8, 3 (May-June 1941), p. 208 ‘The Theory of Managerial Revolution’ Partisan Review 8 Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘The Burnhamian Revolution’, Partisan Review 9, 1 (January-February 1942), p. 81 ‘The Burnhamian Revolution’ Partisan Review 9 81 Google Scholar

For Macdonald see Michael Wreszin, A Rebel In Defence of Tradition, New York, 1994; Gregory Sumner, Dwight Macdonald and the ‘politics circle’, Ithaca, 1996; and Stephen Whitfield, A Critical American, Hamden, Conn, 1984 A Rebel In Defence of Tradition Google Scholar

Dwight Macdonald, ‘Why Politics’, Politics 1, 1 (February 1944), pp. 6-8 ‘Why PoliticsPolitics 1 6 8 Google Scholar

The best account of Politics is Sumner, op cit. But see also Wilford, op cit., pp. 137-57 and Robert Cummings, ‘Resistance and Victimization: Dwight Macdonald in the 1940s’, New Politics 11, 2 (Winter 1989) and Robert Westbrook, ‘Horrors - Theirs and Ours: The "Politics" Circle and the Good War’, Radical History Review 36 (1986) Google Scholar

Letter from Serge to Orwell, 4 March 1946 in Orwell Archive, University College, London. For Serge see Alan Wald, ‘Victor Serge and the New York Anti-Stalinist Left’ in Susan Weissman (ed.), The Ideas of Victor Serge, 1997 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘Catastrophic Gradualism’, Politics 3, 8 (September 1946), pp. 268-70 ‘Catastrophic Gradualism’ Politics 3 268 70 Google Scholar

Staughton Lynd, ‘Marxism-Leninism and the Language of "Politics" Magazine: The First New Left … and the Third’ from George Abbott White, Simone Weil: Interpretations of a Life, Cambridge, Mass., 1976 Simone Weil: Interpretations of a Life Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 13, 3 (Summer 1946), p. 321 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 13 321 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘The British General Election’, Commentary 6, 1 (1945), p. 17 ‘The British General Election’ Commentary 6 17 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘London Letter’, Partisan Review 13, 3 (Summer 1946), pp. 322-3 ‘London Letter’ Partisan Review 13 322 3 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

‘Orwell offered writers’ blacklist to anti-Soviet propaganda unit', The Guardian 11 July 1996. For the Information Research Department see Jonathan Bloch and Patrick Fitzgerald, British Intelligence and Covert Action, 1983; Stephen Dorril and Robin Ramsay, ‘In Common Cause: The Anti-Communist Crusade in Britain 1945-1960’, Lobster 19 (1989); Lynn Smith, ‘Covert British propaganda: The Information Research Department 1944-77’, Millennium 9, 1 1989; and W. Scott Lucas and C. J. Morris, ‘A Very British Crusade: the Information Research Department and the Beginning of the Cold War’ in Richard J. Aldrich (ed.), British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War, 1992 Google Scholar

Orwell's anti-Stalinism was given a platform in the shortlived journal, Polemic, that was edited by Humphrey Slater. It also involved him along with Arthur Koestler and Bertrand Russell in an abortive attempt to establish a League for the Dignity and Rights of Man. His anti-Stalinism has to be put in context however. In this respect, it is worth asking, which did the most damage to the socialist cause, Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four or the Communist terror in Eastern Europe that was to sweep between 125,000 and 250,000 alleged Titoists into the gulag between 1948 and 1952, a terror wholeheartedly supported by the British Communist Party? Google Scholar

Crick op cit., Michael Sheldon, Orwell: The Authorised Biography, 1991; Stephen Ingle, George Orwell: A Political life, Manchester, 1993; William Steinhoff, The Road to 1984, 1975; Alex Zwerdling, Orwell and the Left, New Haven, 1974; John Rodden, The Politics of Literary Reputation, Oxford, 1989; Peter Davison, George Orwell: A Literary Life, 1996 Google Scholar

‘Editor's Note’, Partisan Review 14, 1 (January-February 1947), pp. 23-4 Google Scholar

Sidney Hook, ‘The Future of Socialism’, Partisan Review 14, 1 (January-February 1947), pp. 29, 35 ‘The Future of Socialism’ Partisan Review 14 29 Google Scholar

Granville Hicks, ‘On Attitudes and Ideas’, Partisan Review 14, 2 (March-April 1947), p. 127 ‘On Attitudes and Ideas’ Partisan Review 14 127 Google Scholar

Arthur Schlesinger Jnr., ‘The Perspective Now’, Partisan Review 14, 3 (May-June 1947), pp. 239-41 ‘The Perspective Now’ Partisan Review 14 239 41 Google Scholar

Victor Serge, ‘The Socialist Imperative’, Partisan Review 14, 5 (September-October 1947), pp. 511-17 ‘The Socialist Imperative’ Partisan Review 14 511 17 Google Scholar

George Orwell, ‘Toward European Unity’, Partisan Review 14, 4 (July-August 1947), pp. 346-51 ‘Toward European Unity’ Partisan Review 14 346 51 Google Scholar

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Newsinger, John

Newsinger, John