Labour History Review

Speech and Writing in the Northern Star

Labour History Review (2000), 65, (1), 22–40.

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J. Epstein, The Lion of Freedom, London, 1982, p. 72 The Lion of Freedom 72 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Northern Star (NS), 26 March 1838, quoted in Epstein, Lion of Freedom, p. 65 Google Scholar

NS, 20 April 1840 Google Scholar

NS, 13 January 1838 and 27 January 1838 Google Scholar

NS, 16 October 1838 Google Scholar

This duality between the local and the national was not confined to the Northern Star but was a feature of other Chartist papers too, in fact of Chartism itself. See, for instance, Joan Hugman's study of the Newcastle Northern Liberator, ‘A Small Drop of Ink’, in O. Ashton et al., The Chartist Legacy, London, 1999 Google Scholar

S. Roberts, ‘Who Wrote to the Northern Star?’ O. Ashton, et al., The Duty of Discontent, London, 1995, p. 64 The Duty of Discontent 64 Google Scholar

Epstein, Lion of Freedom, p. 6810 Google Scholar

Leeds Intelligencer, 20 January 1838 Google Scholar

M. Short, ‘Speech Presentation, the Novel and the Press’, in W. van Peer (ed.), Taming the Text, London, 1988 Taming the Text Google Scholar

R. Fowler, Language in the News, London, 1990, and ‘Oral Models in the Press’; in M. McLure, T. Phillips and A. Wilinson (eds), Oracy Matters, London, 1988 Language in the News Google Scholar

S. Morison, The English Newspaper 1622-1932, London, 1932, p. 279 The English Newspaper 1622-1932 279 Google Scholar

P. Hollis, The Pauper Press, Oxford, 1970, p. 119 The Pauper Press 119 Google Scholar

J. Seaton and J. Curran, Power Without Responsibility, London, 1988, p. 14 Power Without Responsibility 14 Google Scholar

B. Simon, The Two Nations and the Educational Structure 1780-1870, London, 1974, p. 181 The Two Nations and the Educational Structure 1780-1870 181 Google Scholar

D. Merrick, The Warp of Life, Leicester, 1876, quoted in Epstein, op. cit., p. 71 The Warp of Life Google Scholar

W. Adams, Memoirs of a Social Atom, London, 1903, quoted in O. Ashton, W. E. Adams: Chartist, Radical and Journalist, Whidey Bay, 1991, p. 31 Memoirs of a Social Atom Google Scholar

W. Lovett and J. Collins, Chartism: a New Organisation of the People [1840], Leicester, 1969, repr., pp. 5-12 Chartism: a New Organisation of the People Google Scholar

NS, 24 February 1838 Google Scholar

R. C. Gammage, History of the Chartist Movement [1894], London, 1969, passim History of the Chartist Movement Google Scholar

J. Vernon, Politics and the People, Cambridge, 1993, p. 145 Politics and the People 145 Google Scholar

Daily Universal Register, 1 January 1785 Google Scholar

T. B. Macaulay, Preface to Collected Speeches [1865], London, 1909, p. xx Preface to Collected Speeches xx Google Scholar

P. Pickering, ‘Class Without Words: Symbolic Communication in the Chartist Movement’, Past and Present, vol. 112 ‘Class Without Words: Symbolic Communication in the Chartist Movement’ Past and Present 112 Google Scholar

M. Halliday, Preface to Introduction to Functional Grammar, London, 1985, p. xx, and ‘Spoken and Written Modes of Meaning’, in D. Graddol and O. Boyd-Barrett (eds), Media Texts: Authors and Readers, Milton Keynes, 1994 Introduction to Functional Grammar xx Google Scholar

Fowler, Language (1988) Google Scholar

A. Portelli, ‘The Peculiarities of Oral History’, History Workshop Journal, Autumn 1981 ‘The Peculiarities of Oral History’ History Workshop Journal Google Scholar

P. Thompson, The Voice of the Past: Oral History, London, 1988, pp. 228-31 The Voice of the Past: Oral History 228 31 Google Scholar

NS, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

Leeds Mercury, 8 June 1839 Google Scholar

C. Dickens, Bleak House, 1852-3, Ch. 11 Google Scholar

NS, 3 February 1838 Google Scholar

NS, 11 January 1840 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See, for example, R. Pascal, The Dual Voice, Manchester, 1976. There is a much better account of the history of Free Indirect Speech in more recent work by M. Fludernik, Fictions of Language, London, 1993 The Dual Voice Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NS, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Leeds Intelligencer, which was a ‘non-oral’ paper, used parentheses very sparingly, and sneered at the practice in an editorial (27 January 1838) Google Scholar

NS, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

Dickens, Hard Times, 1854, Book 2, Ch. 4 Google Scholar

Leeds Mercury, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

Leeds Intelligencer, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

NS, 3 March 1849 Google Scholar

NS, 17 March 1849 Google Scholar

NS, 10 February 1838 Google Scholar

NS, 27 October 1838 Google Scholar

H. Weisser, ‘Chartist Internationalism 1845-1848’, The Historical Journal, xiv, 1, 1971 ‘Chartist Internationalism 1845-1848’ The Historical Journal xiv Google Scholar

NS, 8 January 1848 Google Scholar

Quotations from The Communist Manifesto are from the first English translation, which appeared in the Red Republican in November 1850. What I say about its style holds good for the more familiar 1888 translation. See C. Yelland, ‘The Communist Manifesto: a Linguistic Approach’, Studies in Marxism, 4, 1998 Google Scholar

My account of the difference between the present perfect and the simple past is based on G. Leech, Meaning and the English Verb, London, 1970, pp. 30-6, Adams, Memoirs of a Social Atom. Google Scholar

Vernon, Politics of the People, passim Google Scholar

Adams, Memoirs of a Social Atom Google Scholar

J. Epstein, The Lion of Freedom, London, 1982, p. 72 The Lion of Freedom 72 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Northern Star (NS), 26 March 1838, quoted in Epstein, Lion of Freedom, p. 65 Google Scholar

NS, 20 April 1840 Google Scholar

NS, 13 January 1838 and 27 January 1838 Google Scholar

NS, 16 October 1838 Google Scholar

This duality between the local and the national was not confined to the Northern Star but was a feature of other Chartist papers too, in fact of Chartism itself. See, for instance, Joan Hugman's study of the Newcastle Northern Liberator, ‘A Small Drop of Ink’, in O. Ashton et al., The Chartist Legacy, London, 1999 Google Scholar

S. Roberts, ‘Who Wrote to the Northern Star?’ O. Ashton, et al., The Duty of Discontent, London, 1995, p. 64 The Duty of Discontent 64 Google Scholar

Epstein, Lion of Freedom, p. 6810 Google Scholar

Leeds Intelligencer, 20 January 1838 Google Scholar

M. Short, ‘Speech Presentation, the Novel and the Press’, in W. van Peer (ed.), Taming the Text, London, 1988 Taming the Text Google Scholar

R. Fowler, Language in the News, London, 1990, and ‘Oral Models in the Press’; in M. McLure, T. Phillips and A. Wilinson (eds), Oracy Matters, London, 1988 Language in the News Google Scholar

S. Morison, The English Newspaper 1622-1932, London, 1932, p. 279 The English Newspaper 1622-1932 279 Google Scholar

P. Hollis, The Pauper Press, Oxford, 1970, p. 119 The Pauper Press 119 Google Scholar

J. Seaton and J. Curran, Power Without Responsibility, London, 1988, p. 14 Power Without Responsibility 14 Google Scholar

B. Simon, The Two Nations and the Educational Structure 1780-1870, London, 1974, p. 181 The Two Nations and the Educational Structure 1780-1870 181 Google Scholar

D. Merrick, The Warp of Life, Leicester, 1876, quoted in Epstein, op. cit., p. 71 The Warp of Life Google Scholar

W. Adams, Memoirs of a Social Atom, London, 1903, quoted in O. Ashton, W. E. Adams: Chartist, Radical and Journalist, Whidey Bay, 1991, p. 31 Memoirs of a Social Atom Google Scholar

W. Lovett and J. Collins, Chartism: a New Organisation of the People [1840], Leicester, 1969, repr., pp. 5-12 Chartism: a New Organisation of the People Google Scholar

NS, 24 February 1838 Google Scholar

R. C. Gammage, History of the Chartist Movement [1894], London, 1969, passim History of the Chartist Movement Google Scholar

J. Vernon, Politics and the People, Cambridge, 1993, p. 145 Politics and the People 145 Google Scholar

Daily Universal Register, 1 January 1785 Google Scholar

T. B. Macaulay, Preface to Collected Speeches [1865], London, 1909, p. xx Preface to Collected Speeches xx Google Scholar

P. Pickering, ‘Class Without Words: Symbolic Communication in the Chartist Movement’, Past and Present, vol. 112 ‘Class Without Words: Symbolic Communication in the Chartist Movement’ Past and Present 112 Google Scholar

M. Halliday, Preface to Introduction to Functional Grammar, London, 1985, p. xx, and ‘Spoken and Written Modes of Meaning’, in D. Graddol and O. Boyd-Barrett (eds), Media Texts: Authors and Readers, Milton Keynes, 1994 Introduction to Functional Grammar xx Google Scholar

Fowler, Language (1988) Google Scholar

A. Portelli, ‘The Peculiarities of Oral History’, History Workshop Journal, Autumn 1981 ‘The Peculiarities of Oral History’ History Workshop Journal Google Scholar

P. Thompson, The Voice of the Past: Oral History, London, 1988, pp. 228-31 The Voice of the Past: Oral History 228 31 Google Scholar

NS, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

Leeds Mercury, 8 June 1839 Google Scholar

C. Dickens, Bleak House, 1852-3, Ch. 11 Google Scholar

NS, 3 February 1838 Google Scholar

NS, 11 January 1840 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

See, for example, R. Pascal, The Dual Voice, Manchester, 1976. There is a much better account of the history of Free Indirect Speech in more recent work by M. Fludernik, Fictions of Language, London, 1993 The Dual Voice Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NS, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

The Leeds Intelligencer, which was a ‘non-oral’ paper, used parentheses very sparingly, and sneered at the practice in an editorial (27 January 1838) Google Scholar

NS, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

Dickens, Hard Times, 1854, Book 2, Ch. 4 Google Scholar

Leeds Mercury, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

Leeds Intelligencer, 4 January 1840 Google Scholar

NS, 3 March 1849 Google Scholar

NS, 17 March 1849 Google Scholar

NS, 10 February 1838 Google Scholar

NS, 27 October 1838 Google Scholar

H. Weisser, ‘Chartist Internationalism 1845-1848’, The Historical Journal, xiv, 1, 1971 ‘Chartist Internationalism 1845-1848’ The Historical Journal xiv Google Scholar

NS, 8 January 1848 Google Scholar

Quotations from The Communist Manifesto are from the first English translation, which appeared in the Red Republican in November 1850. What I say about its style holds good for the more familiar 1888 translation. See C. Yelland, ‘The Communist Manifesto: a Linguistic Approach’, Studies in Marxism, 4, 1998 Google Scholar

My account of the difference between the present perfect and the simple past is based on G. Leech, Meaning and the English Verb, London, 1970, pp. 30-6, Adams, Memoirs of a Social Atom. Google Scholar

Vernon, Politics of the People, passim Google Scholar

Adams, Memoirs of a Social Atom Google Scholar

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Author details

Yelland, Cris