Music, Sound, and the Moving Image

Intertextuality as ‘Resonance’: Masculinity and Anticapitalism in Pet Shop Boys' Score for Battleship Potemkin

Music, Sound, and the Moving Image (2013), 7, (1), 53–82.

Abstract

This essay cultivates ‘resonance’ as a refinement of the overused theoretical concept of ‘intertextuality’. I refine the use of resonance to mean active, sympathetic amplification and clarification of commonalities between texts. As a case study, this essay examines Pet Shop Boys' (PSB) soundtrack to Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin, which resonates constructions of counterhegemonic masculinities and anticapitalism. PSB sympathetically amplify, clarify and refine Eisenstein's idealised struggle for social freedom and their idealised sympathy for various masculinities. Analysing resonances ultimately suggests gendering as collective negotiation and integration rather than individual self-expression. This case study also uniquely demonstrates resonance as something done by contemporary, active audiences. Outside of concerts, it is only experienced when fans synchronise the PSB soundtrack CD with a DVD of the film, literally resonating the two. This case study explores resonance across such audience practices (CD/DVD synching, online commentary), authorship (PSB's music, Eisenstein's films) and discourses (scholars, critics).

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Adams-Price, Carolyn, Jim Codling, Mark Goodman, Kevin Kern, C. M. Kleinmann, Bonnie Oppenheimer, Rebekah Ray, Porter Roberts and Pete Smith (2006) ‘Empathic Resonance and Meryl Streep’, Journal of Popular Film and Television, 34:3: 98-107. ‘Empathic Resonance and Meryl Streep’ Journal of Popular Film and Television 34 98 107 Google Scholar

Allen, Graham (2000) Intertextuality. New York: Routledge. Intertextuality Google Scholar

Armstrong, Tom (2008) ‘Response: Music, Image and the Sublime’, Textual Practice, 22:1: 71-83. ‘Response: Music, Image and the Sublime’ Textual Practice 22 71 83 Google Scholar

Balfour, Ian (1991) ‘Revolutions Per Minute, or, Pet Shop Boys Forever, Surfaces, http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/202/300/surfaces/other_formats/v1-1991/balfour.html (accessed 20 February 2013). http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/202/300/surfaces/other_formats/v1-1991/balfour.html ‘Revolutions Per Minute, or, Pet Shop Boys Forever Surfaces Google Scholar

‘Battleship Potemkin (album)’ (2012) Wikipedia.’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battleship_Potemkin_(album) Google Scholar

Bauman, Richard (2004) A World of Others’ Words: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Intertextuality. Malden, MA: Blackwell. A World of Others' Words: Cross-cultural Perspectives on Intertextuality Google Scholar

Benshoff, Harry (1990) ‘Homoerotic Iconography and Anti-Catholic Marxism: Proto-feminist Discourse in Sergei M. Eisenstein's Que Viva Mexico!’ The Spectator, 1: 6-17. ‘Homoerotic Iconography and Anti-Catholic Marxism: Proto-feminist Discourse in Sergei M. Eisenstein's Que Viva Mexico!’ The Spectator 1 6 17 Google Scholar

Blumenthal, Dara (2012) Janet Halley and Andrew Parker (eds) (2011) After Sex? On Writing Since Queer Theory,' Culture Machine: Reviews 2012. http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/view/455 (accessed 20 February 2013). http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/view/455 After Sex? On Writing Since Queer Theory Culture Machine: Reviews 2012 Google Scholar

Bobo (2005) [Untitled] Pet Shop Boys Community: How is Potemkin? http://www.petshopboys-forum.com/viewtopic.php?p=181720&sid=5b48e2a06be98cae4f6dc27c7b2f03af#p181720 Google Scholar

Bordwell, David (1993) The Cinema of Eisenstein. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP. The Cinema of Eisenstein Google Scholar

Brookey, Robert and Paul Booth (2006) ‘Restricted Play: Synergy and the Limits of Interactivity in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Video Game,’ Games and Culture 1: 214-30. ‘Restricted Play: Synergy and the Limits of Interactivity in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Video Game,’ Games and Culture 1 214 30 Google Scholar

Burke, Marina (2008) ‘Eisenstein and the Challenge of Sound’, Kinema, http://www.kinema.uwaterloo.ca/article.php?id=380&feature (accessed 20 February 2013). http://www.kinema.uwaterloo.ca/article.php?id=380&feature ‘Eisenstein and the Challenge of Sound’ Kinema Google Scholar

Butler, Mark (2003) ‘Taking It Seriously: Intertextuality and Authenticity in Two Covers by the Pet Shop Boys’, Popular Music, 22:1: 1-19. ‘Taking It Seriously: Intertextuality and Authenticity in Two Covers by the Pet Shop Boys’ Popular Music 22 1 19 Google Scholar

Christie, Ian (1993) ‘Introduction: Rediscovering Eisenstein’, in Ian Christie and Richard Taylor (eds) Eisenstein Rediscovered. New York: Routledge, pp. 1-30. Eisenstein Rediscovered 1 30 Google Scholar

Christie, Ian and Richard Taylor (1993) ‘Preface’, in Ian Christie and Richard Taylor (eds) Eisenstein Rediscovered. New York: Routledge, pp. xv-xvi. Eisenstein Rediscovered xv xvi Google Scholar

Connell, R. W. and James Messerschmidt (2005) ‘Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept,’ Gender and Society, 19:6: 829-59. ‘Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept,’ Gender and Society 19 829 59 Google Scholar

Conrad, Joseph (1995) Heart of Darkness, with, The Congo Diary. New York: Penguin. Heart of Darkness, with, The Congo Diary Google Scholar

Dow, Bonnie (1996) Prime-time Feminism: Television, Media Culture, and the Women's Movement. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Prime-time Feminism: Television, Media Culture, and the Women's Movement Google Scholar

Duffett, Mark (2001) ‘Caught in a Trap? Beyond Pop Theory's "Butch" Construction of Male Elvis Fans’, Popular Music, 20:3: 395-408. ‘Caught in a Trap? Beyond Pop Theory's "Butch" Construction of Male Elvis Fans’ Popular Music 20 395 408 Google Scholar

Dyson, Frances (1994) ‘Radio Art in Waves’, Leonardo Music Journal, 4: 9-11. ‘Radio Art in Waves’ Leonardo Music Journal 4 9 11 Google Scholar

Dyson, Frances (2009) Sounding New Media: Immersion and Embodiment in the Arts and Culture. Berkeley, CA: University California Press. Sounding New Media: Immersion and Embodiment in the Arts and Culture Google Scholar

Eisenstein, Sergei, Vsevolod Pudovkin and Grigori Alexandrov (2012) ‘Statement on Sound’, in The Film Factory: Russian and Soviet Cinema in Documents 1896-1939, Ian Christie and Richard Taylor (eds). New York: Psychology Press, pp. 234-5. The Film Factory: Russian and Soviet Cinema in Documents 1896-1939 234 5 Google Scholar

‘Elysium (Pet Shop Boys album)’ (2012) Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elysium_%28Pet_Shop_Boys_album%29 Google Scholar

Ettema, James (2005) ‘Crafting Cultural Resonance: Imaginative Power in Everyday Journalism’, Journalism 6:2: 131-52. ‘Crafting Cultural Resonance: Imaginative Power in Everyday JournalismJournalism 6 131 52 Google Scholar

Fairclough, Norman (1992) ‘Intertextuality’, in Norman Fairclough, Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, pp. 101-36. Discourse and Social Change 101 36 Google Scholar

Ferreira, Celio (2004) ‘Risk, Transparency and Cover Up: Media Narratives and Cultural Resonance, Journal of Risk Research, 7:2: 199-211. ‘Risk, Transparency and Cover Up: Media Narratives and Cultural Resonance Journal of Risk Research 7 199 211 Google Scholar

Figueroa, Sergio (1995) ‘Edmund Meisel a Composer for the Silents’ http://www.academia.edu/879465/The_music_of_Edmund_Meisel_for_the_film_Battleship_Potemkin_1926_ Google Scholar

Frith, Simon (1996) Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (2001) Power (The Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984, Vol. 3). New York: New Press. Power (The Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984 3 Google Scholar

Gamson, William and Andre Modigliani (1989) ‘Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power’, American Journal of Sociolog y, 95:1: 1-37. ‘Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power’ American Journal of Sociology 95 1 37 Google Scholar

Gillespie, David (2003) ‘The Sounds of Music: Soundtrack and Song in Soviet Film’, Slavic Review, 62:3: 473-90. ‘The Sounds of Music: Soundtrack and Song in Soviet Film’ Slavic Review 62 473 90 Google Scholar

Golomstock, Igor (2011) Totalitarian Art: In the Soviet Union, the Third Reich, Fascist Italy and The People's Republic of China. New York: Overlook Press. Totalitarian Art: In the Soviet Union, the Third Reich, Fascist Italy and The People's Republic of China Google Scholar

Gray, Camilla (1986) The Russian Experiment in Art. London: Thames and Hudson. The Russian Experiment in Art Google Scholar

Gray, Jonathan (2006) Watching with The Simpsons: Television, Parody, and Intertextuality. New York: Routledge. Watching with The Simpsons: Television, Parody, and Intertextuality Google Scholar

Halfyard, Janet (2010) ‘Film Score Guides Nos. 6, 7 and 8’, Music, Sound, and the Moving Image, 4:2: 267-77. ‘Film Score Guides Nos. 6, 7 and 8’ Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 4 267 77 Google Scholar

Hawkins, Stan (2002) Settling the Pop Score: Pop Texts and Identity Politics. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Settling the Pop Score: Pop Texts and Identity Politics Google Scholar

Haynes, John (2003) New Soviet Man: Gender and Masculinity in Stalinist Soviet Cinema. Manchester: Manchester University Press. New Soviet Man: Gender and Masculinity in Stalinist Soviet Cinema Google Scholar

Healey, Dan (2001) ‘Masculine Purity and "Gentlemen's Mischief": Sexual Exchange and Prostitution between Russian Men, 1861-1941’, Slavic Review, 60:2: 233-65. ‘Masculine Purity and "Gentlemen's Mischief": Sexual Exchange and Prostitution between Russian Men, 1861-1941’ Slavic Review 60 233 65 Google Scholar

Heath, Chris (2005) [Liner notes in CD insert,] Tennant/Lowe, Battleship Potemkin. EMI Classics. Google Scholar

Heldt, Guido (2010) ‘The Music of Michael Nyman: Texts, Contexts, and Intertexts’, Music, Sound, and the Moving Image, 4:2: 245-51. ‘The Music of Michael Nyman: Texts, Contexts, and Intertexts’ Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 4 245 51 Google Scholar

Holliy (2005) ‘Pet Shop Boys Battleship Potemkin’, Drowned in Sound, 2010 http://drownedinsound.com/releases/4243/reviews/13261- Google Scholar

Hubbert, Julie (2008) ‘Eisenstein's Theory of Film Music Revisited: Silent and Early Sound Antecedents’, in Composing for the Screen in Germany and the USSR: Cultural Politics and Propaganda, Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell (eds). New York: Indiana University Press, pp. 125-47. Composing for the Screen in Germany and the USSR: Cultural Politics and Propaganda 125 47 Google Scholar

Humphrey, Daniel (2010) ‘Queer dialectics and the space between’, Paper at Society for Cinema and Media Studies. 19 March, Los Angeles. ‘Queer dialectics and the space between’ Google Scholar

Kassabian, Anahid (2000) Hearing Film: Tracking Identifications in Contemporary Hollywood Film Music. New York: Routledge. Hearing Film: Tracking Identifications in Contemporary Hollywood Film Music Google Scholar

Kassabian, Anahid (2008) ‘Inattentive Engagements: The New Problematics of Sound and Music’, Cinema Journal, 48:1: 118-46. ‘Inattentive Engagements: The New Problematics of Sound and Music’ Cinema Journal 48 118 46 Google Scholar

Keirnan, Maureen (1990) ‘Making Films Politically: Marxism in Eisenstein and Goddard’, Alif, 10: 93-113. ‘Making Films Politically: Marxism in Eisenstein and Goddard’ Alif 10 93 113 Google Scholar

Kokoshis, N. (2005) ‘Into Battle with the Pet Shop Boys’. Amazon.com http://www.amazon.com/review/R2UHGI0834IK97 Google Scholar

Kristeva, Julia (1984) Revolution in Poetic Language. New York: Columbia UP. Revolution in Poetic Language Google Scholar

Kristeva, Julia (1986) ‘Word, dialogue, novel’, in Toril Moi (ed.) The Kristeva Reader. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp. 34-61. The Kristeva Reader 34 61 Google Scholar

LaValley, Albert J. (2001) ‘Maintaining, Blurring and Transcending Gender Lines in Eisenstein’, in Albert J. LaValley and Barry P. Scherr (eds) Eisenstein at 100: A Reconsideration. New York: Routledge, pp. 52-64. Eisenstein at 100: A Reconsideration 52 64 Google Scholar

Lecklider, Aaron (2004) ‘Between Decadence and Denial: Two Studies in Gay Male Politics and 1980s Pop Music’, Journal of Popular Music Studies, 6:2: 111-41. ‘Between Decadence and Denial: Two Studies in Gay Male Politics and 1980s Pop Music’ Journal of Popular Music Studies 6 111 41 Google Scholar

Lewis, Tamzin (2006, May 2) ‘The Boys are revolutionary!’ The Journal (Newcastle, UK) Edition 1, News, 3. Lexis-Nexis. ‘The Boys are revolutionary!’ The Journal Google Scholar

Lewis, Thomas, Fari Amini and Richard Lannon (2001) A General Theory of Love. New York: Random House. A General Theory of Love Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Lynskey, Dorian (2006, July 14) ‘Jewel in the crown’, The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2006/jul/14/popandrock.shopping7 (accessed 27 February 2013). http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2006/jul/14/popandrock.shopping7 ‘Jewel in the crown’ The Guardian Google Scholar

‘Lyrics’ (n.d.) at http://www.petshopboys.co.uk Google Scholar

Marks, Martin (1982) ‘Film Music: The Material, Literature and Present State of Research (Updated)’, Journal of the University Film and Video Association, 34:1: 3-40. ‘Film Music: The Material, Literature and Present State of Research (Updated)’ Journal of the University Film and Video Association 34 3 40 Google Scholar

Maus, Fred (2001) ‘Glamour and Evasion: the Fabulous Ambivalence of the Pet Shop Boys’, Popular Music, 20:3: 379-93. ‘Glamour and Evasion: the Fabulous Ambivalence of the Pet Shop Boys’ Popular Music 20 379 93 Google Scholar

Mera, Miguel (2009) ‘Invention/Re-invention’, Music, Sound, and the Moving Image, 3:1: 1-20. ‘Invention/Re-invention’ Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 3 1 20 Google Scholar

Morris, Christopher (2007) ‘From Revolution to Mystic Mountains: Edmund Meisel and the Politics of Modernism’, in Composing for the Screen in Germany and the USSR: Cultural Politics and Propaganda, Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell (eds). New York: Indiana University Press, pp. 75-92. Composing for the Screen in Germany and the USSR: Cultural Politics and Propaganda 75 92 Google Scholar

Murch, Walter (1994) ‘Forward’, in Michael Chion, Audio-vision: Sound on Screen. New York: Columbia UP, pp. vii-xxiv. Audio-vision: Sound on Screen vii xxiv Google Scholar

Obelisk, DOKTORx (21 January 2006) ‘Better'n Pink Floyd while stoned!’ Amazon.com Customer Reviews: Tennant/Lowe: Battleship Potemkin. http://www.amazon.com/Tennant-Lowe-Battleship-Benjamin-Schwarz/productreviews/B000A2ESC4/ref=cm_cr_dp_synop?ie=UTF8&showViewpoints=0&sortBy=bySubmissionDateDescending#RQ5VV9R45U66O Google Scholar

Orr, Mary (2003) Intertextuality: Debates and Contexts. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Intertextuality: Debates and Contexts Google Scholar

Ott, Brian and Walter Cameron (2000) ‘Intertextuality: Interpretive Practice and Textual Strategy’, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 17:4: 429-46. ‘Intertextuality: Interpretive Practice and Textual Strategy’ Critical Studies in Media Communication 17 429 46 Google Scholar

‘Pet Shop Boys Bid for Battleship Tour’ (15 September 2005) BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/4249242.stm Google Scholar

‘Pet Shop Boys plan free film gig’ (28 June 2004) BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/3847629.stm Google Scholar

‘Pet Shop Boys unveil soundtrack’ (13 September 2004) BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/3643852.stm Google Scholar

Polan, Dana B. (1985) The Political Language of Film and the Avant-garde. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press. The Political Language of Film and the Avant-garde Google Scholar

Robé, Chris (2006) ‘Revolting Women: The Role of Gender’, in Sergei Eisenstein's Que Viva Mexico; and ‘US Depression-era Left Film Criticism’, Jump Cut, 48 http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc48.2006/QueVivaMexico/index.html (accessed 1 March 2013). http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc48.2006/QueVivaMexico/index.html ‘Revolting Women: The Role of Gender’, in Sergei Eisenstein's Que Viva Mexico; and ‘US Depression-era Left Film Criticism’ Jump Cut 48 Google Scholar

Sadek, Lee (2006) ‘Deep & exciting!!!’ Amazon.com Customer Reviews: Tennant/Lowe Battleship Potemkin. http://www.amazon.com/review/R1YD23SK1S5DJ1 (accessed 1 March 2013). http://www.amazon.com/review/R1YD23SK1S5DJ1 ‘Deep & exciting!!!’ Amazon.com Customer Reviews: Tennant/Lowe Battleship Potemkin Google Scholar

Scott, D. Travers (2011) ‘Queer Media Studies in the Age of E-invisibility’, International Journal of Communication, 5: 95-100. ‘Queer Media Studies in the Age of E-invisibility’ International Journal of Communication 5 95 100 Google Scholar

Sikkema, Andreas (2003) The Introspective Pet Shop Boys FAQ http://ramdyne.home.xs4all.nl/psb/faq/#q26 Google Scholar

Snow, David and Robert Benford (1988) ‘Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization’, in Bert Klandermans and Sidney Tarrow (eds) From Structure to Action: Social Movement Participation across Cultures. Greenwich, CT: JAI, pp. 197-217. From Structure to Action: Social Movement Participation across Cultures 197 217 Google Scholar

Stilwell, Robynn (2002) ‘Music in Films: A Critical Review of Literature, 1980-1996’, The Journal of Film Music, 1:1: 19-61. ‘Music in Films: A Critical Review of Literature, 1980-1996’ The Journal of Film Music 1 19 61 Google Scholar

Studer, Wayne (2012) ‘PSB songs with "Russian connections"’, Commentary http://www.geowayne.com/newDesign/lists/russian.htm (accessed 1 March 2013). http://www.geowayne.com/newDesign/lists/russian.htm ‘PSB songs with "Russian connections"’ Commentary Google Scholar

Taylor, Richard (1998) ‘Eisenstein: A Soviet Artist’, in Sergei Eisenstein, The Eisenstein Reader. London: British Film Institute, pp. 1-28. The Eisenstein Reader 1 28 Google Scholar

Tennant, Neil (1 February 2008) ‘Battleship Potemkin makes us strong’, The Guardian Film Blog http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2008/feb/01/battleshippotemkinmakesusstrong (accessed 1 March 2013). http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2008/feb/01/battleshippotemkinmakesusstrong ‘Battleship Potemkin makes us strong’ The Guardian Film Blog Google Scholar

Toop, David (2010) Sinister Resonance: The Mediumship of the Listener. New York: Continuum. Sinister Resonance: The Mediumship of the Listener Google Scholar

Waugh, Thomas (2000) ‘Fag-spotters’ Guide to Eisenstein', in Thomas Waugh, The Fruit Machine: Twenty Years of Writing on Queer Cinema. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp. 59-68. The Fruit Machine: Twenty Years of Writing on Queer Cinema 59 68 Google Scholar

Wikan, Unni (1992) ‘Beyond the Words: The Power of Resonance,’ American Enthologist, 19:3: 460-82. ‘Beyond the Words: The Power of Resonance,’ American Enthologist 19 460 82 Google Scholar

Worton, Michael and Judith Still (1990) Intertextuality: Theories and Practices. Manchester, UK: Manchester UP. Intertextuality: Theories and Practices Google Scholar

Zholkovsky, Alexander (2001) ‘The Power of Grammar and the Grammar of Power: The Childhood Scenes in Ivan the Terrible’, in Al LaValley and Barry P. Scherr (eds) Eisenstein at 100: A Reconsideration. New York: Routledge, pp. 253-67. Films and Recordings Cited Eisenstein at 100: A Reconsideration 253 67 Google Scholar

Actually, Pet Shop Boys, USA, 1987, Capitol. Google Scholar

Battleship Potemkin, Tennant / Lowe, EMI Classics, UK. Google Scholar

Battleship Potemkin, Sergei Eisenstein, USSR, 1925; 2004 DVD from Delta Entertainment, Los Angeles. Google Scholar

Behaviour, Pet Shop Boys, UK, 1990, EMI. Google Scholar

Charade, Stanley Donen, 1963, USA, Universal. Google Scholar

Elysium, Pet Shop Boys, 2012, USA, Astralwerks. Google Scholar

Format, Pet Shop Boys, 2012, UK, EMI Import. Google Scholar

Fundamental, Pet Shop Boys, 2006, USA, Rhino. Google Scholar

Go West (music video), Howard Greenhalgh, 1993, UK. Google Scholar

The Most Incredible Thing, Pet Shop Boys, 2011, UK, Parlophone. Google Scholar

Pet Shop Boys Performance, David Arlen, 2005, UK EMI Europe. Google Scholar

PopArt: The Hits, Pet Shop Boys, 2006, USA, Capitol. Google Scholar

Psycho, Alfred Hitchcock, 1960, USA, Paramount. Google Scholar

Psycho, Gus Van Sant, 1998, USA, Universal. Google Scholar

A Star is Born, Frank Pierson, 1976, USA, Warner Brothers. Google Scholar

You Only Live Twice, Lewis Gilbert, 1967, USA, United Artists. Google Scholar

Yes, Pet Shop Boys, 2009, USA, Astralwerks. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Scott, D.