Enacted in July 2009 and put into full effect in April 2011, Japan's Public Records and Archives Management Act (PRAMA) has improved records management in state organs and incorporated administrative agencies and remarkably strengthened Japan's archival systems, including the National Archives of Japan. This paper discusses characteristics of PRAMA as a driving force for government transparency and the newly introduced records management system. First and foremost, the compliance mechanisms need to be operated in a practical manner. Second, it is necessary to develop an integrated document management system in order to streamline procedures for both checking record schedules for large amounts of administrative documents and securing approval for destruction of the documents by each responsible minister. Third, details of a common rule for born-digital document management need to be elaborated. Future challenges relating to PRAMA are also discussed: these include ingest of born-digital documents as well as rules for the creation and preservation of important records in emergencies such as the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear power plant disaster in Fukushima.