Before Farming

Chapters of time in human evolution

Before Farming (2010), 2010, (4), 1–16.

Abstract

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Andrews, P (1969). Palaeoecology and hominoid palaeoenvironments. Biological Review 71:257-300. Palaeoecology and hominoid palaeoenvironments Biological Review 71 257 300 Google Scholar

Berger, LR, de Ruiter, D, Churchill, SE, Schmid, P, Carlso, KJ, Dirks, PHGM & Kibii, J 2010. Australopithecus sediba: A new species of Homo-like Australopith from South Africa. Science, 328 no 5975:195-204. Australopithecus sediba: A new species of Homo-like Australopith from South Africa Science 328 195 204 Google Scholar

Berillon, G, Bacon, A-M, Marcha, F & Deloison, Y (eds) 1999-2001. Les australopithèques. Paris: Editions Artcom. Les australopithèques Google Scholar

Boaz, NT (ed) 1990. Evolution of environments and Hominidae in the African Western Rift Valley. Martinsville, VA: Virginia Museum of Natural History. Evolution of environments and Hominidae in the African Western Rift Valley Google Scholar

Boule, M 1915. Les hommes fossiles, elements de paleontologie humaine. Paris: Masson Eds. Les hommes fossiles, elements de paleontologie humaine Google Scholar

Bower, JRF & Sartono, S (eds) 1995. Human evolution in its ecological context. Leiden: Pithecanthropus Centennial Foundation. Human evolution in its ecological context Google Scholar

Brain, CK 1981. The hunters or the hunted? Chicago and London: Chicago University Press. The hunters or the hunted? Google Scholar

Broom, R 1950. Finding the Missing Link. London: Watts and Co. Finding the Missing Link Google Scholar

Cameron, N 1984. The measurement of human growth. London: Croom Helm. The measurement of human growth Google Scholar

Campbell, BG 1978. Some problems in hominid classification and nomenclature. In Jolly, CJ (ed) Early hominids of Africa. London: Duckworth. Early hominids of Africa Google Scholar

Cela-Conde, CJ & Ayala, FJ 1998. The problem of hominoid systematics, and some suggestions for solving it. South African Journal of Science 94:255-262. The problem of hominoid systematics, and some suggestions for solving it South African Journal of Science 94 255 262 Google Scholar

Clark, WE LeGros 1955. The fossil evidence for human evolution: an introduction to the study of paleoanthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The fossil evidence for human evolution: an introduction to the study of paleoanthropology Google Scholar

Clarke, RJ 1998. First ever discovery of a well-preserved skull and associated skeleton of Australopithecus. South African Journal of Science 94:460-463. First ever discovery of a well-preserved skull and associated skeleton of Australopithecus South African Journal of Science 94 460 463 Google Scholar

Clarke, RJ 1999. Discovery of complete arm and hand of the 3.3 million-year-old Australopithecus skeleton from Sterkfontein. South African Journal of Science 95:477-480. Discovery of complete arm and hand of the 3.3 million-year-old Australopithecus skeleton from Sterkfontein South African Journal of Science 95 477 480 Google Scholar

Clarke, RJ 2000. Out of Africa and back again. International Journal of Anthropology 15:185-189. Out of Africa and back again International Journal of Anthropology 15 185 189 Google Scholar

Clarke, RJ & Tobias, PV 1995. Sterkfontein Member 2 foot bones of the oldest South African hominid. Science 269:521-524. Sterkfontein Member 2 foot bones of the oldest South African hominid Science 269 521 524 Google Scholar

Corrucini, RS & Ciochon, RL (eds) 1994. Integrative paths to the past: paleoanthropological advances in honor of F. Clark Howell. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Integrative paths to the past: paleoanthropological advances in honor of F. Clark Howell Google Scholar

Crawford, M & Marsh, D 1989. The driving force: food, evolution and the future. London: Heinemann. The driving force: food, evolution and the future Google Scholar

Dart, RA 1925. Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape from South Africa. Nature 115:195-199. Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape from South Africa Nature 115 195 199 Google Scholar

Day, MH 1986. Guide to fossil man (4th edition). London: Cassell. Guide to fossil man Google Scholar

Delisle, RG 2000. The biology/culture link in human evolution, 1750-1950: the problem of integration in science. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biology and Biomedical Science 31:531-556. The biology/culture link in human evolution, 1750-1950: the problem of integration in science Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biology and Biomedical Science 31 531 556 Google Scholar

Delson, E (ed) 1995. Ancestors: the hard evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss. Ancestors: the hard evidence Google Scholar

Delson, E 1997. One skull does not a species make. Nature 389:445-446. One skull does not a species make Nature 389 445 446 Google Scholar

Dirks, PHGM, Kibii, J, Kuhn, BF, Steininger, C, Churchill, SE, Kramers, JD, Pickering, R, Farber, DL, Meriaux, AS, Herries, AIR, King, GCP & Berger, L 2010. Geological setting and age of Australopithecus sediba from Southern Africa. Science 328:205-208. Geological setting and age of Australopithecus sediba from Southern Africa Science 328 205 208 Google Scholar

Eldredge, N & Cracraft, J 1980. Phylogenetic patterns and the evolutionary process. New York: Columbia University Press. Phylogenetic patterns and the evolutionary process Google Scholar

Falk, D & Baker, E 1992. Earliest Homo debate. Nature 358:289-290. Earliest Homo debate Nature 358 289 290 Google Scholar

Ferguson, WW 1986. The taxonomic status of Praeanthropus africanus (Primates: Pongidae) from the Late Pliocene of eastern Africa. Primates 27:485-492. The taxonomic status of Praeanthropus africanus (Primates: Pongidae) from the Late Pliocene of eastern Africa Primates 27 485 492 Google Scholar

Grine, FE (ed) 1998. Evolutionary history of the "robust" australopithecines. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Evolutionary history of the "robust" australopithecines Google Scholar

Haile-Selassie, Y 2001. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 412:178-181. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia Nature 412 178 181 Google Scholar

Haile-Selassie, Y & WoldeGabriel, G (eds) 2009. Ardipithecus kadabba: Late Miocene evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia, Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. Ardipithecus kadabba: Late Miocene evidence from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia Google Scholar

Hennig, W 1950. Grundzüge einer theorie der phylogenetischen systematic. Berlin: Deutscher Zentralverlag. Grundzüge einer theorie der phylogenetischen systematic Google Scholar

Hill, A 1994. Late Miocene and early Pliocene hominoids from Africa. In Corruccini, RS & Ciochon, RL (eds) Integrative paths to the past: paleoanthropological advances in honor of F. Clark Howell. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall:123-145. Integrative paths to the past: paleoanthropological advances in honor of F. Clark Howell 123 145 Google Scholar

Huxley, JS 1942. Evolution, the modern synthesis. London: George Allen and Unwin. Evolution, the modern synthesis Google Scholar

Ishida, H, Pickford, M, Nakaya, H & Nakano, Y 1984. Fossil anthropoids from Nachola and Samburu Hills, Samburu District, Kenya. African Study Monograph Supplement Issue 2:73-85. Fossil anthropoids from Nachola and Samburu Hills, Samburu District, Kenya African Study Monograph 73 85 Google Scholar

Ishida, H & Pickford, M 1997. A new late Miocene hominoid from Kenya: Samburupithecus kiptalami gen. et sp. nov. CR Academy of Sciences Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des planetes 325:823-829. A new late Miocene hominoid from Kenya: Samburupithecus kiptalami gen. et sp. nov CR Academy of Sciences Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des planetes 325 823 829 Google Scholar

Keith, A 1915. The antiquity of man. London: Williams and Norgate. The antiquity of man Google Scholar

Kennedy, K 2000. God-apes and fossil men: paleoanthropology in South Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. God-apes and fossil men: paleoanthropology in South Asia Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Kirk, RL & Thorn, AG (eds) 1976. The Origin of the Australians. Canberra:Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. The Origin of the Australians Google Scholar

Koenigswald, GHR von 1972. Ein unterkiefer eines fossilen hominoiden aus dem Unterpliozän. Proceedings, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam 75:385-394. Ein unterkiefer eines fossilen hominoiden aus dem Unterpliozän 75 385 394 Google Scholar

Leakey, LSB 1934. Adam's ancestors. London: Methuen. Adam's ancestors Google Scholar

Leakey, LSB, Tobias, PV & Napier, J 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from the Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202 (4927):7-9. A new species of the genus Homo from the Olduvai Gorge Nature 202 7 9 Google Scholar

Leakey, MG, Feibel, CS, McDougal, I & Walker, AC 1995. New four-million-year-old species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376:565-571. New four-million-year-old species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya Nature 376 565 571 Google Scholar

Lyell, C 1863. The geological evidences of the antiquity of man. London: John Murray. The geological evidences of the antiquity of man Google Scholar

McKee, J 2000. The riddled chain: chance, coincidence and chaos in human evolution. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. The riddled chain: chance, coincidence and chaos in human evolution Google Scholar

Meunier, V 1900. Les ancětres d'Adam. Paris: Thieullen Ed. Les ancětres d'Adam Google Scholar

Oakley, KP 1964. Frameworks for dating fossil man. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Frameworks for dating fossil man Google Scholar

Omoto, K & Tobias, PV (eds) 1998. The origins of modern humans - towards reconciliation. Singapore: World Scientific. The origins of modern humans - towards reconciliation Google Scholar

Partridge, TC 1978. Re-appraisal of lithostratigraphy of Sterkfontein hominid site. Nature 275:282-287. Re-appraisal of lithostratigraphy of Sterkfontein hominid site Nature 275 282 287 Google Scholar

Pickford, M & Ishida, H 1998. Interpretation of Samburupithecus, an Upper Miocene hominoid from Kenya. CR Academy of Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes 326:299-306. Interpretation of Samburupithecus, an Upper Miocene hominoid from Kenya CR Academy of Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes 326 299 306 Google Scholar

Pickford, M & Senut, B 2001. The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Sér. Ila, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 332:145-152. The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Sér. Ila, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 332 145 152 Google Scholar

Prat, S & Marchal, F (eds) 2001. Les premiers représentants du genre Homo en Afrique: Homo rudolfensis, Homo habilis. Paris: Editions Artcom. Les premiers représentants du genre Homo en Afrique: Homo rudolfensis, Homo habilis Google Scholar

Relethford, JH 1994. The human species: an introduction to biological anthropology. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. The human species: an introduction to biological anthropology Google Scholar

Renne, PR, Wolde-Gabriel, G, Hart, WK, Heiken, G & White, TD 1999. Chronostratigraphy of the Miocene-Pliocene Sagantole Formation, Middle Awash Valley, Afar Rift, Ethiopia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 111:869-885. Chronostratigraphy of the Miocene-Pliocene Sagantole Formation, Middle Awash Valley, Afar Rift, Ethiopia Geological Society of America Bulletin 111 869 885 Google Scholar

Rightmire, P 2001. Patterns of hominid evolution and dispersal in the Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary International 75:77-84. Patterns of hominid evolution and dispersal in the Middle Pleistocene Quaternary International 75 77 84 Google Scholar

Schick, KD & Toth, N 1994. Early stone age technology in Africa. In Corruccini, RS & Ciochon, RL (eds) Integrative paths to the past: palaeoanthropological advances in honor of F. Clark Howell. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall:429-449. Integrative paths to the past: palaeoanthropological advances in honor of F. Clark Howell 429 449 Google Scholar

Senut, B, Pickford, M, Commery, D, Mein, P, Cheboi, K & Coppens, Y 2001. First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). CR Academy of Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes 332:137-144. First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya) CR Academy of Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes 332 137 144 Google Scholar

Simpson, GG 1944. Tempo and Mode in Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press:1-237. Tempo and Mode in Evolution 1 237 Google Scholar

Simpson, GG 1953. Preface. The major features of evolution. New York: Columbia University Press. The major features of evolution Google Scholar

Smith, G Elliot 1924. The evolution of man: essays. London: Oxford University Press. The evolution of man: essays Google Scholar

Sonntag, CF 1924. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man. London: J. Bale, Sons and Danielsson. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man Google Scholar

Spencer, F (ed) 1997. History of physical anthropology: an encyclopedia. New York and London: Garland. History of physical anthropology: an encyclopedia Google Scholar

Stringer, CB (ed) 1981. Aspects of human evolution. Symposia of the Society for the Study of Human Biology: Volume XXI. London: Taylor and Francis. Aspects of human evolution XXI Google Scholar

Susman, RL 1988. Hand of Paranthropus robustus from Member 1, Swartkrans: fossil evidence for tool behavior. Science 24:781-784. Hand of Paranthropus robustus from Member 1, Swartkrans: fossil evidence for tool behavior Science 24 781 784 Google Scholar

Tattersall, I 1998. Becoming human: evolution and human uniqueness. New York: Harcourt Brace. Becoming human: evolution and human uniqueness Google Scholar

Tattersall, I, Delson, E & Van Couvering, J (eds) 1988. Encyclopedia of human evolution and prehistory. New York and London: Garland. Encyclopedia of human evolution and prehistory Google Scholar

Thackeray, JF, de Ruiter, DJ, Berger, LR & van der Merwe, NJ 2001. Hominid fossils from Kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 38:43-56. Hominid fossils from Kromdraai: a revised list of specimens discovered since 1938 Annals of the Transvaal Museum 38 43 56 Google Scholar

Thomas, H & Senut, B (eds) 1999-2001. Les primates, ancětres de l'homme. Paris: Editions Artcom. Les primates, ancětres de l'homme Google Scholar

Thorne, AG with Raymond, R 1989. Man on the Rim. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Man on the Rim Google Scholar

Tobias, PV 1980a. L'Évolution du cerveau humain. La Recherche Vol 11 (109): 282-292. L'Évolution du cerveau humain La Recherche 11 282 292 Google Scholar

Tobias, PV 1980b. Homo habilis and Homo erectus: from the Oldowan men to the Acheulian practitioners. Anthropologie (Brno), 18:115-119. Homo habilis and Homo erectus: from the Oldowan men to the Acheulian practitioners Anthropologie (Brno) 18 115 119 Google Scholar

Tobias, PV (ed) 1985. Hominid evolution: past, present and future. New York: Alan R. Liss. Hominid evolution: past, present and future Google Scholar

Tobias, PV 1998. History of the discovery of a fossilised Little Foot at Sterkfontein, South Africa, and the light it sheds on the origins of hominin bipedalism. Mitteilungen der Berliner Gesselschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 19:47-56. History of the discovery of a fossilised Little Foot at Sterkfontein, South Africa, and the light it sheds on the origins of hominin bipedalism Mitteilungen der Berliner Gesselschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 19 47 56 Google Scholar

Tobias, PV 2000. The fossil hominids. In Partridge, TC & Maud, RR (eds) The Cenozoic of Southern Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press:252-276. The Cenozoic of Southern Africa 252 276 Google Scholar

Tobias, PV, Raath, MA, Moggi Cecch, J & Doyle, GA (eds) 2001. Humanity from African naissance to coming millennia. Colloquia in human biology and palaeoanthropology, Dual Congress 1998. Firenze: Firenze University Press; Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. Humanity from African naissance to coming millennia Google Scholar

Tobias, PV 2002. The role of water in the extra-African dispersal of humanity. In Proceedings of Meeting in Honour of Phillip V. Tobias, Murcia, Spain, December 2000. The role of water in the extra-African dispersal of humanity Google Scholar

Ullrich, H (ed) 1999. Hominid evolution: lifestyles and survival strategies Gelsenkirchen/Schwelm: Edition Archaea. Hominid evolution: lifestyles and survival strategies Google Scholar

Vrba, ES, Denton, GH, Partridge, TC & Burckle, LH 1995. Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins. New Haven: Yale University Press. Paleoclimate and evolution with emphasis on human origins Google Scholar

Vrba, E 2000. Major features of Neogene mammalian evolution in Africa. In Partridge, TC & Maud, RR (eds) The Cenozoic of Southern Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Cenozoic of Southern Africa Google Scholar

White, TD, Suwa, G & Asfaw, B 1994. Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371:306-312. Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia Nature 371 306 312 Google Scholar

White, TD, Suwa, G & Asfaw, B 1995. Corrigendum. Ardipithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis. Nature 371:88. Corrigendum. Ardipithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis Nature 371 88 Google Scholar

WoldeGabriel, G, White, TD, Suwa, G, Renne, P, de Heinzelin, J, Har,t WK & Heiken, G 1994. Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371:330-333. Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia Nature 371 330 333 Google Scholar

WoldeGabriel, G, Renne, P, White, TD, Suwa, G, de Heinzeli, J, Hart WK & Heiken, G 1995. Age of early hominids (Reply). Nature 376:558-559. Age of early hominids (Reply) Nature 376 558 559 Google Scholar

Wood, B & Collard, M 1999. The changing face of genus Homo. Evolutionary Anthropology 8:195-207. The changing face of genus Homo Evolutionary Anthropology 8 195 207 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Tobias, Phillip