Before Farming

Hunters, fishers and scavengers

a review of the isotope evidence for Neanderthal diet

Before Farming (2007), 2007, (2), 1–16.

Abstract

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen is now a popular method of palaeodietary inquiry. With the routine application of this technique, small sample sizes and good organic preservation in many late Pleistocene sites, there are now a large number of stable isotope articles available that report on Palaeolithic diet. A number of these have focused on reconstructing Neanderthal diet because carbon and nitrogen measurements of bone collagen distinguish between the relative contribution of animal and marine protein to the diet. For Palaeolithic studies, key debates include the carnivorous diet of Neanderthals in contrast to anatomically modern humans and direct evidence supporting the Broad Spectrum Revolution among modern humans. This paper provides a critical conspectus of current research, focusing on dietary reconstruction of Neanderthals and outlines the current evidence, areas of debate and suggests other sources of dietary protein and directions for future research.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Aiello, LC & Wheeler, P 1995. The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis - the brain and the digestive-system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology 36:199-221. The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis - the brain and the digestive-system in human and primate evolution Current Anthropology 36 199 221 Google Scholar

Adler, DS, Bar-Oz, G, Belfer-Cohen, A & Bar-Yosef, O 2006. Ahead of the Game: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Hunting Behaviours in the Southern Caucasus. Current Anthropology 47:89-118. Ahead of the Game: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Hunting Behaviours in the Southern Caucasus Current Anthropology 47 89 118 Google Scholar

Ambrose, SH 1991. Effects of Diet, Climate and Physiology on Nitrogen Isotope Abundances in Terrestrial food webs. Journal of Archaeological Science 18:293-317. Effects of Diet, Climate and Physiology on Nitrogen Isotope Abundances in Terrestrial food webs Journal of Archaeological Science 18 293 317 Google Scholar

Ambrose, SH 1993. Isotopic Analysis of Paleodiets: Methodological and Interpretative Considerations. In Sandford, MK (ed) Investigations of Ancient Human Tissues: Chemical Analysis in Anthropology. Pennsylvania: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers:59-130. Investigations of Ancient Human Tissues: Chemical Analysis in Anthropology 59 130 Google Scholar

Ambrose, SH 2000. Controlled Diet and Climate Experiments on Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Rats. In Ambrose, SH & Katzenberg, MA (eds) Biogeochemical Approaches to Paleodietary Analysis. Advances in Archaeological and Museum Science Vol 5. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers:243-263. Biogeochemical Approaches to Paleodietary Analysis 5 243 263 Google Scholar

Ambrose, SH & Norr, L 1993. Experimental evidence for the relationship of the carbon isotope ratios of whole diet and dietary protein to those of bone collagen and carbonate. In Lambert, J & Grupe, G (eds) Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level: Berlin: Springer-Verlag:1-37. Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level 1 37 Google Scholar

Babraj, JA, Smith, K, Cuthbertson, DJR, Rickhuss, P, Dorling, JS & Rennie, MJ 2005. Human bone collagen synthesis is a rapid nutritionally modulated process. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20:930-937. Human bone collagen synthesis is a rapid nutritionally modulated process Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20 930 937 Google Scholar

Balter, V & Simon, L 2006. Diet and behaviour of the Saint-Cesaire Neanderthal inferred from biogeochemical data inversion. Journal of Human Evolution 51:329-338. Diet and behaviour of the Saint-Cesaire Neanderthal inferred from biogeochemical data inversion Journal of Human Evolution 51 329 338 Google Scholar

Barboza, PS, Farley, SD, & Robbins, CT 1997. Whole-body urea cycling and protein turnover during hyperphagia and dormancy in growing bears (Ursus americanus and U-arctos) Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne de Zoologie 75:2129-2136. Whole-body urea cycling and protein turnover during hyperphagia and dormancy in growing bears (Ursus americanus and U-arctos) Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne de Zoologie 75 2129 2136 Google Scholar

Bocherens, H & Drucker, D 2006. Isotope evidence for Paleodiet of late Upper Paleolithic humans in Great Britain: a response to Richards et al. (2005). Journal of Human Evolution 51:440-442. Isotope evidence for Paleodiet of late Upper Paleolithic humans in Great Britain: a response to Richards et al. (2005) Journal of Human Evolution 51 440 442 Google Scholar

Bocherens, H, Fizet, M, Mariotti, A, Lange-Badre, B, Vandermeersch, B, Borel, JP & Bellon, G 1991. Isotope biogeochemistry (13C, 15N) of fossil vertebrate collagen: application to the study of a past food web including Neandertal man. Journal of Human Evolution 20:481-492. Isotope biogeochemistry (13C, 15N) of fossil vertebrate collagen: application to the study of a past food web including Neandertal man Journal of Human Evolution 20 481 492 Google Scholar

Bocherens, H, Fogel, M, Tuross, N & Zeder, M 1995. Trophic Structure and Climatic Information from Isotopic Signatures in Pleistocene Cave Fauna of Southern England. Journal of Archaeological Science 22:327-340. Trophic Structure and Climatic Information from Isotopic Signatures in Pleistocene Cave Fauna of Southern England Journal of Archaeological Science 22 327 340 Google Scholar

Bocherens, H, Pacaud, G, Lazarev, PA & Mariotti, A 1996. Stable isotope abundances (13C, 15N) in collagen and soft tissues from Pleistocene mammals from Yakutia: Implications for the palaeobiology of the Mammoth Steppe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 126:31-44. Stable isotope abundances (13C, 15N) in collagen and soft tissues from Pleistocene mammals from Yakutia: Implications for the palaeobiology of the Mammoth Steppe Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 126 31 44 Google Scholar

Bocherens, H, Billiou, D, Mariotti, A, Pathou-Mathis, M, Otte, M, Bonjean, D & Toussaint, M 1999. Palaeoenvironmental and Palaeodietary Implications of Isotopic Biogeochemistry of Last Interglacial Neanderthal and Mammal Bones in Scladina Cave (Belgium). Journal of Archaeological Science 26:599-607. Palaeoenvironmental and Palaeodietary Implications of Isotopic Biogeochemistry of Last Interglacial Neanderthal and Mammal Bones in Scladina Cave (Belgium) Journal of Archaeological Science 26 599 607 Google Scholar

Bocherens, H, Billiou, D, Mariotti, A, Toussaint, M, Pathou-Mathis, M, Bonjean, D & Otte, M 2001. New isotopic evidence for dietary habits of Neanderthals from Belgium. Journal of Human Evolution 40:497-505. New isotopic evidence for dietary habits of Neanderthals from Belgium Journal of Human Evolution 40 497 505 Google Scholar

Bocherens, H, Drucker, DG, Billiou, D, Patou-Mathis, M & Vandermeersch, B 2005. Isotopic evidence for diet and subsistence pattern of the Saint Césaire I Neanderthal: review and use of a multi-source mixing model. Journal of Human Evolution 49:71-87. Isotopic evidence for diet and subsistence pattern of the Saint Césaire I Neanderthal: review and use of a multi-source mixing model Journal of Human Evolution 49 71 87 Google Scholar

Bramble, DM & Lieberman, DE 2004. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432:345-352. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432 345 352 Google Scholar

Calvin, M & Benson, AA 1948. The path of carbon in photosynthesis. Science 107:476-480. The path of carbon in photosynthesis Science 107 476 480 Google Scholar

Carbone, C, Mace, GM, Roberts, SC & Macdonald, DW 1999. Energetic constraints on the diet of terrestrial carnivores. Nature 402:286-288. Energetic constraints on the diet of terrestrial carnivores Nature 402 286 288 Google Scholar

Chamberlain, CP, Waldbauer, JR, Fox-Dobbs, K, Newsome, SD, Koch, PL, Smith, DR, Church, ME, Chamberlain, SD, Sorenson, KJ & Risebrough, R 2005. Pleistocene to recent dietary shifts in California condors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:16707-16711. Pleistocene to recent dietary shifts in California condors Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 16707 16711 Google Scholar

Cheng, HH, Bremmer, JM & Edwards, AP 1964. Variations of nitrogen-15 abundances in soils. Science 146:1574-1575. Variations of nitrogen-15 abundances in soils Science 146 1574 1575 Google Scholar

Cordain, L, Brand Miller, J, Eaton, SB, Holt, SHA & Speth, JD 2000. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71:682-692. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 682 692 Google Scholar

Cordain, L, Eaton, SB, Brand Miller, J, Mann, N & Hill, K 2002. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56:S42-S52. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 S42 S52 Google Scholar

Cormie, AB & Schwarcz, HP 1994. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon of North American white-tailed deer and implications for paleodietary and other food web studies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 107:227-241. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon of North American white-tailed deer and implications for paleodietary and other food web studies Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 107 227 241 Google Scholar

Cormie, AB & Schwarcz, HP 1996. Effects of climate on deer bone δ15N and δ13C: Lack of precipitation effects of δ15N for animals consuming low amounts of C4 plants. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60:4161-4166. Effects of climate on deer bone δ15N and δ13C: Lack of precipitation effects of δ15N for animals consuming low amounts of C4 plants Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 4161 4166 Google Scholar

DeNiro, MJ & Epstein, S 1978. Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 42:495-506. Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 42 495 506 Google Scholar

DeNiro, MJ & Epstein, S 1981. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45:341-51. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45 341 51 Google Scholar

Drucker, D & Bocherens H 2004. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes as Tracers of Change in Diet Breadth during Middle and Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 14:162-177. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes as Tracers of Change in Diet Breadth during Middle and Upper Palaeolithic in Europe International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 14 162 177 Google Scholar

Drucker, DG & Henry-Gambier, D 2005. Determination of the dietary habits of a Magdalenian woman from Saint-Germain-la-Riviere in southwestern France using stable isotopes. Journal of Human Evolution 49:19-35. Determination of the dietary habits of a Magdalenian woman from Saint-Germain-la-Riviere in southwestern France using stable isotopes Journal of Human Evolution 49 19 35 Google Scholar

Faber, P, Johnstone, AM, Gibney, ER, Elia, M, Stubbs, RJ, Roger, PL, Milne, E, Buchan, W & Lobley, GE 2003. The effect of rate and extent of weight loss on urea salvage in obese male subjects. British Journal of Nutrition 90:221-231. The effect of rate and extent of weight loss on urea salvage in obese male subjects British Journal of Nutrition 90 221 231 Google Scholar

Fizet, M, Mariotti, A, Bocherens, H, Lange-Badré, B, Vandersmeersch, B Borel, J & Bellon, G 1995. Effect of diet, physiology and climate on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of collagen in late Pleistocene anthropic palaeoecosystem: Marillac, Charente, France. Journal of Archaeological Science 22:67-79. Effect of diet, physiology and climate on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of collagen in late Pleistocene anthropic palaeoecosystem: Marillac, Charente, France Journal of Archaeological Science 22 67 79 Google Scholar

Flanagan, LB & Jefferies, RL 1989. Effect of increased salinity on CO2 assimilation, O2 evolution and the δ13C values of leaves of Plantago maritima L. developed at low and high NaCl levels. Planta 178:377-384. Effect of increased salinity on CO2 assimilation, O2 evolution and the δ13C values of leaves of Plantago maritima L. developed at low and high NaCl levels Planta 178 377 384 Google Scholar

Flannery, K 1969. Origins and ecological effects of early domestication in Iran and the Near East in Ucko, PJ & Dimbleby, G (eds) Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals. Chicago: Aldine: 73-100. Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals 73 100 Google Scholar

Fuller, BT, Fuller, JL, Sage, NE, Harris, DA, O'Connell, TC & Hedges, REM 2005. Nitrogen balance and d15n: Why you're not what you eat during nutritional stress. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 19:2497-2506. Nitrogen balance and d15n: Why you're not what you eat during nutritional stress Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 19 2497 2506 Google Scholar

Fuller, BT, Fuller, JL, Harris, DA & Hedges, REM 2006. Detection of breastfeeding and weaning in modern human infants with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129:279-293. Detection of breastfeeding and weaning in modern human infants with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129 279 293 Google Scholar

Gröcke, DR, Bocherens, H & Mariotti, A. 1997. Annual rainfall and nitrogen-isotope correlation in macropod collagen: application as a palaeoprecipitation indicator. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 153:279-285. Annual rainfall and nitrogen-isotope correlation in macropod collagen: application as a palaeoprecipitation indicator Earth and Planetary Science Letters 153 279 285 Google Scholar

Handley, LL & Scrimgeour, CM 1997. Terrestrial plant ecology and 15N natural abundance: the present limits to interpretation for uncultivated systems with original data from a Scottish old field. Advances in Ecological Research 27:133-211. Terrestrial plant ecology and 15N natural abundance: the present limits to interpretation for uncultivated systems with original data from a Scottish old field Advances in Ecological Research 27 133 211 Google Scholar

Hatch, MD & Slack, DR 1966. Photosynthesis by sugarcane leaves. A new carboxylation reaction and the pathway of sugar formation. Biochemistry Journal 101:103-111. Photosynthesis by sugarcane leaves. A new carboxylation reaction and the pathway of sugar formation Biochemistry Journal 101 103 111 Google Scholar

Heaton, THE 1987. The 15N/14N ratios of plants in South Africa and Namibia: relationship to climate and coastal/saline environments. Oecologia 74:236-246. The 15N/14N ratios of plants in South Africa and Namibia: relationship to climate and coastal/saline environments Oecologia 74 236 246 Google Scholar

Hedges, REM, Clement, JG, Thomas, CDL & O'Connell, TC 2007. Collagen turnover in the adult femoral mid-shaft: Modeled from anthropogenic radiocarbon tracer measurements. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133:808-816. Collagen turnover in the adult femoral mid-shaft: Modeled from anthropogenic radiocarbon tracer measurements American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133 808 816 Google Scholar

Higham, T, Bronk Ramsey, C, Karanavanić, I, Smith, FH & Trinkaus, E 2006a. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:553-557. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 553 557 Google Scholar

Higham, TFG, Jacobi, RM & Bronk Ramsey, C 2006b. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient bones using ultrafiltration. Radiocarbon 48:179-195. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient bones using ultrafiltration Radiocarbon 48 179 195 Google Scholar

Katzenberg, MA & Lovell, NC 1999. Stable Isotope Variation in Pathological Bone. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 9:316-324. Stable Isotope Variation in Pathological Bone International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 9 316 324 Google Scholar

Kelly, JF 2000. Stable Isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the study of avian and mammalian trophic ecology. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1-27. Stable Isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the study of avian and mammalian trophic ecology Canadian Journal of Zoology 78 1 27 Google Scholar

Koch, GW, Sillett, SC, Jennings, GM & Davis, SD 2004. The limits to tree height. Nature 428:851-854. The limits to tree height Nature 428 851 854 Google Scholar

Lee-Thorp, J & Sponheimer, M 2006. Contributions of biogeochemistry to understanding hominin dietary ecology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 49:131-148. Contributions of biogeochemistry to understanding hominin dietary ecology Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 49 131 148 Google Scholar

Liebenberg, L 2006. Persistence Hunting by Modern Hunter-Gatherers. Current Anthropology 47:1017-1025. Persistence Hunting by Modern Hunter-Gatherers Current Anthropology 47 1017 1025 Google Scholar

Macko, S, Fogel Estep, ML, Engel, MH & Hare, PE 1986. Kinetic fractionation of stable nitrogen isotopes during amino acid transamination. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 50:2143-2146. Kinetic fractionation of stable nitrogen isotopes during amino acid transamination Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 50 2143 2146 Google Scholar

Mills, MGL 1990. Kalahari Hyaenas: Comparative Behavioural Ecology of Two Species. London: Unwin Hyman. Kalahari Hyaenas: Comparative Behavioural Ecology of Two Species Google Scholar

Nielsen-Marsh, CM, Richards, MP, Hauschka, PV, Thomas-Oates, JE, Trinkaus, E, Pettitt, PB, Karavanic, I, Poinar, H & Collins, MJ 2005. Osteocalcin protein sequences of Neanderthals and modern primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:4409-4413. Osteocalcin protein sequences of Neanderthals and modern primates Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 4409 4413 Google Scholar

Newsome, SD, Phillips, DL, Culleton, BJ, Guilderson, TP & Koch, PL 2004. Dietary reconstruction of an early to middle Holocene human population from the central California coast: insights from advanced stable isotope mixing models. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:1101-1115. Dietary reconstruction of an early to middle Holocene human population from the central California coast: insights from advanced stable isotope mixing models Journal of Archaeological Science 31 1101 1115 Google Scholar

O'Connell, JF, Hawkes, K, Lupo, KD & Blurton Jones, NG 2002. Male Strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology. Journal of Human Evolution 43:831-872. Male Strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology Journal of Human Evolution 43 831 872 Google Scholar

O'Leary, MH 1981. Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Phytochemistry 20:553-567. Carbon isotope fractionation in plants Phytochemistry 20 553 567 Google Scholar

O'Leary, MH 1988. Carbon Isotopes in Photosynthesis. Bioscience 38:328-336. Carbon Isotopes in Photosynthesis Bioscience 38 328 336 Google Scholar

Pettitt, PB, Richards, M, Maggi, R & Formicola, V 2003. The Gravettian burial known as the Prince ("Il Principe"): new evidence for his age and diet. Antiquity 77:15-19. The Gravettian burial known as the Prince ("Il Principe"): new evidence for his age and diet Antiquity 77 15 19 Google Scholar

Phillips, DL & Gregg, JW 2001. Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes. Oecologia 136:261-269. Uncertainty in source partitioning using stable isotopes Oecologia 136 261 269 Google Scholar

Phillips, DL & Gregg, JW 2003. Source partitioning using stable isotopes: coping with too many sources. Oecologia 136:261-269. Source partitioning using stable isotopes: coping with too many sources Oecologia 136 261 269 Google Scholar

Richards, MP, Hedges, REM, Jacobi, R, Current, A & Stringer, C 2000a. FOCUS: Gough's Cave and Sun Hole Cave Human Stable Isotope Values Indicate a High Animal Protein Diet in the British Upper Palaeolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science 27:1-3. FOCUS: Gough's Cave and Sun Hole Cave Human Stable Isotope Values Indicate a High Animal Protein Diet in the British Upper Palaeolithic Journal of Archaeological Science 27 1 3 Google Scholar

Richards, MP, Pettitt, PB, Trinkaus, E, Smith, FE, Paunoviæ, M & Karavaniæ, I 2000b. Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97:7663-7666. Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97 7663 7666 Google Scholar

Richards, MP, Pettitt, PB, Stiner, MC & Trinkaus, E 2001. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:6528-6232. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 6528 6232 Google Scholar

Richards, MP, Fuller, BT, Sponheimer, M, Robinson, T & Ayliffe, L 2003. Sulphur Isotopes in Palaeodietary Studies: a Review and Results from a Controlled Feeding Experiment. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13:37-45. Sulphur Isotopes in Palaeodietary Studies: a Review and Results from a Controlled Feeding Experiment International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13 37 45 Google Scholar

Richards, MP, Jacobi, R, Cook, J, Pettitt, PB, & Stringer, CB 2005. Isotope evidence for the intensive use of marine foods by Late Upper Palaeolithic humans. Journal of Human Evolution 49:390-394. Isotope evidence for the intensive use of marine foods by Late Upper Palaeolithic humans Journal of Human Evolution 49 390 394 Google Scholar

Richards, MP, Jacobi, R, Stringer, CB, Pettitt, PB & Cook, J 2006. Marine diet in the European late Upper Paleolithic: A reply to Bocherens and Drucker (2006). Journal of Human Evolution 51:443-444. Marine diet in the European late Upper Paleolithic: A reply to Bocherens and Drucker (2006) Journal of Human Evolution 51 443 444 Google Scholar

Robinson, D, Handley, LL, Scrimgeour, CM, Gordon, DC, Forster, BP & Ellis, RP 2000. Using stable isotope natural abundances (δ15N and δ13C) to integrate the stress responses of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany 51:41-50. Using stable isotope natural abundances (δ15N and δ13C) to integrate the stress responses of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) genotypes Journal of Experimental Botany 51 41 50 Google Scholar

Schwarcz, HP, Dupras, TL & Fairgrieve, SI 1999. 15N Enrichment in the Sahara: In Search of a Global Relationship. Journal of Archaeological Science 26:629-636. 15N Enrichment in the Sahara: In Search of a Global Relationship Journal of Archaeological Science 26 629 636 Google Scholar

Schulting, RJ, Trinkaus, E, Higham, T, Hedges, R, Richards, M & Cardy, B 2005. A Mid-Upper Palaeolithic human humerus from eel point, South Wales, UK. Journal of Human Evolution 48:493-505. A Mid-Upper Palaeolithic human humerus from eel point, South Wales, UK Journal of Human Evolution 48 493 505 Google Scholar

Sealy, J 2006. Diet and Mobility, and Settlement Pattern among Holocene Hunter-Gatherers in Southernmost Africa. Current Anthropology 47:569-596. Diet and Mobility, and Settlement Pattern among Holocene Hunter-Gatherers in Southernmost Africa Current Anthropology 47 569 596 Google Scholar

Sealy, J, van der Merwe, NJ, Lee-Thorp, JA & Lanham, JL 1987. Nitrogen isotope ecology in southern Africa: Implications for environmental and dietary tracing. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51:2707-2717. Nitrogen isotope ecology in southern Africa: Implications for environmental and dietary tracing Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51 2707 2717 Google Scholar

Smith, FH, Trinkaus, E, Pettitt, PB & Paunoviæ, M 1999. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pecina Late Pleistocene hominid remains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96:12281-12286. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pecina Late Pleistocene hominid remains Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96 12281 12286 Google Scholar

Speth, JD 1983. Bison Kills and Bone Counts: Decision Making by Ancient Hunters. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Bison Kills and Bone Counts: Decision Making by Ancient Hunters Google Scholar

Sponheimer, M, Robinson, T, Ayliffe, L, Roeder, B, Hammer, J, Passey, B, West, A, Cerling, T, Dearing, D & Ehleringer, J 2003. Nitrogen isotopes in mammalian herbivores: Hair δ15N values from a controlled feeding study. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13:80-87. Nitrogen isotopes in mammalian herbivores: Hair δ15N values from a controlled feeding study International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13 80 87 Google Scholar

Stevens, RE & Hedges, REM 2004. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of northwest European horse bone and tooth collagen, 40,000 BP-present: Palaeoclimatic interpretations. Quaternary Science Reviews 23:977-991. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of northwest European horse bone and tooth collagen, 40,000 BP-present: Palaeoclimatic interpretations Quaternary Science Reviews 23 977 991 Google Scholar

Stewart, GS & Smith, CP 2005. Urea nitrogen salvage mechanisms and their relevance to ruminants, non-ruminants and man. Nutrition Research Reviews 18:49-62. Urea nitrogen salvage mechanisms and their relevance to ruminants, non-ruminants and man Nutrition Research Reviews 18 49 62 Google Scholar

Stewart, GR, Turnbull, MH, Schmidt, S & Erskine, PD 1995. 13C Natural Abundance in Plant Communities Along a Rainfall Gradient: a Biological Integrator of Water Availability. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22:51-55. 13C Natural Abundance in Plant Communities Along a Rainfall Gradient: a Biological Integrator of Water Availability Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22 51 55 Google Scholar

Stiner, M 2001. Thirty Years on the "Broad Spectrum Revolution" and Paleolithic Demography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:6993-6996. Thirty Years on the "Broad Spectrum Revolution" and Paleolithic Demography Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 6993 6996 Google Scholar

van Groenigen, J-W & van Kessel, C 2002. Salinity-induced patterns of Natural Abundance Carbon-13 and Nitrogen-15 in Plant and Soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 66:489-498. Salinity-induced patterns of Natural Abundance Carbon-13 and Nitrogen-15 in Plant and Soil Soil Science Society of America Journal. 66 489 498 Google Scholar

van der Merwe, NJ & Medina, E 1989. Photosynthesis and 13C/12C ratios in Amazonian rain forests. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53:1091-1094. Photosynthesis and 13C/12C ratios in Amazonian rain forests Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53 1091 1094 Google Scholar

Wackerhage, H & Rennie, MJ 2006. How nutrition and exercise maintain the human musculoskeletal mass. Journal of Anatomy 208:451-458. How nutrition and exercise maintain the human musculoskeletal mass Journal of Anatomy 208 451 458 Google Scholar

Wattiaux, MA & Reed, JD 1995. Fractionation of Nitrogen isotopes by mixed Ruminal Bacteria. Journal of Animal Science 73:257-266. Fractionation of Nitrogen isotopes by mixed Ruminal Bacteria Journal of Animal Science 73 257 266 Google Scholar

Wild, EM, Teschler-Nicola, M, Kutschera, W, Steier, P, Trinkaus, E & Wanek, W 2005. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec. Nature 435:332-335. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec Nature 435 332 335 Google Scholar

Wrangham, R, Holland Jones, J, Laden, G, Pilbeam, D & Conklin-Brittain, M 1999. The Raw and the Stolen: Cooking and the Ecology of Human Origins. Current Anthropology 40:567-594. The Raw and the Stolen: Cooking and the Ecology of Human Origins Current Anthropology 40 567 594 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Pearson, J