Before Farming

Vale Boi

rendering new understandings of resource intensification & diversification in southwestern Iberia

Before Farming (2009), 2009, (2), 1–21.

Abstract

Archaeofaunal assemblages from southwest Portugal reveal evidence of Upper Palaeolithic resource intensification. Faunal remains recovered from the coastal Upper Palaeolithic site of Vale Boi demonstrate that humans were exploiting rabbits and intensively processing ungulate carcasses by the early Gravettian. Taphonomy of the rabbit assemblage shows no evidence of density-mediated attrition or of specific signatures left by non-human predators. Additionally, the placement of rabbit remains alongside faunal remains clearly deposited by humans, strongly suggests that the leporid assemblage was accumulated by humans. Examination of red deer and horse remains reveals a high percentage of impact damage from stone tools and that nearly all major elements were opened for marrow. Further analysis of medium ungulate long bone epiphyses suggests that humans were preferentially targeting long bone ends containing high yields of bone-grease. Co-occurrence of fire-cracked rock, stone anvils and hammerstones corroborates the suggestion that humans were intensively processing ungulate carcasses. This early coupling of rabbit exploitation with bone grease rendering is distinctive in that it occurs relatively early in the European Upper Palaeolithic.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Andrews, O 1990. Owls, Caves and Fossils. London: Natural History Museum Publications. Owls, Caves and Fossils Google Scholar

Andrews, P & Evans, EMN 1983. Small mammal bone accumulations produced by mammalian carnivores. Paleobiology 9:289-307. Small mammal bone accumulations produced by mammalian carnivores Paleobiology 9 289 307 Google Scholar

Antunes, M 1990-1991. O Homem da gruta da Figueira Brava (ca. 30, 000 BP). Memórias da Academia das Ciěncias de Lisboa, Classe de Ciěncias 31:487-536. O Homem da gruta da Figueira Brava (ca. 30, 000 BP) Memórias da Academia das Ciěncias de Lisboa, Classe de Ciěncias 31 487 536 Google Scholar

Antunes, M 2000. The Pleistocene fauna from Gruta da Figueira Brava: a synthesis. Memórias da Academia das Ciěncias de Lisboa, Classe de Ciěncias 38:259-282. The Pleistocene fauna from Gruta da Figueira Brava: a synthesis Memórias da Academia das Ciěncias de Lisboa, Classe de Ciěncias 38 259 282 Google Scholar

Audouze, F & Enloe, JG 1991. Subsistence strategies and economy in the Magdalenian of the Paris Basin, France. In Barton, RNE, Roberts, AJ & Roe, DA (eds) The Late Glacial in Northwest Europe: human adaptations and environmental change at the end of the Pleistocene. London: Council for British Archaeological Research Report 77:63-71. Google Scholar

Barton, RNE 2000. Mousterian hearths and shellfish: Late Neanderthal activities on Gibraltar. In Stringer, CB, Barton, RNE, Finlayson, JC (eds) Neanderthals on the Edge. Oxford: Oxbow Books:211-220. Neanderthals on the Edge 211 220 Google Scholar

Beaton, JM 1991. Extensification and intensification in central California Prehistory. Antiquity 65:947-951. Extensification and intensification in central California Prehistory Antiquity 65 947 951 Google Scholar

Bicho, NF 1993. Late glacial prehistory of central and southern Portugal. Antiquity 67:761-775. Late glacial prehistory of central and southern Portugal Antiquity 67 761 775 Google Scholar

Bicho, NF 1994. The end of the Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic in Portugal. Current Anthropology 35(5):664-674. The end of the Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic in Portugal Current Anthropology 35 664 674 Google Scholar

Bicho, NF 1997. Spatial, technological, and economic organization after the Last Glacial Maximum in Portuguese prehistory. In Fullola, JM & Soler, N (eds) El mon mediterrani despres del Pleniglacial (18,000-12,000 BP). Catalunya-Girona: Museu d'Arqueologia de Catalunya-Girona Serie Monografica, 17:213-223. El mon mediterrani despres del Pleniglacial (18,000-12,000 BP) 213 223 Google Scholar

Bicho, N & Haws, J 2008. At the land's end: marine resources and the importance of fluctuations in the coast line in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer economy of Portugal. Quaternary Science Review 27:2166-2175. At the land's end: marine resources and the importance of fluctuations in the coast line in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer economy of Portugal Quaternary Science Review 27 2166 2175 Google Scholar

Bicho, N, Haws, J & Hockett, B 2006. Two sides of the same coin - rocks, bones and site function of Picareiro Cave, central Portugal. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25:485-499. Two sides of the same coin - rocks, bones and site function of Picareiro Cave, central Portugal Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25 485 499 Google Scholar

Bicho, N, Stiner, MC, Lindly, J, Reid Ferring, C & Correia, J 2003. Preliminary results from the upper Palaeolithic site of Vale Boi, southwestern Portugal. Journal of Iberian Archaeology 5:51-66. Preliminary results from the upper Palaeolithic site of Vale Boi, southwestern Portugal Journal of Iberian Archaeology 5 51 66 Google Scholar

Binford, LR 1978. Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology. New York: Academic Press. Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology Google Scholar

Blasco, MF 1997. In the pursuit of game: the Mousterian cave site of Gabasa I in the Spanish Pyrenees. Journal of Anthropological Research 53:177-217. In the pursuit of game: the Mousterian cave site of Gabasa I in the Spanish Pyrenees Journal of Anthropological Research 53 177 217 Google Scholar

Blasco, R 2006. Estrategias de Subsistencia de los Homínidos del Nivel XII de la Cova del Bolomor (La Valldigna, Valencia). Departament d'História, História de l'Art i Geografia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona. Estrategias de Subsistencia de los Homínidos del Nivel XII de la Cova del Bolomor (La Valldigna, Valencia) Google Scholar

Blasco, R 2008. Human consumption of tortoises at Level IV of Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science 35:2839-2848. Human consumption of tortoises at Level IV of Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain) Journal of Archaeological Science 35 2839 2848 Google Scholar

Broughton, JM 1994. Late Holocene resource intensification in the Sacramento Valley, California: the vertebrate evidence. Journal of Archaeological Science 21:501-514. Late Holocene resource intensification in the Sacramento Valley, California: the vertebrate evidence Journal of Archaeological Science 21 501 514 Google Scholar

Broughton, JM 1997. Widening diet breadth, declining foraging efficiency, and prehistoric harvest pressure: ichthyofaunal evidence form the Emeryville Shellmound, California. Antiquity 71 (274):845-863. Widening diet breadth, declining foraging efficiency, and prehistoric harvest pressure: ichthyofaunal evidence form the Emeryville Shellmound, California Antiquity 71 845 863 Google Scholar

Brink, JW 2002. Carcass utility indices and bison bones from the Wardell kill and butchering sites. In Gerlach, SC & Murray, MS (eds) People and Wildlife in Northern North America: essays in honor of R. Dale Guthrie. Oxford: BAR International Series 944:255-274. People and Wildlife in Northern North America: essays in honor of R. Dale Guthrie 255 274 Google Scholar

Brink, JW 1997. Fat content in leg bones of Bison bison, and applications to archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:259-274. Fat content in leg bones of Bison bison, and applications to archaeology Journal of Archaeological Science 24 259 274 Google Scholar

Church, RR & Lyman, RL 2003. Small fragments make small differences in efficiency when rendering grease from fractured artiodactyl bones by boiling. Journal of Archaeological Science 30:1077-1084. Small fragments make small differences in efficiency when rendering grease from fractured artiodactyl bones by boiling Journal of Archaeological Science 30 1077 1084 Google Scholar

Claassen, C 1998. Shells. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shells Google Scholar

Clark, GA & Strauss, LG 1986. Synthesis and Conclusions Part 1: Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherer subsistence in northern Spain. In Strauss, LG & Clark, GA (eds) La Riera Cave: Stone Age Hunter-gatherer Adaptations in Northern Spain. Arizona State University: Anthropology Research Paper no 36:351-365. La Riera Cave: Stone Age Hunter-gatherer Adaptations in Northern Spain 351 365 Google Scholar

Cochard, D & Brugal, J-P 2004. Importance des fonctions de sites dans les accumulations paléolithiques de Léporidés. In Brugal, J-P & Desse, J (eds) Petits Animaux et Sociétés Humaines - Du complément alimentaire aux ressources utilitaires. Actes des XXIVe Rencontres Internationales d'Archéologie et d'Histoire d'Antibes: Editions APDCA:283-296. Importance des fonctions de sites dans les accumulations paléolithiques de Léporidés 283 296 Google Scholar

Colson, E 1979. In good years and in bad: food strategies of self-reliant societies. Journal of Anthropological Research 35:18-29. In good years and in bad: food strategies of self-reliant societies Journal of Anthropological Research 35 18 29 Google Scholar

Cortés-Sánchez, M, Morales-Muñiz, A, Simón-Vallejo, MD, Bergadá-Zapata, MM, Delgado-Huertas, A, López-García, P, López-Sáez JA, Lozano-Francisco, MC, Riquelme-Cantal, JA, Roselló-Izquierdo, E, Sánchez-Marco, A & Vera-Peláez, JL 2008. Palaeoenvironmental and cultural dynamics of the coast of Málaga (Andalusia, Spain) during the Upper Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 27(23-24):2176-2193. Palaeoenvironmental and cultural dynamics of the coast of Málaga (Andalusia, Spain) during the Upper Pleistocene and Early Holocene Quaternary Science Reviews 27 2176 2193 Google Scholar

Darwent, CM & Lyman, RL 2002. Detecting the postburial fragmental of carpals, tarsals and phalanges. In Haglund, WD & Sorg, MH (eds) Advances in Forensic Taphonomy. Boca Raton: CRC Press:355-377. Advances in Forensic Taphonomy 355 377 Google Scholar

Davis, SJM 2002. The mammals and birds from the Gruta do Caldeirão, Portugal. Arqueologia 5(2):29-98. The mammals and birds from the Gruta do Caldeirão, Portugal Arqueologia 5 29 98 Google Scholar

Davis, SJM 2005. Why domesticate food animals? Zome zoo-archaeological evidence from the Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:1408-1416. Why domesticate food animals? Zome zoo-archaeological evidence from the Levant Journal of Archaeological Science 32 1408 1416 Google Scholar

Davis, SJ, Lernau, O & Pichon, J 1994. Chapitre IV, The animal remains: new light on the origin of animal husbandry. In Lechevallier, M & Ronen, A (eds) Le site de Hatoula en Judée occidentale, Israel. Paris: Association Paléorient. Mémoires et Travaux du Centre de Recherche Français de Jérusalem 8:83-100. Le site de Hatoula en Judée occidentale, Israel 83 100 Google Scholar

Delibes, M & Hiraldo, F 1979. The rabbit as prey in the Iberian Mediterranean ecosystem. In Myers, K & MacInnes, CD (eds) Proceedings of the World Lagomorph Conference. Guelph: University of Guelph:614-622. The rabbit as prey in the Iberian Mediterranean ecosystem 614 622 Google Scholar

Enloe, JG 2003. Acquisition and processing of reindeer in the Paris Basin. In Costamagno, S & Laroulandie, V (eds) Zooarchaeological Insights into Magdalenian Lifeways. Oxford: BAR International Series 1144:23-31. Zooarchaeological Insights into Magdalenian Lifeways 23 31 Google Scholar

Grayson, DK 2001. The archaeological record of human impacts on animal populations. Journal of World Prehistory 15:1-67. The archaeological record of human impacts on animal populations Journal of World Prehistory 15 1 67 Google Scholar

Grayson, DK, Delpech, F, Rigaud, J-Ph & Simek, J 2001. Explaining the development of dietary dominance by a single ungulate taxon at Grotte XVI, Dordogne, France. Journal of Archaeological Science 28:115-112. Explaining the development of dietary dominance by a single ungulate taxon at Grotte XVI, Dordogne, France Journal of Archaeological Science 28 115 112 Google Scholar

Hawkes, K & O'Connell, JF 1992. On optimal foraging models and subsistence transitions. Current Anthropology 33:63-65. On optimal foraging models and subsistence transitions Current Anthropology 33 63 65 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Haws, J 2005. Late Upper Paleolithic large mammal exploitation at Lapa do Picareiro. In Bicho, N (ed) Animais na Pré-história e Arqueologia da Península Ibérica. Faro, Algarve: Universidade do Algarve. Animais na Pré-história e Arqueologia da Península Ibérica Google Scholar

Haynes, G 1980. Evidence of carnivore gnawing on Pleistocene and recent Mammalian bones. Paleobiology 6 (3):341-351. Evidence of carnivore gnawing on Pleistocene and recent Mammalian bones Paleobiology 6 341 351 Google Scholar

Haynes, G 1983. A guide for differentiating mammalian carnivore taxa responsible for gnaw damage to herbivore limb bones. Paleobiology 9 (2):164-172. A guide for differentiating mammalian carnivore taxa responsible for gnaw damage to herbivore limb bones Paleobiology 9 164 172 Google Scholar

Hockett, BS 1991. Toward distinguishing human and raptor patterning of leporid bones. American Antiquity 56(4):667-679. Toward distinguishing human and raptor patterning of leporid bones American Antiquity 56 667 679 Google Scholar

Hockett, BS 1995. Comparison of leporid bones in raptor pellets, raptor nests, and archaeological sites of the Great Basin. North American Archaeologist 16:223-238. Comparison of leporid bones in raptor pellets, raptor nests, and archaeological sites of the Great Basin North American Archaeologist 16 223 238 Google Scholar

Hockett, BS 1996. Corroded, thinned, and polished bones created by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos): taphonomic implications for archaeological interpretations. Journal of Archaeological Science 23:587-591. Corroded, thinned, and polished bones created by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos): taphonomic implications for archaeological interpretations Journal of Archaeological Science 23 587 591 Google Scholar

Hockett, BS 1999. Taphonomy of a carnivore-accumulated rabbit bone assemblage from Picareiro Cave, central Portugal. Journal of Iberian Archaeology 1:225-230. Taphonomy of a carnivore-accumulated rabbit bone assemblage from Picareiro Cave, central Portugal Journal of Iberian Archaeology 1 225 230 Google Scholar

Hockett BS & Bicho, NF 2000. The Rabbits of Picareiro Cave: small mammal hunting during the Late Upper Palaeolithic in the Portuguese estremadura. Journal of Archaeological Science 27(8):715-723. The Rabbits of Picareiro Cave: small mammal hunting during the Late Upper Palaeolithic in the Portuguese estremadura Journal of Archaeological Science 27 715 723 Google Scholar

Hockett, BS & Haws, JA 2002. Taphonomic and methodological perspectives of leporid hunting during the Upper Palaeolithic of the western Mediterranean basin. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 9(3):269-302. Taphonomic and methodological perspectives of leporid hunting during the Upper Palaeolithic of the western Mediterranean basin Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 9 269 302 Google Scholar

Jerardino, A & Navarro, R 2008. Shell morphometry of seven limpet species from coastal shell middens in southern Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:1023-1029. Shell morphometry of seven limpet species from coastal shell middens in southern Africa Journal of Archaeological Science 35 1023 1029 Google Scholar

Joachim, MA 1998. A Hunter-Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. New York: Plenum Press. A Hunter-Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic Google Scholar

Jones, TL 1991. Marine-resource value and the priority of coastal settlement: a California Perspective. American Antiquity 56:419-443. Marine-resource value and the priority of coastal settlement: a California Perspective American Antiquity 56 419 443 Google Scholar

Jones, EL 2006. Prey choice, mass collecting, and the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25: 275-289. Prey choice, mass collecting, and the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25 275 289 Google Scholar

Lam, YM, Chen, X & Pearson, OM 1999. Intertaxonomic variability in patterns of bone density and the differential representation of bovid, cervid and equid elements in the archaeological record. American Antiquity 64:343-362. Intertaxonomic variability in patterns of bone density and the differential representation of bovid, cervid and equid elements in the archaeological record American Antiquity 64 343 362 Google Scholar

Leechman, D 1951. Bone grease. American Antiquity 16:355-356. Bone grease American Antiquity 16 355 356 Google Scholar

Lloveras, L, Moreno-García, M & Nadal, J 2008a Taphonomic analysis of leporid remains obtained from modern Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) scats. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:1-13. Taphonomic analysis of leporid remains obtained from modern Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) scats Journal of Archaeological Science 35 1 13 Google Scholar

Lloveras, L, Moreno-García, M & Nadal, J 2008b. Taphonomic study of leporid remains accumulated by the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Geobios 41:91-100. Taphonomic study of leporid remains accumulated by the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) Geobios 41 91 100 Google Scholar

Lloveras, L, Moreno-García, M & Nadal, J 2008c. The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) as a leporid remains accumulator: taphonomic analysis of modern rabbit remains recovered from nests of this predator. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology: www.interscience.wiley.com DOI: 10.1002/oa.995 www.interscience.wiley.com The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) as a leporid remains accumulator: taphonomic analysis of modern rabbit remains recovered from nests of this predator International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Google Scholar

Lyman, RL 1984. Bone density and differential survivorship of fossil classes. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3:259-299. Bone density and differential survivorship of fossil classes Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3 259 299 Google Scholar

Lyman, RL 1994. Quantitative units and terminology in zooarchaeology. American Antiquity 59(1):36-71. Quantitative units and terminology in zooarchaeology American Antiquity 59 36 71 Google Scholar

Lupo, KD & Schmitt DN 1997. Experiments in bone boiling: nutritional returns and archaeological reflections. Anthropozoologica 25-26:137-144. Experiments in bone boiling: nutritional returns and archaeological reflections Anthropozoologica 25-26 137 144 Google Scholar

Jorda Pardo, JF 1986. La Fauna Malacologica de La Cueva de Nerja. In Jorda Pardo, JF (ed) La Prehistoria de la Cueva de Nerja. Nerja, Spain: Patronato de la Cueva de Nerja:145-177. La Prehistoria de la Cueva de Nerja 145 177 Google Scholar

Marean, CW 1991. Measuring the post-depositional destruction of bone in archaeogical assemblages. Journal of Archaeological Science 18:677-694. Measuring the post-depositional destruction of bone in archaeogical assemblages Journal of Archaeological Science 18 677 694 Google Scholar

Morales-Muñiz, A & Martín-Díaz, JM 1995. Los mamiferos de la Cueva de Nerja: analisis de las cuadriculas NM-80a, MN-80B y NT-82. In Pellicer-Catalán, M & Morales-Muñiz, A (eds) Fauna de la Cueva de Nerja. Nerja Spain: Patronato de la Cueva de Nerja:69-101. Fauna de la Cueva de Nerja 69 101 Google Scholar

Morales-Muñiz, A & Roselló-Izquierdo, E 2008. Twenty thousand years of fishing in the strait: archaeological fish and shellfish assemblages from southern Iberia. In Torben, RC & Erlandson, JM (eds) Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystem: a Global Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press:243-278. Human Impacts on Ancient Marine Ecosystem: a Global Perspective 243 278 Google Scholar

Morin, E 2007. Fat composition and Nunamiut decision-making: a new look at the marrow and bone grease indices. Journal of Archaeological Science 34:69-82. Fat composition and Nunamiut decision-making: a new look at the marrow and bone grease indices Journal of Archaeological Science 34 69 82 Google Scholar

Munro, ND 2004. Zooarchaeological measures of human hunting pressure and site occupation intensity in the Natufian of the southern Levant and the implications for agricultural origins. Current Anthropology 45 Supplement:S5-33. Zooarchaeological measures of human hunting pressure and site occupation intensity in the Natufian of the southern Levant and the implications for agricultural origins Current Anthropology 45 S5 33 Google Scholar

Munro ND & Bar-Oz, G 2005. Gazelle bone fat processing in the Levantine EpiPalaeolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:223-239. Gazelle bone fat processing in the Levantine EpiPalaeolithic Journal of Archaeological Science 32 223 239 Google Scholar

Nagaoka, L 2005. Declining foraging efficiency and moa carcass exploitation in southern New Zealand. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:1328-1338. Declining foraging efficiency and moa carcass exploitation in southern New Zealand Journal of Archaeological Science 32 1328 1338 Google Scholar

Nagaoka, L 2006. Prehistoric seal carcass exploitation at the Shag Mouth site, New Zealand. Journal of Archaeological Science 33:1474-1481. Prehistoric seal carcass exploitation at the Shag Mouth site, New Zealand Journal of Archaeological Science 33 1474 1481 Google Scholar

Nakazawa, Y, Straus, LG, González-Morales, MR, Solana, DC & Saiz, JC 2009. On stone-boiling technology in the Upper Paleolithic: behavioral implications from an Early Magdalenian hearth in El Mirón Cave, Cantabria, Spain. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:684-693. On stone-boiling technology in the Upper Paleolithic: behavioral implications from an Early Magdalenian hearth in El Mirón Cave, Cantabria, Spain Journal of Archaeological Science 36 684 693 Google Scholar

Olsen, SL & P Shipman 1988. Surface modification on bone: trampling versus butchery. Journal of Archaeological Science 15:535-553. Surface modification on bone: trampling versus butchery Journal of Archaeological Science 15 535 553 Google Scholar

Pavao, B & Stahl, PW 1999. Structural density assays of leporid skeletal elements with implications for taphonomic, actualistic and archaeological research. Journal of Archaeological Science 26:53-66. Structural density assays of leporid skeletal elements with implications for taphonomic, actualistic and archaeological research Journal of Archaeological Science 26 53 66 Google Scholar

Pérez Ripoll, M 1992. Marcas de Carnicería, Fracturas Intencionadas y Mordeduras de Carnivoros en Huesos Prehistóricos del Mediterráneo Español. Alicante, Spain: Insituto de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert. Marcas de Carnicería, Fracturas Intencionadas y Mordeduras de Carnivoros en Huesos Prehistóricos del Mediterráneo Español Google Scholar

Pérez Ripoll, M 1993. Las marcas tafonomicas en huesos de lagoformos. Estudios sobre Cuaternario:227-231. Las marcas tafonomicas en huesos de lagoformos Estudios sobre Cuaternario 227 231 Google Scholar

Roucoux, KH, de Abreu, L, Shackleton, NJ & Tzedakis, PC 2005. The response of NW Iberian vegetation to North Atlantic climate oscillations during the last 65 kyr. Quaternary Science Reviews 24:1637-1653. The response of NW Iberian vegetation to North Atlantic climate oscillations during the last 65 kyr Quaternary Science Reviews 24 1637 1653 Google Scholar

Serrano, F, Lozano Francisco, MC, Vera Peláez, JL & Guerra Merchán, A 1995. Malacofauna en Yacimentos Prehistóricos de la Cueva de Nerja. In Pellicer, M & Morales, A (eds) Fauna de la Cueva de Nerja I. Malaga, Spain: Trabajos sobre la Cueva de Nerja No. 5. Patronato de la Cueva de Nerja:297-363. Fauna de la Cueva de Nerja I 297 363 Google Scholar

Shaffer, BS & Sanchez, JLJ 1994. Comparison of &1/8;"- and &1/4;"- mesh recovery of controlled samples of small-to-medium-sized mammals. American Antiquity 59(3):525-530. Comparison of &1/8;"- and &1/4;"- mesh recovery of controlled samples of small-to-medium-sized mammals American Antiquity 59 525 530 Google Scholar

Schmitt, DN 1990. Bone artifacts and human remains. In Bundy EE & Elston, RG (eds) The Archaeology of the James Creek Shelter; University of Utah Anthropological Papers 115. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press:117-127. The Archaeology of the James Creek Shelter 117 127 Google Scholar

Schmitt, DN & Lupo, KD 1995. On mammalian taphonomy, taxonomic diversity, and measuring subsistence data in zooarchaeology. American Antiquity 60(3):496-514. On mammalian taphonomy, taxonomic diversity, and measuring subsistence data in zooarchaeology American Antiquity 60 496 514 Google Scholar

Starkovich, B in press. Dietary changes during the Upper Palaeolithic at Klissoura Cave 1 (Prosymni), Peloponnese, Greece. Before Farming [online version] 2009/3. Dietary changes during the Upper Palaeolithic at Klissoura Cave 1 (Prosymni), Peloponnese, Greece Before Farming Google Scholar

Stiner, MC 1991. Food procurement and transport by human and non-human predators. Journal of Archaeological Science 18:455-482. Food procurement and transport by human and non-human predators Journal of Archaeological Science 18 455 482 Google Scholar

Stiner, MC 1994. Honor Among Thieves: A Zooarchaeological Study of Neandertal Ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Honor Among Thieves: A Zooarchaeological Study of Neandertal Ecology Google Scholar

Stiner, MC 2001. Thirty years on the "Broad Spectrum Revolution" and Palaeolithic demography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 98(13):6993-6996. Thirty years on the "Broad Spectrum Revolution" and Palaeolithic demography Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 98 6993 6996 Google Scholar

Stiner, MC 2002. On in situ attrition and vertebrate body part profiles. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:979-991. On in situ attrition and vertebrate body part profiles Journal of Archaeological Science 29 979 991 Google Scholar

Stiner, MC 2003. Zooarchaeological evidence for resource intensification in Algarve, southern Portugal. Promontoria 1(1):27-61. Zooarchaeological evidence for resource intensification in Algarve, southern Portugal Promontoria 1 27 61 Google Scholar

Stiner, MC 2005. The Faunas of Hayonim Cave Israel: a 200, 000 year record of Palaeolithic diet, demography and society. Cambridge, Mass: American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 48, Peabody Museum Press, Harvard University. The Faunas of Hayonim Cave Israel: a 200, 000 year record of Palaeolithic diet, demography and society Google Scholar

Stiner, MC, Munro, ND & Surovell, TA 2000. The tortoise and the hare: small game use, the Broad Spectrum Revolution, and Palaeolithic demography. Current Anthropology 41(1):39-73. The tortoise and the hare: small game use, the Broad Spectrum Revolution, and Palaeolithic demography Current Anthropology 41 39 73 Google Scholar

Tchernov, E 1998. An attempt to synchronize the faunal changes with the radiometric dates and the cultural chronology in southwest Asia. In Buitenhuis, H, Bartosiewicz, L & Choyke AM (eds) Archaeozoology of the Near East III; Proceedings of the third international symposium on the archaeozoology of southwestern Asia and adjacent areas. Groningen: ARC-Publicaties 18:7-44. An attempt to synchronize the faunal changes with the radiometric dates and the cultural chronology in southwest Asia 7 44 Google Scholar

Ugan, A, Bright, J & Rogers, A 2003. When is technology worth the trouble? Journal of Archaeological Science 30:1315-1329. When is technology worth the trouble? Journal of Archaeological Science 30 1315 1329 Google Scholar

Vehik, SC 1977. Bone fragments and bone grease manufacturing: a review of their archaeological use and potential. Plains Anthropologist 22(77):169-182. Bone fragments and bone grease manufacturing: a review of their archaeological use and potential Plains Anthropologist 22 169 182 Google Scholar

Villaverde, V, Martinez-Valle, R, Guillem, P & Fumanal, M 1996. Mobility and the role of small game in the Middle Palaeolithic of the central region of the Spanish Mediterranean: a comparison of Cova Negra with other Palaeolithic deposits. In Carbonell, E (ed) The Last Neandertals, the First Anatomically Modern Humans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:267-288. The Last Neandertals, the First Anatomically Modern Humans 267 288 Google Scholar

Weber, LI & Hawkins, SJ 2005. Patella aspera and P ulyssiponensis: genetic evidence of speciation in the North-east Atlantic. Marine Biology 147:153-162. Patella aspera and P ulyssiponensis: genetic evidence of speciation in the North-east Atlantic Marine Biology 147 153 162 Google Scholar

Weiss, E, Wetterstrom, W, Nadel, D & Bar-Yosef, O 2004. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(26):9551-9555. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 9551 9555 Google Scholar

Weniger, GC 1987. Magdalenian settlement pattern and subsistence in Central Europe: the southwestern and central German cases. In Soffer, O (ed) The Pleistocene Old World: Regional Perspectives. New York: Plenum:201-215. The Pleistocene Old World: Regional Perspectives 201 215 Google Scholar

West, D 1996. Horse hunting, processing and transport in the Middle Danube. In Svoboda, J (ed) Paleolithic in the Middle Danube Region. Brno: Archeologicky ustav AV CR:207-245. Paleolithic in the Middle Danube Region 207 245 Google Scholar

West, D 1997. Hunting Strategies in Central Europe During the Last Glacial Maximum. Oxford: BAR International Series 672. Hunting Strategies in Central Europe During the Last Glacial Maximum Google Scholar

Wolverton, S 2001. Caves, ursids, and artifacts: a natural-trap hypothesis. Journal of Ethnobiology 21:55-72. Caves, ursids, and artifacts: a natural-trap hypothesis Journal of Ethnobiology 21 55 72 Google Scholar

Wolverton, S 2006. Natural-trap ursid mortality and the Kurten Response. Journal of Human Evolution 50:540-551. Natural-trap ursid mortality and the Kurten Response Journal of Human Evolution 50 540 551 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Manne, Tiina

Bicho, Nuno