Before Farming

Genetic heritage in the Darling River Aboriginal peoples captures ancient presence and post-contact survival

Before Farming (2010), 2010, (4), 1–17.

Abstract

Aboriginal Australian peoples of today represent resilient survivors of a recent European colonisation period during which the original populations were decimated. Those who survived were subject to dispossession of language and culture, forced break-up of families and exclusion from traditional country. Despite the losses endured over the last 200 years, deep family lineages survived in people from the Darling River region in western New South Wales (NSW). They still identify strongly with the main language groups of Paakintji (Barkindje) and Ngyambaa, or with dialectical groups that are broadly classified as sub-groups of these. The rich anthropological, archaeological and linguistic heritage of the region encompasses the Willandra World Heritage Area and includes Lake Mungo, the site of the earliest known burials in Australia. Archaeology has provided the non-Aboriginal occupiers of Australia with convincing evidence of ongoing human occupation now known to extend into the Pleistocene. This long human presence, known to the inhabitants through oral history, supports the view that the first Aboriginal Australians penetrated deeply into the continent early in the global dispersal of modern humans. Genetic analyses from participant families support the archaeological evidence for early arrival in Australia, show strong maternal links with other Australian language groups and with local sub-groups, reflecting continued presence in the Darling region as well as gene flow from more geographically distant areas. The heritage evidenced in genetic studies from this area is a tribute to the resilience of participants, their interest and involvement in their history.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Adcock, GJ, Dennis, ES, Easteal, S, Huttley, GA, Jermiin, L, Peacock, WJ & Thorne, A 2001. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: implications for modern human origins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 98:537-542. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: implications for modern human origins Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 98 537 542 Google Scholar

Affymetrix http://www.affymetrix.com Google Scholar

Allen, H 1998. Re-interpreting the 1969-1972 Willandra Lakes archaeological surveys. Archaeology in Oceania 33(3):207-220. Re-interpreting the 1969-1972 Willandra Lakes archaeological surveys Archaeology in Oceania 33 207 220 Google Scholar

Andrews, RM, Kubacka, I, Chinnery, PF, Lightowlers, RN, Turnbull, DM & Howell, N 1999. Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge sequence for human mitochondrial DNA. Nature Genetics 23(2):147. Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge sequence for human mitochondrial DNA Nature Genetics 23 147 Google Scholar

Balme, J 1995. 30,000 years of fishery in western New South Wales. Archaeology in Oceania 30(1):1-21. 30,000 years of fishery in western New South Wales Archaeology in Oceania 30 1 21 Google Scholar

Balme, J, Davidson, I, McDonald, J, Stern, N, Veth, P 2009. Symbolic behaviour and the peopling of the southern arc route to Australia. Quaternary International 202:59-68. Symbolic behaviour and the peopling of the southern arc route to Australia Quaternary International 202 59 68 Google Scholar

Birdsell, JB 1993. Microevolutionary patterns in aboriginal Australia. A gradient analysis of clines. New York: Oxford University Press. Microevolutionary patterns in aboriginal Australia. A gradient analysis of clines Google Scholar

Bonney, F c 1881 Unpublished Manuscript, Mitchell Library, Sydney NSW. Google Scholar

Bowler, JM, Jones, R, Allen, H, Thorne, AG 1970. Pleistocene human remains from Australia: a living site and human cremation from Lake Mungo, western New South Wales. World Archaeology 2:39-60. Pleistocene human remains from Australia: a living site and human cremation from Lake Mungo, western New South Wales World Archaeology 2 39 60 Google Scholar

Bowler, JM, Johnston, H, Olley, JM, Prescott, JR, Roberts, RG, Shawcross, W, Spooner, NA 2003. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature 421:837-840. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia Nature 421 837 840 Google Scholar

Bramanti, B, Thomas, MG, Haak, W, Unterlaender, N, Jores, P, Tambets, K, Antanaitas-Jacobs, I, Haidle, MN, Jankauskas, R, Kind, C-J, Lueth, F, Terberger, T, Hiller, J, Matsumura, S, Forster, P & Berger, J 2009. Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers. Science 326:137-140. Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers Science 326 137 140 Google Scholar

Cooper, A, Rambau, A, Macaulay, V, Willersley, E, Hansen, AJ & Stringer, C 2001. Human Origins and Ancient Human DNA. Science 292(5522):1655-1656. Human Origins and Ancient Human DNA Science 292 1655 1656 Google Scholar

Curnoe, D 2009. Possible causes and significance of cranial robusticity among Pleistocene-Early Holocene Australians. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:980-990. Possible causes and significance of cranial robusticity among Pleistocene-Early Holocene Australians Journal of Archaeological Science 36 980 990 Google Scholar

Curnoe, D 2011. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol 2011, Article ID 632484.1. A 150-Year Conundrum: Cranial Robusticity and Its Bearing on the Origin of Aboriginal Australians International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011 Google Scholar

Delfin, F, Salvador, JM, Calacal, GC, Perdignon, HB, Tabbada, KA, Villamor, LP, Halos, SC, Gunnarsdóttir, E, Myles, S, Hughes, DA, Xu, S, Jin, L, Lao, O, Kayser, M, Hurles, ME, Stoneking, M & De Ungria, MC 2011. The Y-chromosome landscape of the Philippines: extensive heterogeneity and varying genetic affinities of Negrito and non-Negrito groups. European Journal of Human Genetics 19:224-230. The Y-chromosome landscape of the Philippines: extensive heterogeneity and varying genetic affinities of Negrito and non-Negrito groups European Journal of Human Genetics 19 224 230 Google Scholar

Donaldson, T 1980. Ngiyambaa the language of the Wangaabuyan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ngiyambaa the language of the Wangaabuyan Google Scholar

Dowling, DK, Friberg, U & Lindell, J 2006. CITED as 2008? Evolutionary implications of non neutral mitochondrial genetic variation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23(10):546-554. CITED as 2008? Evolutionary implications of non neutral mitochondrial genetic variation Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23 546 554 Google Scholar

Excoffier L 2006. Neanderthal genetics: a fresh look at old samples. Current biology 16(16):R650-652. doi 10.1016/j.cub.2006.07.035 Neanderthal genetics: a fresh look at old samples Current biology 16 R650 652 Google Scholar

Eswaran, V, Harpending, H, Rogers, AR 2005. Genomics refutes an exclusive African origin of humans. Journal of Human Evolution 49(1):1-18. Genomics refutes an exclusive African origin of humans Journal of Human Evolution 49 1 18 Google Scholar

Evans, N 2005. Australian languages reconsidered: a review of Dixon (2002). Oceanic Linguistics 44(1):243-286. Australian languages reconsidered: a review of Dixon (2002) Oceanic Linguistics 44 243 286 Google Scholar

Friedlaender, J, Schurr, T, Gentz, F, Koki, G, Friedlaender, F, Horvat, G, Babb, P, Cierchio, S, Kaestle, F, Schanfield, M, Deka, R, Yanagihara, R & Merriwether, DA 2005. Expanding southwest Pacific mitochondrial haplogroups P and Q. Molecular Biology and Evolution 22(6):1506-1517. Expanding southwest Pacific mitochondrial haplogroups P and Q Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 1506 1517 Google Scholar

Friedlaender, JS, Friedlaender, FR, Hodgson, JA, Stolz, M, Koki, G, Horvat, G, Zhadanov, S, Schurr, TG & Merriwether, DA 2007. Melanesian mtDNA complexity. PloS One 2(2):e248. Melanesian mtDNA complexity PloS One 2 e248 Google Scholar

Fu, Y-X & Li, W-H 1993. Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations. Genetics 133:693-709. Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations Genetics 133 693 709 Google Scholar

Gahan, M 1999. Mitochondrial genetic variation in Aboriginal Australians. Unpublished Bachelor of Science (Honours) thesis. Australian National University, Canberra. Google Scholar

Garrigan, D & Hammer, MF 2006. Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era. Nature Reviews Genetics 7:669-680. Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era Nature Reviews Genetics 7 669 680 Google Scholar

Green, RE, Krause, J, Briggs, AW, Maricic, T, Stenzel, U, Kircher, M, Patterson, N, Li, H, Zhai, W, Hsi-Yang Fritz, M, Hansen, NF, Durand, EY, Malaspinas, A-S, Jensen, JD, Marques-Bonet, T, Alkan, C, Prüfer, K, Meyer, M, Burbano, HA, Good, JM, Schultz, R, Aximu-Petri, A, Butthof, A, Höber, B, Höffner, B, Siegemund, M, Weihmann, A, Nusbaum, C, Lander, ES, Russ, C, Novod, N, Affourtit, J, Egholm, M, Verna, C, Rudan, P, Brajkovic, D, Kucan, Z, Gusic, I, Doronichev, VB, Golovanova, LV, Lalueza-Fox, C, de la Rasilla, M, Fortea, J, Rosas, A, Schmitz, RW, Johnson, PLF, Eichler, EE, Falush, D, Birney, E, Mullikin, JC, Slatkin, M, Nielsen, R, Kelso, J, Lachmann, M, Reich, D & Pääbo, S 2010. A draft sequence of Neanderthal genome. Science 328:710-722. A draft sequence of Neanderthal genome Science 328 710 722 Google Scholar

Goodall, H 1996. Invasion to Embassy. Land in Aboriginal Politics in New South Wales, 1770 1972. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Invasion to Embassy. Land in Aboriginal Politics in New South Wales, 1770 1972 Google Scholar

Haak, W, Forster, P, Bramanti, B, Matsumara, S, Brandt, G, Tänzer, M, Villems, R, Renfrew, C, Gronenborn, G, Alt, KW & Berger, J 2005. Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7,500-year-old sites. Science 310:1016-1018. Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7,500-year-old sites Science 310 1016 1018 Google Scholar

Hercus LA 1993. Paakintyi Dictionary. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra. Paakintyi Dictionary Google Scholar

Hope, J (ed) 1981. Darling surveys 1. Occasional papers in prehistory 3. Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT. Occasional papers in prehistory 3 Google Scholar

Hope, J 1998. Lake Victoria: Finding the Balance. Cultural Heritage Report. Background Report No. 1. Lake Victoria EIS. Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Canberra. Google Scholar

Horton, D, (gen Ed) 1994. The encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, vol 2. The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, ACT: 934-936. The encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, vol 2. The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies 934 936 Google Scholar

Hudjashov, G, Kivisild, T, Underhill, PA, Endicott, P, Sanchez, JJ, Lin, AA, Shen, P, Oefner, P, Renfrew, C, Villems, R & Forster, P 2007. Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:8726-8730. Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 8726 8730 Google Scholar

HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, 2009. Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia. Science 328:1541-1545. Google Scholar

Huopenen, K, Schurr, TG, Chen, Y-S & Wallace, D 2001. Mitochondrial DNA variation in an Aboriginal Australian population: evidence for genetic isolation and regional differentiation. Human Immunology 62:954-969. Mitochondrial DNA variation in an Aboriginal Australian population: evidence for genetic isolation and regional differentiation Human Immunology 62 954 969 Google Scholar

Ingman, M, Kaessman, H, Pääbo & S, Gyllensten, U 2000. Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans. Nature 408:708-713. Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans Nature 408 708 713 Google Scholar

Ingman, M & Gyllensten, U 2003. Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines. Genome Research 13:1600-1606. Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines Genome Research 13 1600 1606 Google Scholar

Ingman, M & Gyllensten, U 2007. Rate variation between mitochondrial domains and adaptive evolution in humans. Human Molecular Genetics 16(19):2281-2287. Rate variation between mitochondrial domains and adaptive evolution in humans Human Molecular Genetics 16 2281 2287 Google Scholar

ISSOG http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk09.html Google Scholar

Johnston, H & Clark, P 1998. Willandra Lakes archaeological investigations 1968-98. Archaeology in Oceania 33(3):105-119. Willandra Lakes archaeological investigations 1968-98 Archaeology in Oceania 33 105 119 Google Scholar

Karafet, TM, Mendez, FL, Meilerman, MB, Underhill, P A, Zegura, SL and Hammer, MF, 2008. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosome haplogroup tree. Genome Research 18(5):830-838. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosome haplogroup tree Genome Research 18 830 838 Google Scholar

Kayser, M, Brauer, S, Weiss, G, Schiefenhövel, V, Underhill, PA & Stoneking, M 2001. Independent histories of human Y chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics 68:193-190. Independent histories of human Y chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia American Journal of Human Genetics 68 193 190 Google Scholar

Kayser, M 2010. The human genetic history of Oceania: near and remote views of dispersal. Current Biology 20:R195-R201. The human genetic history of Oceania: near and remote views of dispersal Current Biology 20 R195 R201 Google Scholar

Kimura, M 1983. The neutral theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press. The neutral theory of Molecular Evolution Google Scholar

Kirk, RL & Thorne, AG (eds), 1976. The origins of the Australians. Human Biology Series No 6. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra. New Jersey: Humanities Press Inc. The origins of the Australians Google Scholar

Kirk, RL, 1981. Aboriginal man adapting. The human biology of Australian Aborigines. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Aboriginal man adapting. The human biology of Australian Aborigines Google Scholar

Kivisild, T, Shen, P, Wall, DP, Do, B, Sung, R, Davis, K, Passarino, G, Underhill, PA, Scharfe, C, Torroni, A, Scozzari, R, Modiano, D, Coppa, A, de Knijff, P, Feldman, M, Cavalli-Sforza, LL & Oefner, PJ 2006. The role of selection in the evolution of human mitochondrial genomes. Genetics 172:373-387. The role of selection in the evolution of human mitochondrial genomes Genetics 172 373 387 Google Scholar

Liu, PY 2005. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial ATP6 and CYTB genes in Aboriginal Australians. Unpublished BSc (Hons) thesis. School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences. University of New South Wales. Google Scholar

Librado, P & Rozas, J 2009. DnaSP v5. A software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25:1451-2. DnaSP v5. A software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data Bioinformatics 25 1451 2 Google Scholar

Macknight, CC 1986. Macassans and the Aboriginal past. Archaeology in Oceania 21:69-75. Macassans and the Aboriginal past Archaeology in Oceania 21 69 75 Google Scholar

Martin, S 2001. Aboriginal Cultural Heritage of Menindee Lakes Area, Part 1. Aboriginal Ties to the Land. A Report to the Menindee Lakes Ecologically Sustainable Development Project Steering Committee. NSW DLWC, Buronga 2739. Google Scholar

McEvoy, BM, Lind, JM, Wang, ET, Moyzis, RK, Visscher, PM, van Holst Pellekaan, SM, & Wilton, AN 2010 Whole-genome genetic diversity in a sample of Australians with deep Aboriginal ancestry. American Journal of Human Genetics 87:297-305. Whole-genome genetic diversity in a sample of Australians with deep Aboriginal ancestry American Journal of Human Genetics 87 297 305 Google Scholar

McIntosh, IS 1997. The Birrinydji Legacy: Aborigines, Macassans and Mining in North-East Arnhem Land. Aboriginal History, 21:70-89. The Birrinydji Legacy: Aborigines, Macassans and Mining in North-East Arnhem Land Aboriginal History 21 70 89 Google Scholar

Meiklejohn, CD, Montooth, KL & Rand, DM 2007. Positive and negative selection on the mitochondrial genome. TRENDS in Genetics 23(6):259-263. Positive and negative selection on the mitochondrial genome TRENDS in Genetics 23 259 263 Google Scholar

Melvin, RG, Katewa, SD & Ballard, JWO 2008. A Candidate Complex Approach to Study Functional Mitochondrial DNA Changes: Sequence Variation and Quaternary Structure Modeling of Drosophila simulans Cytochrome c Oxidase. Journal of Molecular Evolution 66:232-242. A Candidate Complex Approach to Study Functional Mitochondrial DNA Changes: Sequence Variation and Quaternary Structure Modeling of Drosophila simulans Cytochrome c Oxidase Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 232 242 Google Scholar

Mitchell, T. 1839. Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia…. 2 Vols, London, T. & W. Boone. http://gutenberg.net.au/explorers-journals.html http://gutenberg.net.au/explorers-journals.html Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia… 2 Google Scholar

Mishmar, D, Ruiz-Pesini, E, Golik, P, Macaulay, V, Clark, AG, Hosseini, S, Brandon, M, Easley, K, Chen, E, Brown, MD, Sukernik, RI, Olkers, A & Wallace, D 2003. Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, United States of America 100(1):171-176. Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, United States of America 100 171 176 Google Scholar

Morwood, MJ & Hobbs, DR 1997. The Asian Connection: Preliminary Report on Indonesian Trepang Sites on the Kimberley Coast, N. W. Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 32(3):197-206. The Asian Connection: Preliminary Report on Indonesian Trepang Sites on the Kimberley Coast, N. W. Australia Archaeology in Oceania 32 197 206 Google Scholar

Nei, M & Kumar, S 2000. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. New York: Oxford University Press. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics Google Scholar

Newland, S 1887-8. The Parkengees, or Aboriginal Tribes on the Darling River. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia (S. A. Branch) 2(3):20-33. The Parkengees, or Aboriginal Tribes on the Darling River 2 20 33 Google Scholar

O'Connell, JF & Allen, J 2004. Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea): a review of recent research. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:835-853. Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea): a review of recent research Journal of Archaeological Science 31 835 853 Google Scholar

Oppenheimer, S 2003. Out of Eden: the peopling of the world. London: Constable. Out of Eden: the peopling of the world Google Scholar

Oppenheimer, S 2009. The great arc of dispersal of modern humans: Africa to Australia. Quaternary International 202:2-13. The great arc of dispersal of modern humans: Africa to Australia Quaternary International 202 2 13 Google Scholar

Phylotree 2011. http://www.phylotree.org/tree/main.htm Google Scholar

Presser, JC, Deverell, AJ, Redd, A & Stoneking, M 2002. Tasmanian Aborigines and DNA. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 136:35-38. Tasmanian Aborigines and DNA Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 136 35 38 Google Scholar

Redd, AJ & Stoneking, M 1999. Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 65:808-828. Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations American Journal of Human Genetics 65 808 828 Google Scholar

Redd, AJ, Roberts-Thomson, J, Karafet, T, Bamshad, M, Jorde, LB, Naidu, JM, Walsh, B & Hammer, MF 2002. Gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia: evidence from the Y chromosome. Current Biology 12:673-677. Gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia: evidence from the Y chromosome Current Biology 12 673 677 Google Scholar

Reich, D, Green, RE, Kircher, M, Krause, J, Patterson, N, Durand, EY, Viola, B, Briggs, AW, Stenzel, U, Johnson, PLF, Maricic, T, Good, JM, Marques-Bonet, T, Alkan, C, Fu, Q, Mallick, S, Li, H, Meyer, M, Eichler, EE, Stoneking, M, Richards, M, Talamo, S, Shunkov, MV, Derevianko, AP, Hublin, J-J, Kelso, J, Slatkin, M & Pääbo, S 2010. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468:1053-1060. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia Nature 468 1053 1060 Google Scholar

Roberts-Thomson, JM, Martinson, JJ, Norwich, JT, Harding, RM, Clegg, JB & Boettcher, B, 1996. An ancient and common origin of Aboriginal Australians and New Guinea Highlanders is supported by a-globin haplotype analysis. American Journal of Human Genetics 58:1017-1024. An ancient and common origin of Aboriginal Australians and New Guinea Highlanders is supported by a-globin haplotype analysis American Journal of Human Genetics 58 1017 1024 Google Scholar

Royal, CD, Novembre, J, Fullerton, SM, Goldstein, DB, Long, JC, Bamshad, MJ & Clark, AG 2010. Inferring Genetic Ancestry: Opportunities, challenges and implications. American Journal of Human Genetics 86:661-673. Inferring Genetic Ancestry: Opportunities, challenges and implications American Journal of Human Genetics 86 661 673 Google Scholar

Scott, RJ, Moscovis, SM, Gleeson, M, Roberts-Thomson, J & Blackwell, C 2006. The influence of infection on cytokine gene polymorphisms in evolution. Before Farming [online version] 2006/2 article 2. The influence of infection on cytokine gene polymorphisms in evolution Before Farming Google Scholar

Shi, H & Su, B 2011. Molecular Adaptation of Modern Human Populations. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 2011, article ID 484769. Molecular Adaptation of Modern Human Populations International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011 Google Scholar

Sturt, C 1833. Two expeditions into the interior of southern Australia. [First published Smith, Elder & Co.] First edition North Adelaide, South Australia: Corkwood Press, Is this date of publication of version author used? 1999. Two expeditions into the interior of southern Australia Google Scholar

Sturt, C 1849. Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia. Vol 1. London: T. & W. Boone. http://freeread.com.au/ebooks/e00058.html http://freeread.com.au/ebooks/e00058.html Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia 1 Google Scholar

Tajima, F 1989 The effect of changing population size on DNA polymorphism. Genetics 123:597-601. The effect of changing population size on DNA polymorphism Genetics 123 597 601 Google Scholar

Thorne, AG 1976. Morphological contrasts in Pleistocene Australians. In: Kirk, RL & Thorne, AG (eds) The origin of the Australians. Canberra ACT: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies:93-112. The origin of the Australians 93 112 Google Scholar

Thorne, AG, Grun R, Mortimer G, Spooner NA, Simpson JJ, McCulloch M, Taylor L & Curnoe D 1999. Australia's oldest remains: age of Lake Mungo 3 skeleton. Journal of Human Evolution 36(6):591-612. Australia's oldest remains: age of Lake Mungo 3 skeleton Journal of Human Evolution 36 591 612 Google Scholar

Underhill, PA, Passarino, G, Lin, AA, Shen, P, Mirazon Lahr, M, Foley, RA, Oefner, PJ & Cavalli-Sforza, LL 2001. The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations. Annals of Human Genetics 65:43-62. The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations Annals of Human Genetics 65 43 62 Google Scholar

Vandenberg, N, van Oorschot, RAH, Tyler-Smith, C & Mitchell, RJ 1999. Y-chromosome-specific microsatellite variation in Australian Aboriginals. Human Biology 71:915-931. Y-chromosome-specific microsatellite variation in Australian Aboriginals Human Biology 71 915 931 Google Scholar

van Holst Pellekaan, SM 2000. Genetic research: what does this mean for Indigenous Australian communities? Journal of Australian Aboriginal Studies 1&2:65-75. Genetic research: what does this mean for Indigenous Australian communities? Journal of Australian Aboriginal Studies 1&2 65 75 Google Scholar

van Holst Pellekaan, SM 2004. Human Genome Diversity: Ethics and Practice in Australia Human Evolution 19(2):131-144. Human Genome Diversity: Ethics and Practice in Australia Human Evolution 19 131 144 Google Scholar

van Holst Pellekaan, SM 2008. Origins of the Australian and New Guinea Aborigines. In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS) [online journal] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470015902.a0020815 Google Scholar

van Holst Pellekaan, S 2011. Genetic evidence for the colonization of Australia. Quaternary International doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2011.04.014. Genetic evidence for the colonization of Australia Quaternary International Google Scholar

van Holst Pellekaan, SM & Harding, RM 2006. Excavating the mitochondrial genome identifies major haplogroups in Aboriginal Australians. Before Farming [online version] 2006/1article 3. Excavating the mitochondrial genome identifies major haplogroups in Aboriginal Australians Before Farming 3 Google Scholar

van Holst Pellekaan, SM, Frommer, M, Sved, JA & Boettcher, B 1998. Mitochondrial control region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians. American Journal of Human Genetics 62:435-449. Mitochondrial control region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians American Journal of Human Genetics 62 435 449 Google Scholar

van Holst Pellekaan, SM, Ingman, M, Roberts-Thomson, J & Harding, RM 2006. Mitochondrial genomics identifies major haplogroups in Aboriginal Australians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131:282-294. Mitochondrial genomics identifies major haplogroups in Aboriginal Australians American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131 282 294 Google Scholar

van Oven, M & Kayser, M 2009. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human Mutations 30(2):E386-E394. Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation Human Mutations 30 E386 E394 Google Scholar

Wakeley, J & Sargsyan, O 2009. Extensions of the Coalescent Effective Population Size. Genetics 181:341-345. Extensions of the Coalescent Effective Population Size Genetics 181 341 345 Google Scholar

Walsh, SJ, Mitchell, RJ, Watson, N & Buckleton, JS 2007. A comprehensive analysis of microsatellite diversity in Aboriginal Australians. Journal of Human Genetics 52:712-728. A comprehensive analysis of microsatellite diversity in Aboriginal Australians Journal of Human Genetics 52 712 728 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila

Liu, Pei

Wilton, Alan