Before Farming

Hunter-gatherer interactions

mutualism and resource partitioning on the Island of Newfoundland

Before Farming (2003), 2003, (1), 1–16.

Abstract

This paper examines the interaction of two prehistoric cultures, Recent Indian and Palaeoeskimo, who co-existed on the Island of Newfoundland in northeastern Canada. I argue that their relationship was both complementary and competitive, based on their different economic patterns (niche differentiation), both of which included an emphasis on the same coastal resources (niche overlap). The implication of this is that the behavioural characteristics (niche) of one culture affected the niche of the other. I frame these arguments within ecological models of species interactions. I conclude by applying these models to the historic Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Austin, SJ 1980. Cape Cove Beach (DHAI-5,6,7), Newfoundland: prehistoric cultures. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Google Scholar

Begon, M, Harper JL, & Townsend, CR 1986. Ecology. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Ecology Google Scholar

Bergerud, AT 1983. Prey switching in a simple ecosystem. Scientific American 4(9):130-141. Prey switching in a simple ecosystem Scientific American 4 130 141 Google Scholar

Binford, LR 2001. Constructing frames of reference. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Constructing frames of reference Google Scholar

Boucher, DH, James, S & Keeler KH 1982. The ecology of mutualism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:315-347. The ecology of mutualism Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13 315 347 Google Scholar

Burch, ES 1979. Indians and Eskimos in north Alaska, 1816-1977: a study in changing ethnic relations. Arctic Anthropology 16(2):123-151. Indians and Eskimos in north Alaska, 1816-1977: a study in changing ethnic relations Arctic Anthropology 16 123 151 Google Scholar

Campbell, NA, Reece, JB & Mitchell LG 1999. Biology. Menlo Park: Addison Wesley Longman Inc. Biology Google Scholar

Carignan, P 1975. The Beaches: a multi-component habitation site in Bonavista Bay. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series 39. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. The Beaches: a multi-component habitation site in Bonavista Bay Google Scholar

Carignan, P 1977. Beothuck archaeology in Bonavista Bay. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series 69. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. Beothuck archaeology in Bonavista Bay Google Scholar

Cridland, J 1998. Late prehistoric Indian subsistence in northeastern Newfoundland: faunal analysis of Little Passage assemblages from the Beaches and Inspector Island sites. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Google Scholar

Eastaugh, EJH 2002. Intra-site variability at the Dorset site of Point Riche, Port au Choix. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Google Scholar

Graburn, N 1979. Indian-Eskimo relations. Arctic Anthropology 16(2):184-195. Indian-Eskimo relations Arctic Anthropology 16 184 195 Google Scholar

Harp, E 1976. Dorset settlement patterns in Newfoundland and southeastern Hudson Bay. In Maxwell MM (ed), Eastern Arctic prehistory: Palaeoeskimo problems, Memoir for the Society for American Archaeology, 31:119-138. Google Scholar

Hartery, L & Rast, T 2001. Bird Cove archaeology project 2000 field season: final report. Report for Culture and Heritage Division, Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St John's. Google Scholar

Hodgetts, LM 2002. Report of the 2001 excavations at Phillip's Garden, Port au Choix National Historic Site. Report for Parks Canada, Atlantic Region, Halifax. Google Scholar

Holly, DH 1997. Revisiting marginality: settlement patterns on the Island of Newfoundland. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Brown University, Providence. Google Scholar

Holly DH 2002. From space to place: an archaeology and historical geography of the Recent Indian period in Newfoundland. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Brown University, Providence. Google Scholar

Kelly, RL 1995. The foraging spectrum. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press. The foraging spectrum Google Scholar

LeBlanc, S 2000. Middle Dorset (1900-1100 BP) regional variability on the island of Newfoundland and in Saint-Pierre et Miquelon. In Appelt, M, Berglund J & Gulløv, HC (eds) Identities and cultural contacts in the Arctic. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Centre: 97-105. Identities and cultural contacts in the Arctic 97 105 Google Scholar

Macpherson, JB 1994. A 6 ka reconstruction for the Island of Newfoundland from a synthesis of holocene lake-sediment pollen records. Geographie Physique et Quaternaire 49(1):163-82. A 6 ka reconstruction for the Island of Newfoundland from a synthesis of holocene lake-sediment pollen records Geographie Physique et Quaternaire 49 163 82 Google Scholar

Mannion, JJ 1977. Introduction. In Mannion, JJ (ed) The peopling of Newfoundland: essays in historical geography. St John's: Social and Economic Papers No 8, Institute for Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland: 1-13. The peopling of Newfoundland: essays in historical geography 1 13 Google Scholar

Marshall, I 1996. A history and ethnography of the Beothuk. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. A history and ethnography of the Beothuk Google Scholar

Maxwell, MM 1985. Eastern Arctic prehistory. New York: Academic Press. Eastern Arctic prehistory Google Scholar

McGhee, R 1996. Ancient people of the Arctic. Vancouver: UBC Press. Ancient people of the Arctic Google Scholar

McGhee, R & Tuck, JA 1975. An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series 34. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador Google Scholar

Odum, E 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. Fundamentals of ecology Google Scholar

Pastore, RT 1986. The spatial distribution of late Palaeo-Eskimo sites on the Island of Newfoundland. In Palaeo-Eskimo cultures in Newfoundland, Labrador and Ungava, St John's: Reports in Archaeology 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland: 125-134. Google Scholar

Pastore, RT 1987. Fishermen, furriers, and Beothuks: the economy of extinction. Man in the Northeast 33:47-62. Fishermen, furriers, and Beothuks: the economy of extinction Man in the Northeast 33 47 62 Google Scholar

Pastore, RT 1989. The collapse of the Beothuk world. Acadiensis 19(1):52-71. The collapse of the Beothuk world Acadiensis 19 52 71 Google Scholar

Pastore, RT1992. Shanawdithit's people. St. John's: Atlantic Archaeology. Shanawdithit's people Google Scholar

Rast, TL 1999. Investigating Palaeo-Eskimo and Indian settlement patterns along a submerging coast at Burgeo, Newfoundland. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Google Scholar

Renouf, MAP 1993. Palaeoeskimo seal hunters at Port au Choix, northwestern Newfoundland. Newfoundland Studies 9(2)185-212. Palaeoeskimo seal hunters at Port au Choix, northwestern Newfoundland Newfoundland Studies 9 185 212 Google Scholar

Renouf, MAP 1994. Two transitional sites at Port au Choix, northwestern Newfoundland. In Morrison, DA & Pilon, JL (eds) Threads of Arctic prehistory: papers in honour of WE Taylor, Jr. Hull, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization: 165-196. Threads of Arctic prehistory: papers in honour of WE Taylor, Jr 165 196 Google Scholar

Renouf, MAP 1999. Prehistory of Newfoundland hunter-gatherers: extinctions or adaptations? World Archaeology 30(3):403-420. Prehistory of Newfoundland hunter-gatherers: extinctions or adaptations? World Archaeology 30 403 420 Google Scholar

Renouf, MAP 2002. Archaeology at Port au Choix: 1990-1992 excavations. Occasional Papers in Northeastern Archaeology, 12. St. John's: Copetown Press. Archaeology at Port au Choix: 1990-1992 excavations Google Scholar

Renouf, MAP in press. Phillip's Garden West: a Newfoundland Groswater variant. In Sutherland, P (ed) The Dorset culture, 75 years after Jenness. Hull, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization. The Dorset culture, 75 years after Jenness Google Scholar

Renouf, MAP & Murray, MS 1999. Two winter dwellings at Phillip's Garden, a Dorset site in northwestern Newfoundland. Arctic Anthropology 36(1-2):118-132. Two winter dwellings at Phillip's Garden, a Dorset site in northwestern Newfoundland Arctic Anthropology 36 118 132 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Renouf, MAP, Bell, T, & Teal, MA, 2000. Making contact: Recent Indians and Palaeoeskimos on the Island of Newfoundland. In Appelt, M, Berglund J & Gulløv, HC (eds) Identities and cultural contacts in the Arctic. Copenhagen: Danish Polar Centre: 106-119. Identities and cultural contacts in the Arctic 106 119 Google Scholar

Robbins, DT 1985. Stock Cove, Trinity Bay: the Dorset Eskimo occupation of Newfoundland from a southeastern perspective. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Google Scholar

Rowley-Conwy, PR 1990. Settlement patterns of the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland: a view from away. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 14:13-32. Settlement patterns of the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland: a view from away Canadian Journal of Archaeology 14 13 32 Google Scholar

Rosenberg, S 1998. Chironomids and their relationship to the archaeological record and sea level change at Bass Pond, Newfoundland, Canada. BSc thesis, Okanagan University College, Kelowna. Google Scholar

Schwarz, FA 1984. The Little Passage complex in Newfoundland: a comparative study of assemblages. Honours thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Google Scholar

Schwarz, FA 1994. Paleo-eskimo and Recent Indian subsistence and settlement patterns on the Island of Newfoundland. Northeastern Anthropology 47:55-70. Paleo-eskimo and Recent Indian subsistence and settlement patterns on the Island of Newfoundland Northeastern Anthropology 47 55 70 Google Scholar

Spielmann, KA 1986. Interdependence among egalitarian societies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5:279-312. Interdependence among egalitarian societies Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5 279 312 Google Scholar

Spielmann, KA 1991. Interactions amongst nonhierarchical societies. In Spielmann, KA (ed) Farmers, hunters and colonists. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press: 1-17. Farmers, hunters and colonists 1 17 Google Scholar

Stuiver, M, Reimer, PJ, Bard, E, Beck, JW, Burr, GS, Hughen, KA, Kromer, B, McCormac, G, van der Plicht, J, & Spurk, M 1998. INTCAL98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24000-0 cal BP Radiocarbon 40(3) 1041-1083. INTCAL98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24000-0 cal BP Radiocarbon 40 1041 1083 Google Scholar

Teal, MA 2001. An archaeological investigation of the Gould site (EeBi-42) in Port au Choix, Newfoundland: new insight into the Recent Indian Cow Head complex. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. Google Scholar

Townsend, JB 1979. Indian or Eskimo? Interaction and identity in southern Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 16(2):160-182. Indian or Eskimo? Interaction and identity in southern Alaska Arctic Anthropology 16 160 182 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Tuck, JA & Pastore, RT 1985. A nice place to visit…but: prehistoric extinctions on the island of Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 9(1):69-80. A nice place to visit…but: prehistoric extinctions on the island of Newfoundland Canadian Journal of Archaeology 9 69 80 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Wobst, HM 1978. The archaeo-ethnology of hunter-gatherers or the tyranny of the ethnographic record in archaeology. American Antiquity 43:303-309. The archaeo-ethnology of hunter-gatherers or the tyranny of the ethnographic record in archaeology American Antiquity 43 303 309 Google Scholar

Wright, JV 1995. A history of the native people of Canada, Vol 1. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series Paper 152. Hull, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization. A history of the native people of Canada, Vol 1 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Renouf, Map

Table of Contents

Section TitlePage
20031_041