Before Farming

The transition to farming in northeast China

a model and application

Before Farming (2008), 2008, (4), 1–21.

Abstract

This paper assesses the applicability of the ‘availability model’ to the transition from hunting and gathering to farming in northeast China. It evaluates the model from the perspective of an integrated archaeological framework that combines ‘tool-complex analysis’ with available faunal and floral data from selected early to mid-Holocene sites that span the transition. Tool-complex analysis is an empirical study that is based on the (possible) connection between the types of tools used and the economies of prehistoric societies. The evaluation process concludes that a modified non-lineal version of the availability model might more accurately describe the transition process in this region, and a ‘three trends model’ is offered as a potential alternative.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Ames, KM & Maschner, HDG. 1999. Peoples of Northwest Coast: their archaeology and prehistory. London: Thames and Hudson. Peoples of Northwest Coast: their archaeology and prehistory Google Scholar

Ammerman, AJ & Cavalli-Sforza, LL 1971. Measuring the rate of spread of early farming in Europe. Man 6:674-687. Measuring the rate of spread of early farming in Europe Man 6 674 687 Google Scholar

Ammerman, AJ & Cavalli-Sforza, LL 1979. The wave of advance model for the spread of agriculture in Europe. In Renfrew, C & Cooke, KL (eds) The transformations mathematical approaches to cultural change. New York: Academic Press:275-291. The transformations mathematical approaches to cultural change 275 291 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bellwood, P 2002. Farmer, foragers, languages, genes: the genesis of agricultural societies. In Bellwood, P & Renfrew, C (eds) Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological research:17-27. Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis 17 27 Google Scholar

Bettinger, RL, Barton, L, Richerson, PJ, Boyd, R, Wang, H & Won, C 2007. The transition to agriculture in northwestern China. In Madsen, D, Chen, Fa-Hu & Gao, X (eds) Late Quaternary climate change and human adaptation in arid China. Amsterdam: Elsevier:83-97. Late Quaternary climate change and human adaptation in arid China 83 97 Google Scholar

Banpo Museum, Shanxi archaeological institute & Lintong Museum 1988. Jiangzhai - Excavation report of a Neolithic site. Beijing: Relics Press. Google Scholar

Barker, G 2006. The agricultural revolution in prehistory, why did foragers become farmers? Oxford: Oxford University Press. The agricultural revolution in prehistory, why did foragers become farmers? Google Scholar

Cane, S 1984. Desert camp: A case study of stone artefacts and aboriginal behaviour in the Western Desert. PhD dissertation, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Google Scholar

Chan, YW 2006. The raw material acquisition, manufacturing and functions of stone adzes-cultural development of Neolithic Sha Ha. Master's thesis, Chinese University of Hongkong, Hongkong, China. Google Scholar

Chen, C 2004. Archaeological theories. Shanghai: Fudandaxue Press. Archaeological theories Google Scholar

Chinese Academy & Xian Museum 1963. Xian Banpo - a settlement site of a prehistoric community. Beijing: Relics Press. Google Scholar

Colledge, S, Conolly, J & Shennan, S 2004. Archaeobotanical evidence for the spread of farming in the eastern Mediterranean. Current anthropology, 45. Supplement, August-October: S35-S55 (Including comments from worldwide scholars). Archaeobotanical evidence for the spread of farming in the eastern Mediterranean Current anthropology 45 S35 S55 Google Scholar

Crawford, GW 1995. Scheduling and Sedentism in the Prehistory of Northern Japan. In Rocek, TR & Bar-Yosef, O (eds) Seasonality and Sedentism: Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press:109-128. Seasonality and Sedentism: Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World 109 128 Google Scholar

Fitzhugh, B 2000. Risk and invention in human technological evolution. Journal of anthropological archaeology 20:125-167. Risk and invention in human technological evolution Journal of anthropological archaeology 20 125 167 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Higham, C 1995. The transition to rice cultivation in Southeast Asia. In Price, TD & Gebauer, AB (eds) Last Hunters-First Farmers. New Mexico: School of American Research Press:127-155. Last Hunters-First Farmers 127 155 Google Scholar

Imamura, K 1996. Prehistoric Japan - New perspectives on insular East Asia. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. Prehistoric Japan - New perspectives on insular East Asia Google Scholar

Jia, WP 2007. Transition from foraging to farming in northeast China. Oxford: BAR International Series 1629. Transition from foraging to farming in northeast China Google Scholar

Liu, L 2004. The Chinese Neolithic, Trajectory to early state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Chinese Neolithic, Trajectory to early state Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Madsen, DB & Elston, RG 2007. Variation in late Quaternary central Asian climates and the nature of human response. In Madsen, D, Chen, Fa-Hu & Gao, X (eds) Late Quaternary climate change and human adaptation in arid China. Amsterdam: Elsevier:69-78. Late Quaternary climate change and human adaptation in arid China 69 78 Google Scholar

Madsen, DB & Simms, SR 1998. The Fremont complex: a behavioural perspective. Journal of world prehistory 12(3):255-325. The Fremont complex: a behavioural perspective Journal of world prehistory 12 255 325 Google Scholar

Marlowe, F 2002. Why the Hadza are still hunter-gathers. In Kent, S (eds) Ethnicity, hunter-gathers, and the "other". Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press:247-275. Ethnicity, hunter-gathers, and the "other" 247 275 Google Scholar

Matson, RG & Coupland, G 1995. The prehistory of Northwest Coast. New York: Academic press. The prehistory of Northwest Coast Google Scholar

Mawoung, G Ngima 2006. Perception of hunting, gathering and fishing techniques of the Bakola of the coastal region, southern Cameroon. African study monographs, 33:49-69. Perception of hunting, gathering and fishing techniques of the Bakola of the coastal region, southern Cameroon African study monographs 33 49 69 Google Scholar

Odell, GH 2004. Lithic analysis. New York: Kluwer academic/Plenum. Lithic analysis Google Scholar

Read, DW 1990. The utility of mathematical constructs in building archaeological theory. In Voorrips, A (ed) Mathematics and information science in archaeology: a flexible framework. Vol. 3 Studies in modern archaeology. Bonn: Holos Verlag:29-60. Mathematics and information science in archaeology: a flexible framework. Vol. 3 Studies in modern archaeology 29 60 Google Scholar

Rindos, D 1984. The origins of agriculture, an evolutionary perspective. Florida: Academic press Inc. The origins of agriculture, an evolutionary perspective Google Scholar

Rowley-Conwy, P 1984. Postglacial foraging and early farming economies in Japan and Korea: a west European perspective. World archaeology, 16:28-42. Postglacial foraging and early farming economies in Japan and Korea: a west European perspective World archaeology 16 28 42 Google Scholar

Shi 2005? Author please supply details Google Scholar

Trigger, BG 2003. Artefacts & Ideas, Essay in Archaeology. New Brunswick, USA: Transaction Publisher. Artefacts & Ideas, Essay in Archaeology Google Scholar

Unger-Hamilton, R 1988. Method in microwear analysis: Prehistoric sickles and other stone tools from Arjoune, Syria. Oxford: BAR:245. Method in microwear analysis: Prehistoric sickles and other stone tools from Arjoune, Syria 245 Google Scholar

Wallis, L & O'Connor, S 1998. Residues on a sample of stone points from the West Kimberley. In Fullagar, R (ed) A close look - Recent Australian studies on stone tools. Sydney: Archaeological Computing Laboratory, University of Sydney:149-178. A close look - Recent Australian studies on stone tools 149 178 Google Scholar

Wang, X 2002. Microwear analysis on stone tools of the Neolithic cultures between 8200 and 6500BP in southeast Inner Mongolia. Postdoctoral report, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing. Google Scholar

Wang, X 2004. Usewear analysis of microblades from the Zhaobaogou site- on the subsistence economy of the Zhaobaogou culture. In Tang, C & Chen, X (eds) Taoli Chenxiji—Qingzhu An Zhimin Xiansheng Bashi Shouchen. Hong Kong: Centre of Chinese Archaeology and Art, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Taoli Chenxiji—Qingzhu An Zhimin Xiansheng Bashi Shouchen Google Scholar

Yan, W 2000a. The origin of rice agriculture, pottery and cities. In Yan, W & Yoshinori, Y (eds) The origin of rice agriculture, pottery and cities. Beijing: Relics Press:8-14. The origin of rice agriculture, pottery and cities 8 14 Google Scholar

Yan, W 2000b. The eastern expansion of agriculture in ancient China and its impact on early social development in Japan. In Yan, W, The origin of agriculture and civilization: Beijing: Science Press:44-46. The origin of agriculture and civilization 44 46 Google Scholar

Zhao, Z 2005. Floatation results of Xinglonggou and the origin of dry-land agriculture in north China, Dongya Guwu, A:188-199. Floatation results of Xinglonggou and the origin of dry-land agriculture in north China Dongya Guwu, A 188 199 Google Scholar

Zhao, Z 2008. Research of the origins of millets - new datum from plant archaeology and ecological analysis. Journal of Chifeng Academy-Special edition of studies on Hongshan culture, 1:35-38. Research of the origins of millets - new datum from plant archaeology and ecological analysis Journal of Chifeng Academy-Special edition of studies on Hongshan culture 1 35 38 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M 1998. Agricultural frontier, Neolithic origins, and the transition to farming in the Baltic basin. In Zvelebil, M, Dennell, R & Domanska, L (eds) Harvesting the sea, farming the forest, the emergence of Neolithic societies in the Baltic region. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:9-27. Harvesting the sea, farming the forest, the emergence of Neolithic societies in the Baltic region 9 27 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M & Rowley-Conwy, P 1984. Transition to farming in northern Europe, a hunter-gatherer perspective. Norwegian Archaeological Review, 17 (2):104-128. Transition to farming in northern Europe, a hunter-gatherer perspective Norwegian Archaeological Review 17 104 128 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M & Rowley-Conwy, P 1986. Foragers and farmers in Atlantic Europe. In Zvelebil, M (ed) Hunters in transition, Mesolithic societies of temperate Eurasia and their transition to farming. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:67-93. Hunters in transition, Mesolithic societies of temperate Eurasia and their transition to farming 67 93 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Jia, Peter