A tension exists between traditional notions of archival theory, and indeed the nature of theory itself, and the global diversity that CITRA seeks to recognize and promote in archival practice. Traditional archival theory, that arose out of a particular cultural and historical milieu of nineteenth-century European bureaucracies, may work against diversity, overlook local community needs, and fail to appreciate the historical contingencies inherent to practice. Canadian archival theory and practice, perhaps first, reacted against this approach; Canada has celebrated diversity, and sought archival concepts, strategies, and methodologies that encouraged multiple views, and cooperation through diversity. Examples explored include total archives, new descriptive standards, a national archival network, inclusive macroappraisal, convergence of libraries and archives, and the postmodern archive. These concepts are useful models for other countries in forwarding the ICA agenda of achieving greater diversity in the world's archives.