European Journal of Language Policy

Institutional language policy regarding universities: The contribution of positioning theory

European Journal of Language Policy (2012), 4, (2), 191–216.

Abstract

University language policies in Europe are developed by various institutions. At supranational level, the main stakeholders include the Council of Europe and the European Union. This article aims to examine how far positioning theory can help understand the scope of institutional language policy as both these institutions have such themes in common as the Common European Framework of Reference, the European Language Portfolio, lifelong learning and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), among others. Building on the hypothesis that language policy recommendations constitute a specific subgenre, a linguistic analysis of such recommendations shows that the Council of Europe and the European Union use two quite distinct rhetorical approaches, and act according to different narrative stances. The two organisations actually seem to provide two sets of answers to the globalisation of European universities, the Council being humanistic in scope and the Union more free-market orientated. Nonetheless, the perspectives of both these organisations would appear to complement each other as the Union interprets and applies the policy of the Council.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Alidou, H. (2004). ‘Medium of Instruction in Post-colonial Africa’, in J. Tollefson and A. Tsui (eds), Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum), pp. 195-214. Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? 195 214 Google Scholar

Bachelard, G. (1942). L'eau et les rěves : essai sur l'imagination de la matière (Paris: Corti). L'eau et les rěves : essai sur l'imagination de la matière Google Scholar

Bachelard, G. (1960). La Poétique de la rěverie (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France). La Poétique de la rěverie Google Scholar

Barrault-Méthy, A. M. (2011a). Electronic European Language Portfolios and Identity (E-Portfolio and Identity Conference 2011 proceedings), available at www.epforum.eu/proceedings Google Scholar

Barrault-Méthy, A. M. (2011b). Le Multilinguisme dans l'enseignement supérieur à l'épreuve de la diversité des lieux de production et de diffusion des savoirs de l'agir. LACES seminar paper (Bordeaux: University of Bordeaux). Le Multilinguisme dans l'enseignement supérieur à l'épreuve de la diversité des lieux de production et de diffusion des savoirs de l'agir Google Scholar

Blommaert, J., and Rampton, B. (2011). ‘Language and Superdiversity: A Position Paper’, Diversities 13.2: 1-22, available at www.unesco.org/shs/diversities (accessed 25 April 2012). www.unesco.org/shs/diversities ‘Language and Superdiversity: A Position Paper’ Diversities 13 1 22 Google Scholar

Canguilhem, G. (1952). Connaissance de la vie (Paris: Hachette). Connaissance de la vie Google Scholar

Cicmil, S., Williams, T., Thomas, J. and Hodgson, D. (2006). ‘Rethinking Project Management: Researching the Actuality of Projects’, International Journal of Project Management 24: 675-86. ‘Rethinking Project Management: Researching the Actuality of Projects’ International Journal of Project Management 24 675 86 Google Scholar

Durand, G. (1964). L'imagination symbolique (Paris: Presses universitaires de France). L'imagination symbolique Google Scholar

Durand, G. (1969). Les Structures anthropologiques de l'imaginaire (Paris: Dunod). Les Structures anthropologiques de l'imaginaire Google Scholar

Eliade, M. (1972). Mythes, rěves et mystères (Paris: Gallimard). Mythes, rěves et mystères Google Scholar

Fettes, M. (1997). ‘Language Planning and Education’, in R. Wodak and D. Corson (eds), Language Policy and Political Issues in Education (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic), pp. 13-22. Language Policy and Political Issues in Education 13 22 Google Scholar

Frye, N. (1957). Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton: Princeton University Press). Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays Google Scholar

Gasper, Des (1997). ‘Logical Frameworks: A Critical Assessment. Managerial Theory, Pluralistic Practice’ (The Hague: Institute of Social Studies working paper), available at http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub (accessed 14 December 2011). http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub ‘Logical Frameworks: A Critical Assessment. Managerial Theory, Pluralistic Practice’ Google Scholar

Grin, F. (2006). ‘Economic Considerations in Language Policy’, in T. Ricento (ed.), An Introduction to Language Policy, Theory and Method (Malden, MA: Blackwell), pp. 77-94. An Introduction to Language Policy, Theory and Method 77 94 Google Scholar

Harré, R., and Davies, B. (1990). ‘Positioning: The Discursive Production of Selves’, Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior 20: 43-63. ‘Positioning: The Discursive Production of Selves’ Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior 20 43 63 Google Scholar

Harré, R., Moghaddam, F. M., Cairnie, T. P., Rothbart, D., and Sabat, S. R. (2009). ‘Recent Advances in Positioning Theory’, Theory & Psychology 19.1: 5-31, available at www.fathalimoghaddam.com/upload (accessed 14 December 2011). www.fathalimoghaddam.com/upload ‘Recent Advances in Positioning Theory’ Theory & Psychology 19 5 31 Google Scholar

Helmersen, O., Lauridsen K., and Norlyk, B. (2008). ‘New Trends in the Language Professions: A Report from the World of Work’, LSP and Professional Communication 8.1: 8-23. ‘New Trends in the Language Professions: A Report from the World of Work’ LSP and Professional Communication 8 8 23 Google Scholar

Husén, T. (1982). ‘Preface’, International Journal of Lifelong Education 1.1: 3-4. ‘Preface’ International Journal of Lifelong Education 1 3 4 Google Scholar

Jenkins, J. (2000). The Phonology of English as an International Language (Oxford: Oxford University Press). The Phonology of English as an International Language Google Scholar

Kelly, M. (2011). ‘Issues in Institutional Language Policy: Lessons Learned from Peacekeeping in Bosnia-Herzegovina’, European Journal of Language Policy 3.1: 61-79. ‘Issues in Institutional Language Policy: Lessons Learned from Peacekeeping in Bosnia-Herzegovina’ European Journal of Language Policy 3 61 79 Google Scholar

Mazrui, A. M. (2002). ‘The English Language in African Education: Dependency and Decolonilization’, in J. Tollefson (ed.), Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues (London: Routledge), pp. 267-81. Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues 267 81 Google Scholar

Moghaddam, F. M., Harré, R., and Lee, N. (eds) (2008). Global Conflict Resolution through Positioning Analysis (New York: Springer). Global Conflict Resolution through Positioning Analysis Google Scholar

Moghaddam, F. M., and Kavulich, K. A. (2007). ‘Nuclear Positioning’, in J. Valsiner and A. Rosa (eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Socio-cultural Psychology (New York: Cambridge University Press), pp. 576-90. The Cambridge Handbook of Socio-cultural Psychology 576 90 Google Scholar

Neustupný, J. V. (1994) ‘Problems of English Contact Discourse and Language Planning’, in T. Kandiah and J. Kwan-Terry (eds), English and Language Planning (Singapore: Academic), pp. 50-69. English and Language Planning 50 69 Google Scholar

Ó Laoire, M., Rigg C., and and Vasiliki, G. (2011). ‘Subaltern Agency and Language Education Policy: Implementing a Language Policy on the Ground’, Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies 5.3: 19-32, available at http://apples.jyu.fi/article_files (accessed 14 December 2011). http://apples.jyu.fi/article_files ‘Subaltern Agency and Language Education Policy: Implementing a Language Policy on the Ground’ Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies 5 19 32 Google Scholar

Pennycook, A. (2006). ‘Postmodernism in Language Policy’, in T. Ricento (ed.), An Introduction to Language Policy (Malden, MA: Blackwell), pp. 60-76. An Introduction to Language Policy 60 76 Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (2009). Language Management (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Language Management Google Scholar

Suhamy, H. (1981). Les Figures de style (Paris: Presses universitaires de France). Les Figures de style Google Scholar

Swales, J. (1990). Genre Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Genre Analysis Google Scholar

Van Langenhove, L., and Harré, R. (1999). ‘Positioning and the Writing of Science’, in R. Harré and L. Van Langenhove (eds), Positioning Theory (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 102-15. Positioning Theory 102 15 Google Scholar

Vertovec, S. (2007). ‘Superdiversity and Its Implications’, Ethnic and Racial Studies 30.6: 1024-2054. ‘Superdiversity and Its Implications’ Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 1024 2054 Google Scholar

Wodak, R. (2001). ‘What CDA Is About: A Summary of Its History, Important Concepts and Its Developments’, in R. Wodak and M. Meyers (eds), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (London: Sage), pp. 1-13. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis 1 13 Google Scholar

Wodak, R. (2006). ‘Linguistic Analyses in Language Policies’, in T. Ricento (ed.), An Introduction to Language Policy (Malden, MA: Blackwell), pp. 170-93. An Introduction to Language Policy 170 93 Google Scholar

Wodak, R., and E. Meyer (eds) (2001). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (London: Sage). Language policy documents Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis Google Scholar

Beacco, J. (2007). From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education: Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe (Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Language Policy Division), available at www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic (accessed 14 December 2011). www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education: Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe Google Scholar

CILT (2006). ELAN: Effects on the European Economy of Shortages of Foreign Language Skills in Enterprise, available at http://ec.europa.eu/languages/documents Google Scholar

Council of Europe (2001a). A Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Language Policy Division (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Council of Europe (2001b). The European Language Portfolio. Language Policy Division, available at www.coe.int/t/DG4/Portfolio Google Scholar

Council of Europe (2012). ‘Mission of the Language Policy Unit, Strasbourg’, Education and Languages, available at www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic Google Scholar

Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers (1982). Recommendation N° R (82) 18 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning Modern Languages, available at http://wcd.coe.int/com.instranet Google Scholar

Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers (1996). Recommendation No. R (96) 7 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Regional Academic Mobility, available at http://wcd.coe.int/com.instranet Google Scholar

Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers (1998). Recommendation no. R (98) 6 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning Modern Languages, available at http://wcd.coe.int/com.instranet Google Scholar

Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers (2000). Resolution on the European Language Portfolio, available at www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents Google Scholar

Council of Europe, Council for Cultural Cooperation Education Committee (2002). Final Report. A European Language Portfolio: Pilot Project Phase 1998-2000, available at www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents Google Scholar

Council of Europe, European Centre for Modern Languages (2012). ‘A Centre to Promote Language Education in Europe’, Promoting Excellence in Language Education, available at www.ecml.at/Aboutus/tabid/118/language/en-GB Google Scholar

Council of Europe, Language Policy Division. (2009). Plurilingual and Intercultural Education as a Project, available at http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source Google Scholar

Council of Europe, and Little, D. (ed.) (2003). The European Language Portfolio in Use: Nine Examples (Strasbourg: Language Policy Division), available at www.coe.int/t/DG4/Portfolio/documents Google Scholar

Council of Europe, and Schärer R. (General rapporteur) (2004). A European Language Portfolio. From Piloting to Implementation (2001-2004). Consolidated Report - Final Version, available at www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents Google Scholar

Council of Europe, and Schärer R. (General rapporteur) (2005). European Language Portfolio: Interim Report 2005 with Executive Summary, available at www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents Google Scholar

European Union (2003). Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity: An Action Plan 2004-2006. (Brussels: Commission of the European Communities), available at http://ec.europa.eu/education/doc/official/keydoc Google Scholar

European Union (2005). Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A New Framework Strategy for Multilingualism (Brussels: Commission of the European Communities), available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ Google Scholar

European Union, European Parliament (2000). Lisbon European Council 23 and 24 March 2000. Presidency Conclusions (Strasbourg: European Parliament), available at www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/lis1_en.htm Google Scholar

Goullier, F. (2007). Council of Europe Tools for Language Teaching: Common European Framework and Portfolios (Paris: Didier), available at www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents (accessed 14 December 2011). www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents Council of Europe Tools for Language Teaching: Common European Framework and Portfolios Google Scholar

Johnstone, R. (2002). Addressing ‘the Age Factor’: Some Implications for Languages Policy. Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe (Strasbourg: Council of Europe), available at www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source (accessed 14 December 2011). www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source Addressing ‘the Age Factor’: Some Implications for Languages Policy. Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe Google Scholar

Kohonen, V., and Westhoff, G. (2002). Enhancing the Pedagogical Aspects of the European Language Portfolio (ELP). (Strasbourg: Council of Europe), available at www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents (accessed 14 December 2011). www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/documents Enhancing the Pedagogical Aspects of the European Language Portfolio (ELP) Google Scholar

LANQUA (2008). Year One Report. LANQUA Subproject on Content and Language Integrated Learning, available at www.lanqua.eu/sites/default/files Google Scholar

Little, D., and Perclová, R. (2001). The European Language Portfolio: A Guide for Teachers and Teacher Trainers (Strasbourg: Council of Europe), available at www.coe.int/t/DG4/Portfolio/documents (accessed 14 December 2011). www.coe.int/t/DG4/Portfolio/documents The European Language Portfolio: A Guide for Teachers and Teacher Trainers Google Scholar

Schneider, G., and Lenz, P., 2001. European Language Portfolio: Guide for Developers. (University of Fribourg: Lern- und Forschungszentrum Fremdsprachen), available at www.coe.int/t/DG4/Portfolio (accessed 14 December 2011). www.coe.int/t/DG4/Portfolio European Language Portfolio: Guide for Developers Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Barrault-Méthy, Anne-Marie