tant to monetary and economic union, regional policy
should be viewed as 'compensatory' in its purpose or
an instrument of 'convergence'. These issues serve
also as reference points for the authors' assessment
of the 1989 reform of the Community's Structural
Funds-seen essentially as a progression from earlier
developments. Finally in this chapter the urban
theme returns, 'the potential for regional response'
being identified as 'primarily an urban one' (p. 300).
Six of the authors contribute to the third perspective study which probes some of the likely consequences of the Single Market together with closer
monetary and economic union. Interactions between
these and forces making for concentration and
decentralisation, including information technology,
lead the authors to expect, in general. further advantage to be gained by city regions already well placed,
while older, non-metropolitan, industrial areas seem
destined to suffer further. Speculation on the relative
position of Europe's 'world cities' follows fairly familiar lines: an assessment of the future for Berlin and
Vienna, given changes in Eastern Europe, does, however, provide the reader with an up-to-date perspective.
Sazanami's 'postscript' turns out to be far from an
afterthought. In a clear and direct exposition he
records a number of the successes and failures in
efforts to disperse economic activity from Japan's
three major metropolitan regions of Tokyo, Osaka and
Nagoya. Some success in halting the net migration in
favour of those regions was achieved by use of a
combination of infrastructure and tax policies and the
setting up of a development corporation to pursue
the objectives of a comprehensive development plan.
Subsequently the 'grow first, distribute later' syndrome seems to have held more sway, encouraging
private capital towards the 'low risk' major metropolitan regions. The typically vigorous response has been,
among other measures, to establish 25 technopolises.
While many have had some success, it is clear to
Sazanami that a more effective response requires
concentration on a smaller number of regional
metropolises. That, however, would not only demand
closer coordination of government policies, but also
changes in local government structure, not to mention some tough political decisions. The relevance to
at least some parts of Western Europe is too obvious
to need further comment from the reviewer.
UNCRD and the authors are to be congratulated.
This book provides not only its own comparative
analysis, but also both a source for more and an
inspiration for others to follow.
D C STROUD
Department of the Environment
Copyright Â© 2010 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved.
Copyright Â© Liverpool University Press.
Regenerating the Cities: The UK Crisis and the US
Experience, Michael Parkinson, Bernard Foley
and Dennis Judd, Manchester, Manchester University
Press, 1991. x + 181 pp., Â£10.95
Regenerating the Cities, published in 1988 and now
issued in paperback, contains papers presented at a
Fulbright Colloquium at the University of Liverpool in
September 1986. Since then we have had two
elections, and on both occasions a Conservative
Government has been re-elected. The Tories belatedly
discovered the importance of the inner city after the
1987 election, with Mrs Thatcher announcing that
they would be the next concern. As a result, we had
Action for Cities which, if nothing else, improved the
glossiness of the packaging of the Government's
policies for the inner cities. More to the point, in
giving some credibility to the Government's aims for a
greater involvement. by the private sector, we have
had a property boom, but now that has burst and the
property industry is in the depths of its worst
recession since the 1970s. More fundamentally, we
are now in a severe economic recession, with little
sign of a swift recovery. Mrs Thatcher has gone and
Michael Heseltine is once more the Secretary of State
for the Environment, once again announcing new
packages of aid to Liverpool. among other cities.
So what have we to learn from these papers of five
years ago? The five papers by British authors have
little that is new to tell us. Goldsmith, in a scenesetting paper, discusses the major social. economic
and political trends within which inner city policies
were working. Boyle provides a useful, brief summary
of the evolution of the Scottish Development Agency
in its attempts to involve the private sector in urban
regeneration, reminding us once more of the very real
differences in political culture between Scotland and
England. Boddy analyses the processes of economic
change in Bristol. Two papers are devoted to Liverpool. Parkinson gives a detailed account of the fiscal
and political crisis of that City, a crisis still continuing
today. Ben-Tovim notes the lack of an effective racial
dimension to the policies of central and local government in Liverpool. However, it must be said that much
of this material is covered more fully by the authors in
more substantial books. It was a pity, too, that space
could not have been found for examples from other
cities such as Birmingham or Newcastle, where the
experience has been different.
Thus, for British readers, the more interesting and
usefu I papers are those on the American experience.
And that is just as well. since one of the aims of the
colloquium was to benefit from that experience. Two
points can be made straight away. Most of the
American case studies were concerned much more