Town Planning Review

Implementing transport’s ‘new realism’?

The dissemination of demand-management policies in UK transport planning

Town Planning Review (2001), 72, (4), 423–444.

Abstract

Transport planning has come under ever more intensive scrutiny in recent times, particularly as a result of the environmental externalities associated with increasing distances travelled by many in Western society by private car. Recognition of this situation and the apparent impossibility of providing for ever-increasing road travel has led to the emergence of a ‘new realism’ in dealing with traffic growth and transport issues generally. This paper examines the penetration of such a view, taking a case study of the Tyne and Wear conurbation, supported by three other illustrations. It concludes that the penetration of the ‘new realism’ is, in some cases appropriately, highly variable both organisationally and geographically.

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DOT (DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT) (1996), Transport: The Way Forward, London, DOT. Google Scholar

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LATOUR, B. (1987), Science in Action, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Science in Action Google Scholar

MacERLEAN, N. (2001), ‘Are residents’ parking zones out of control’, The Observer, 4 March, 14–15. Are residents’ parking zones out of control The Observer 14 15 Google Scholar

MACKIE, P. (1998), ‘Developments in transport policy: the UK transport policy White Paper’, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 32, 399–403. Developments in transport policy: the UK transport policy White Paper Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 32 399 403 Google Scholar

MARVIN, S. J. and GUY, S. (1999), ‘Towards a new logic of transport planning?’, Town Planning Review, 70, 139–52. Towards a new logic of transport planning? Town Planning Review 70 139 52 Google Scholar

OWENS, S. (1995), ‘From “predict and provide” to “predict and prevent”?: pricing and planning in transport policy’, Transport Policy, 2, 43–51. From “predict and provide” to “predict and prevent”?: pricing and planning in transport policy Transport Policy 2 43 51 Google Scholar

RCEP (ROYAL COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION) (1994), Transport and the Environment (Cm. 2674), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

RICHARDSON, T. (2001), ‘The pendulum swings again: in search of new transport rationalities’, Town Planning Review, 72, 299–319. The pendulum swings again: in search of new transport rationalities Town Planning Review 72 299 319 Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (1993), The British Planning System, London, Macmillan. The British Planning System Google Scholar

SABATIER, P. and JENKINS-SMITH, H. (1993), Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach, Boulder, Westview Press. Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach Google Scholar

SACTRA (STANDING ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON TRUNK ROAD ASSESSMENT) (1994), Trunk Roads and the Generation of Traffic, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

SCHON, D. and REIN, M. (1994), Frame Reflection, New York, Basic Books. Frame Reflection Google Scholar

SELMAN, P. (1998), ‘Local agenda 21: substance or spin?’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 41, 533–53. Local agenda 21: substance or spin? Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 41 533 53 Google Scholar

THOMSETT, R. (1996), ‘A quiet revolution unfolds in transport’, Planning Week, 4, 7. A quiet revolution unfolds in transport Planning Week Google Scholar

TWRI (TYNE AND WEAR RESEARCH INFORMATION) (2000), Tyne and Wear Profile 2000, Newcastle, TWRI. Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (1999), ‘Transport for all: accessibility, mobility, and equity in transport planning’ in C. Greed (ed.), Social Town Planning, London, Routledge, 90–101. Transport for all: accessibility, mobility, and equity in transport planning Social Town Planning 90 101 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2001a), ‘Reappraising UK transport policy 1950–99: the myth of “mono-modality” and the nature of “paradigm shifts”, Planning Perspectives, 16, 268–91. Planning Perspectives 16 268 91 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2001b), The Politics of Mobility: Transport, the Environment and Public Policy, London, Spon. The Politics of Mobility: Transport, the Environment and Public Policy Google Scholar

VIGAR, G., HEALEY, P., HULL, A. and DAVOUDI, S. (2000a), Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain: An Institution-alist Analysis, London, Macmillan. Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain: An Institution-alist Analysis Google Scholar

VIGAR, G., STEELE, M., HEALEY, P., NELSON, J. D. and WENBAN-SMITH, A. (2000b), Transport Planning and Metropolitan Governance, London, Landor. Transport Planning and Metropolitan Governance Google Scholar

WENBAN-SMITH, A. (1994), ‘The South Birmingham Study: reconciling local and strategic needs’ (paper presented to PTRC Conference, Warwick, 12–16 September). The South Birmingham Study: reconciling local and strategic needs Google Scholar

AMIN, A. and THRIFT, N. (eds) (1994), Globalisation, Institutions and Regional Development, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Globalisation, Institutions and Regional Development Google Scholar

CITY OF SUNDERLAND METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCIL (1995), Unitary Development Plan, Sunderland, City of Sunderland MBC. Google Scholar

CPRE (COUNCIL FOR THE PROTECTION OF RURAL ENGLAND) (1998), New Money for Old Roads, London, CPRE. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1997), Developing an Integrated Transport Policy, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998a), A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone (Cm. 3950), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998b), Guidance on Local Transport Plans, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1999a), Guidance on Provisional Transport Plans, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1999b), Transport Statistics for Metropolitan Areas, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2000a), Transport 2010: The 10-Year Plan, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2000b), Transport Statistics, London, DETR. Google Scholar

DOE/DOT (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT/DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT) (1994), Transport (Planning Policy Guidance Note 13), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DOT (DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT) (1995), Transport: The Way Ahead, London, DOT. Google Scholar

DOT (DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT) (1996), Transport: The Way Forward, London, DOT. Google Scholar

DUDLEY, G. and RICHARDSON, J. J. (1998), ‘Arenas without rules and the policy change process: outsider groups and British roads policy’, Political Studies, XLVI, 727–47. Arenas without rules and the policy change process: outsider groups and British roads policy Political Studies XLVI 727 47 Google Scholar

GILLESPIE, A., HEALEY, P. and ROBINS, A. (1998), ‘Movement and mobility in the post-Fordist city’ in D. Banister (ed.), Transport and the Environment, London, E. & F. Spon, 243–66. Movement and mobility in the post-Fordist city Transport and the Environment 243 66 Google Scholar

GOODWIN, P. (1996), ‘Road traffic growth and the dynamics of sustainable transport policies’ in B. Cartledge (ed.), Transport and the Environment : the Linacre Lectures, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 6–22. Road traffic growth and the dynamics of sustainable transport policies Transport and the Environment : the Linacre Lectures 6 22 Google Scholar

GOODWIN, P., HALLETT, S., KENNY, F. and STOKES, G. (1991), Transport: The New Realism (Report to the Rees Jeffreys Road Fund), Oxford, Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford. Transport: The New Realism Google Scholar

GOODWIN, P., HASS-KLAU, C. and CAIRNS, S. (1998), ‘Evidence on the effects of road capacity reduction on traffic levels’, Traffic Engineering and Control, 348–54. Evidence on the effects of road capacity reduction on traffic levels Traffic Engineering and Control 348 54 Google Scholar

HAJER, M. (1995), The Politics of Environmental Discourse, Oxford, Oxford University Press. The Politics of Environmental Discourse Google Scholar

HALL, P. A. (1993), ‘Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state’, Comparative Politics, April, 275–96. Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state Comparative Politics 275 96 Google Scholar

HALL, P. A. and TAYLOR, R. C. R. (1996), ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’, Political Studies, XLIV, 937–57. Political science and the three new institutionalisms Political Studies 937 57 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning, London, Macmillan. Collaborative Planning Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1999), ‘Sites, jobs and portfolios: economic development discourses in the planning system’, Urban Studies, 36, 27–12. Sites, jobs and portfolios: economic development discourses in the planning system Urban Studies 36 27 12 Google Scholar

JACOBS, M. (1999), Environmental Modernisation, the New Labour Agenda, London, The Fabian Society. Environmental Modernisation, the New Labour Agenda Google Scholar

JTCG (JOINT TRANSPORTATION CHAIRS GROUP) (2000), Tyne and Wear Provisional Local Transport Plan 2000–05, Newcastle, JTCG. Google Scholar

JUDGE, E. and HICK, D. (1996), ‘Transport and personal accessibility in Leeds’ in G. Haughton and C. Williams (eds), Corporate City? Partnership, Participation and Partition in Urban Development in Leeds, Aldershot, Avebury. Transport and personal accessibility in Leeds Corporate City? Partnership, Participation and Partition in Urban Development in Leeds Google Scholar

KAUFMANN, V. (2000), ‘Modal Practices: from the rationales behind car and public transport use to coherent transport policies. Case studies in France and Switzerland’, World Transport Policy and Practice, 6, 8–17. Modal Practices: from the rationales behind car and public transport use to coherent transport policies. Case studies in France and Switzerland World Transport Policy and Practice 6 8 17 Google Scholar

KINGDON, J. W. (1984), Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, New York, HarperCollins. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies Google Scholar

KRUMHOLZ, N. and FORESTER, J. (1990), Making Equity Planning Work: Leadership in the Public Sector, Philadelphia, Temple University Press. Making Equity Planning Work: Leadership in the Public Sector Google Scholar

LATOUR, B. (1987), Science in Action, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Science in Action Google Scholar

MacERLEAN, N. (2001), ‘Are residents’ parking zones out of control’, The Observer, 4 March, 14–15. Are residents’ parking zones out of control The Observer 14 15 Google Scholar

MACKIE, P. (1998), ‘Developments in transport policy: the UK transport policy White Paper’, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 32, 399–403. Developments in transport policy: the UK transport policy White Paper Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 32 399 403 Google Scholar

MARVIN, S. J. and GUY, S. (1999), ‘Towards a new logic of transport planning?’, Town Planning Review, 70, 139–52. Towards a new logic of transport planning? Town Planning Review 70 139 52 Google Scholar

OWENS, S. (1995), ‘From “predict and provide” to “predict and prevent”?: pricing and planning in transport policy’, Transport Policy, 2, 43–51. From “predict and provide” to “predict and prevent”?: pricing and planning in transport policy Transport Policy 2 43 51 Google Scholar

RCEP (ROYAL COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION) (1994), Transport and the Environment (Cm. 2674), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

RICHARDSON, T. (2001), ‘The pendulum swings again: in search of new transport rationalities’, Town Planning Review, 72, 299–319. The pendulum swings again: in search of new transport rationalities Town Planning Review 72 299 319 Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (1993), The British Planning System, London, Macmillan. The British Planning System Google Scholar

SABATIER, P. and JENKINS-SMITH, H. (1993), Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach, Boulder, Westview Press. Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach Google Scholar

SACTRA (STANDING ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON TRUNK ROAD ASSESSMENT) (1994), Trunk Roads and the Generation of Traffic, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

SCHON, D. and REIN, M. (1994), Frame Reflection, New York, Basic Books. Frame Reflection Google Scholar

SELMAN, P. (1998), ‘Local agenda 21: substance or spin?’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 41, 533–53. Local agenda 21: substance or spin? Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 41 533 53 Google Scholar

THOMSETT, R. (1996), ‘A quiet revolution unfolds in transport’, Planning Week, 4, 7. A quiet revolution unfolds in transport Planning Week Google Scholar

TWRI (TYNE AND WEAR RESEARCH INFORMATION) (2000), Tyne and Wear Profile 2000, Newcastle, TWRI. Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (1999), ‘Transport for all: accessibility, mobility, and equity in transport planning’ in C. Greed (ed.), Social Town Planning, London, Routledge, 90–101. Transport for all: accessibility, mobility, and equity in transport planning Social Town Planning 90 101 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2001a), ‘Reappraising UK transport policy 1950–99: the myth of “mono-modality” and the nature of “paradigm shifts”, Planning Perspectives, 16, 268–91. Planning Perspectives 16 268 91 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2001b), The Politics of Mobility: Transport, the Environment and Public Policy, London, Spon. The Politics of Mobility: Transport, the Environment and Public Policy Google Scholar

VIGAR, G., HEALEY, P., HULL, A. and DAVOUDI, S. (2000a), Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain: An Institution-alist Analysis, London, Macmillan. Planning, Governance and Spatial Strategy in Britain: An Institution-alist Analysis Google Scholar

VIGAR, G., STEELE, M., HEALEY, P., NELSON, J. D. and WENBAN-SMITH, A. (2000b), Transport Planning and Metropolitan Governance, London, Landor. Transport Planning and Metropolitan Governance Google Scholar

WENBAN-SMITH, A. (1994), ‘The South Birmingham Study: reconciling local and strategic needs’ (paper presented to PTRC Conference, Warwick, 12–16 September). The South Birmingham Study: reconciling local and strategic needs Google Scholar

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Author details

Vigar, Geoff