Town Planning Review

Hidden or hiding?

Public perceptions of participation in the planning system

Town Planning Review (2001), 72, (2), 193–216.

Abstract

In the United Kingdom increased public participation is eulogised as the means through which land use planning will become modernised and environmental issues democratised. However, there is a concern that the recent reinvigoration of participation debates is merely a rewrapping of old problems in new rhetorics. Despite statutory mechanisms for participation in planning since 1969 genuine public involvement has remained consistently low and the preserve of professional discourses and organised interests. This paper provides insights into this failure to achieve broader participation by engaging with the very ‘publics’ whose involvement is sought. Through the medium of small group discussions a complex picture is revealed of institutionally excluded public values, or ‘hidden voices’, that will not be redrawn by the simple imposition of new participation techniques.

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DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998d), Modernising Local Government: Local Democracy and Community Leadership, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

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DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1994), Planning and Community Involvement in Planning and Development Processes, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1995), Attitudes to Town and Country Planning, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

EDEN, S. (1996), ‘Public participation in environmental policy: considering scientific, counter-scientific and non-scientific contributions’, Public Understanding of Science, 5, 183–204. Public participation in environmental policy: considering scientific, counter-scientific and non-scientific contributions Public Understanding of Science 5 183 204 Google Scholar

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FLYVBERG, B. (1998), Rationality and Power, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Rationality and Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

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FORESTER, J. (1999), The Deliberative Practitioner, New York, Pergamon. The Deliberative Practitioner Google Scholar

GEC (GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE PROGRAMME) (1999), Uncertainty, Precaution and Decision Making: the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment, Economic and Social Research Council, Global Environmental Change Programme website http://www.gecko.ac.uk/brief-8.html, accessed 10/27/99. Google Scholar

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GOSS, J. (1996), ‘Focus groups editorial’, Area, 28, 113–22. Focus groups editorial Area 28 113 22 Google Scholar

GRACEY, H. (1973), ‘Some functions of the British planning system’ in P. Hall, H. Gracey, R. Drewett and R. Thomas (eds), The Containment of Urban England, Volume II: The Planning System: Objectives, Operations, Impacts, London, George Allen & Unwin, 361–77. Some functions of the British planning system The Containment of Urban England, Volume II: The Planning System: Objectives, Operations, Impacts 361 77 Google Scholar

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HEALEY, P. (1990), ‘Democracy in the planning system’, The Planner, 76, 14–15. Democracy in the planning system The Planner 76 14 15 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1992), ‘A planner’s day: knowledge and action in communicative practice’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 58, 9–20. A planner’s day: knowledge and action in communicative practice Journal of the American Planning Association 58 9 20 Google Scholar

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HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Basingstoke, Macmillan. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and SHAW, T. (1994), ‘Changing meanings of the “environment” in the British planning system’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S., 19, 425–38. Changing meanings of the “environment” in the British planning system Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S 19 425 38 Google Scholar

HILL, D. (1994), Citizens and Cities: Urban Policy in the 1990s, London, Harvester Wheat-sheaf. Citizens and Cities: Urban Policy in the 1990s Google Scholar

HIND, C. (2000), Localisation: A Global Manifesto, London, Earthscan. Localisation: A Global Manifesto Google Scholar

HM GOVERNMENT (1994), The UK Strategy on Sustainable Development, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

HOLBROOK, B. (1996), ‘Shopping around: focus group research in North London’, Area, 28, 136–42. Shopping around: focus group research in North London Area 28 136 42 Google Scholar

HUTCHCROFT, I. (1996), ‘Local authorities, universities and communities: alliances for sustainability’, Local Environment, 1, 219–24. Local authorities, universities and communities: alliances for sustainability Local Environment 1 219 24 Google Scholar

JACOBS, M. (1996), The Politics of the Real World, London, Earthscan. The Politics of the Real World Google Scholar

JORDAN, A. and O’RIORDAN, T. (1995), Institutional Adaptation to Global Environmental Change (I) Social Institutions, Policy Change and Social Learning (Working Paper No. 95–20), Lancaster, Centre for Study of Environmental Change. Institutional Adaptation to Global Environmental Change (I) Social Institutions, Policy Change and Social Learning Google Scholar

KENNY, M. (1996), ‘Paradoxes of community’ in B. Doherty and M. de Geus (eds), Democracy and Green Political Thought, London, Routledge, 19–35. Paradoxes of community Democracy and Green Political Thought 19 35 Google Scholar

KITCHEN, T., WHITNEY, D. and LITTLEWOOD, S. (1997), ‘Local authority/academic collaboration and Local Agenda 21 policy processes’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 40, 645–59. Local authority/academic collaboration and Local Agenda 21 policy processes Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40 645 59 Google Scholar

LIVINGSTON, S. and LUNT, P. (1994), Talk on Television: Audience Participation and Public Debate, London, Routledge. Talk on Television: Audience Participation and Public Debate Google Scholar

LONG, N. and LONG, A. (eds), (1992), Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development, London, Routledge. Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development Google Scholar

LUKES, S. (1986), Power, Oxford, Black-well. Power Google Scholar

LUTON BOROUGH COUNCIL (1997), The Borough of Luton Local Plan, Luton, Luton Borough Council. Google Scholar

MACNAGHTON, P., GROVE-WHITE, R., JACOBS, M. and WYNNE, B. (1995), Public Perceptions and Sustainability in Lancashire: Indicators, Institutions and Participation, Lancaster, Centre for Study of Environmental Change. Public Perceptions and Sustainability in Lancashire: Indicators, Institutions and Participation Google Scholar

MACNAGHTON, P. and URRY, J. (1998), Contested Natures, London, Sage. Contested Natures Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1969), People and Planning: Report of the Committee on Public Participation in Planning, The Skeffington Report, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

MONBIOT, G. (2000), Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain, London, Macmillan. Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain Google Scholar

OWENS, S. (1994), ‘Land, limits and sustainability: a conceptual framework and some dilemmas for the planning system’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S., 19, 439–56. Land, limits and sustainability: a conceptual framework and some dilemmas for the planning system Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S 19 439 56 Google Scholar

OWENS, S. (2000), ‘Commentary: engaging the publics: information and deliberation in environmental policy’, Environment and Planning A, 32, 1141–48. Commentary: engaging the publics: information and deliberation in environmental policy Environment and Planning A 32 1141 48 Google Scholar

PARKER, J. (1995), ‘Enabling morally reflective communities: towards a resolution of the democratic dilemma of environmental values in policy’, in Y. Guerrier, N. Alexander, J. Chase and M. O’Brien (eds), Values and the Environment: A Social Science Perspective, Chichester, Wiley, 33–49. Enabling morally reflective communities: towards a resolution of the democratic dilemma of environmental values in policy Values and the Environment: A Social Science Perspective 33 49 Google Scholar

RALLINGS, C. and THRASHER, M. (1996), Enhancing Local Electoral Turnout, London, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Enhancing Local Electoral Turnout Google Scholar

SOUTH BEDFORDSHIRE DISTRICT COUNCIL (1995), South Bedfordshire District Plan, Dunstable, South Bedfordshire District Council. Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. and ALLMENDINGER, P. (1998), ‘Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning’, Environment and Planning A, 30, 1975–89. Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning Environment and Planning A 30 1975 89 Google Scholar

THORNLEY, A. (1989), Urban Planning under Thatcherism: The Challenge of the Market, London, Routledge. Urban Planning under Thatcherism: The Challenge of the Market Google Scholar

TUXWORTH, B. (1996), ‘From environment to sustainability: surveys and analysis of LA 21 process development in UK local authorities’, Local Environment, 1, 277–97. From environment to sustainability: surveys and analysis of LA 21 process development in UK local authorities Local Environment 1 277 97 Google Scholar

UDY, J. M. (1996), A Value Basis for Urban and Regional Planning, Lewiston, NJ, Edwin Mellen Press. A Value Basis for Urban and Regional Planning Google Scholar

WALL, D (1999), Earth First! And the Anti-Roads Movement, London, Routledge. Earth First! And the Anti-Roads Movement Google Scholar

WILCOX, D. (1994), The Guide to Effective Participation, Brighton, Partnership Books. The Guide to Effective Participation Google Scholar

YEARLEY, S. (1992), ‘Green ambivalence about science: legal-rational authority and the scientific legitimation of a social movement’, British Journal of Sociology, 43, 511–31. Green ambivalence about science: legal-rational authority and the scientific legitimation of a social movement British Journal of Sociology 43 511 31 Google Scholar

YOUNG, I. M. (1990), ‘The ideal of community and the politics of difference’, in L. Nicholson (ed.), Feminism/Postmodernism, London, Routledge, 300–28. The ideal of community and the politics of difference Feminism/Postmodernism 300 28 Google Scholar

BARBOUR, R. and KITZINGER, J. (1999), Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice, London, Sage. Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice Google Scholar

BECK, U. (1992), Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London, Sage. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity Google Scholar

BECK, U., GIDDENS, A. and LASH, S. (1995), Reflexive Modernisation: Politics, Tradition, and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, Cambridge, Polity Press. Reflexive Modernisation: Politics, Tradition, and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order Google Scholar

BEDFORDSHIRE COUNTY COUNCIL (1997), Bedfordshire Structure Plan (Draft), Bedford, Bedfordshire County Council. Google Scholar

BERNSTEIN, R. (1989), ‘Interpretation and solidarity’, Praxis International, 9, 215–230. Interpretation and solidarity Praxis International 9 215 230 Google Scholar

BISHOP, J. (1994), Local Agenda 21, London, BD OR. Local Agenda 21 Google Scholar

BLACKMAN, T. (1991), ‘People-sensitive planning communication, property and social action’, Planning Practice and Research, 6, 1–15. People-sensitive planning communication, property and social action Planning Practice and Research 6 1 15 Google Scholar

BLAKE, J. (1999), ‘Overcoming the “value-action gap” in environmental policy: tensions between national policy and local experience’, Local Environment, 4, 257–78. Overcoming the “value-action gap” in environmental policy: tensions between national policy and local experience Local Environment 4 257 78 Google Scholar

BOADEN, N., GOLDSMITH, M., HAMPTON, W. and STRINGER, P. (1980), Public Participation in Local Services, London, Longman. Public Participation in Local Services Google Scholar

BRUTON, M. and NICHOLSON, D. (1987), Local Planning in Practice, Cheltenham, Stanley Thomas. Local Planning in Practice Google Scholar

BUCKINGHAM-HATFIELD, S. and PERCY, S. (1999), Constructing Local Environmental Agendas, London, Routledge. Constructing Local Environmental Agendas Google Scholar

BURGESS, J., LIMB, M. and HARRISON, C. (1998a), ‘Exploring environmental values through the medium of focus groups: 1. Theory and practice’, Environment and Planning A, 20, 309–26. Exploring environmental values through the medium of focus groups: 1. Theory and practice Environment and Planning A 20 309 26 Google Scholar

BURGESS, J., LIMB, M. and HARRISON, C. (1998b), ‘Exploring environmental values through the medium of focus groups: 2. Illustrations of a group at work’, Environment and Planning A, 20, 457–76. Exploring environmental values through the medium of focus groups: 2. Illustrations of a group at work Environment and Planning A 20 457 76 Google Scholar

BYRNE, T. (2000), Local Government in Britain, London, Penguin. Local Government in Britain Google Scholar

DAVIES, A. R. (1998), ‘Environmental values and the UK land use planning system’ (unpublished PhD thesis), Cambridge, University of Cambridge. Environmental values and the UK land use planning system Google Scholar

DAVIES, A. R. (1999), ‘Where do we go from here? Environmental focus groups and planning policy formation’, Local Environment, 4, 295–315. Where do we go from here? Environmental focus groups and planning policy formation Local Environment 4 295 315 Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998a), Modernising Planning: A Policy Statement by the Minister for the Regions, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998b), Planning for the Communities of the Future, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998c), Modern Government in Touch with the People, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998d), Modernising Local Government: Local Democracy and Community Leadership, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1999), The UK Strategy for Sustainable Development: A Better Quality of Life, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DOBSON, A. (1996), ‘Environmental sustainabilities: an analysis and a typology’, Environmental Politics, 5, 401–28. Environmental sustainabilities: an analysis and a typology Environmental Politics 5 401 28 Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1990), This Common Inheritance, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1992), PPG 12: Development Plans, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1994), Planning and Community Involvement in Planning and Development Processes, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1995), Attitudes to Town and Country Planning, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

EDEN, S. (1996), ‘Public participation in environmental policy: considering scientific, counter-scientific and non-scientific contributions’, Public Understanding of Science, 5, 183–204. Public participation in environmental policy: considering scientific, counter-scientific and non-scientific contributions Public Understanding of Science 5 183 204 Google Scholar

EVANS, B. (1995), Experts and Environmental Planning, Aldershot, Avebury. Experts and Environmental Planning Google Scholar

FLYVBERG, B. (1998), Rationality and Power, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Rationality and Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1996), ‘Beyond dialogue to transformative learning: how deliberate rituals encourage political judgment in community planning processes’ in S. Esquith (ed.), Democratic Dialogues: Theories and Practices, Poznan, University of Poznan, 141–68. Beyond dialogue to transformative learning: how deliberate rituals encourage political judgment in community planning processes Democratic Dialogues: Theories and Practices 141 68 Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1999), The Deliberative Practitioner, New York, Pergamon. The Deliberative Practitioner Google Scholar

GEC (GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE PROGRAMME) (1999), Uncertainty, Precaution and Decision Making: the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment, Economic and Social Research Council, Global Environmental Change Programme website http://www.gecko.ac.uk/brief-8.html, accessed 10/27/99. Google Scholar

GOING FOR GREEN (1996), Sustainable Communities Project, Monitoring and Feedback Paper, Manchester, Going for Green. Google Scholar

GOSS, J. (1996), ‘Focus groups editorial’, Area, 28, 113–22. Focus groups editorial Area 28 113 22 Google Scholar

GRACEY, H. (1973), ‘Some functions of the British planning system’ in P. Hall, H. Gracey, R. Drewett and R. Thomas (eds), The Containment of Urban England, Volume II: The Planning System: Objectives, Operations, Impacts, London, George Allen & Unwin, 361–77. Some functions of the British planning system The Containment of Urban England, Volume II: The Planning System: Objectives, Operations, Impacts 361 77 Google Scholar

HABERMAS, J. (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action, Volume 2: Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalism and Reason, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Theory of Communicative Action, Volume 2: Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalism and Reason Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1990), ‘Democracy in the planning system’, The Planner, 76, 14–15. Democracy in the planning system The Planner 76 14 15 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1992), ‘A planner’s day: knowledge and action in communicative practice’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 58, 9–20. A planner’s day: knowledge and action in communicative practice Journal of the American Planning Association 58 9 20 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1993), ‘The communicative work of development plans’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 20, 83–104. The communicative work of development plans Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 20 83 104 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1996), ‘The communicative turn in spatial planning theory and its implications for spatial strategy formulation’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 23, 217–34. The communicative turn in spatial planning theory and its implications for spatial strategy formulation Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 23 217 34 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Basingstoke, Macmillan. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and SHAW, T. (1994), ‘Changing meanings of the “environment” in the British planning system’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S., 19, 425–38. Changing meanings of the “environment” in the British planning system Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S 19 425 38 Google Scholar

HILL, D. (1994), Citizens and Cities: Urban Policy in the 1990s, London, Harvester Wheat-sheaf. Citizens and Cities: Urban Policy in the 1990s Google Scholar

HIND, C. (2000), Localisation: A Global Manifesto, London, Earthscan. Localisation: A Global Manifesto Google Scholar

HM GOVERNMENT (1994), The UK Strategy on Sustainable Development, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

HOLBROOK, B. (1996), ‘Shopping around: focus group research in North London’, Area, 28, 136–42. Shopping around: focus group research in North London Area 28 136 42 Google Scholar

HUTCHCROFT, I. (1996), ‘Local authorities, universities and communities: alliances for sustainability’, Local Environment, 1, 219–24. Local authorities, universities and communities: alliances for sustainability Local Environment 1 219 24 Google Scholar

JACOBS, M. (1996), The Politics of the Real World, London, Earthscan. The Politics of the Real World Google Scholar

JORDAN, A. and O’RIORDAN, T. (1995), Institutional Adaptation to Global Environmental Change (I) Social Institutions, Policy Change and Social Learning (Working Paper No. 95–20), Lancaster, Centre for Study of Environmental Change. Institutional Adaptation to Global Environmental Change (I) Social Institutions, Policy Change and Social Learning Google Scholar

KENNY, M. (1996), ‘Paradoxes of community’ in B. Doherty and M. de Geus (eds), Democracy and Green Political Thought, London, Routledge, 19–35. Paradoxes of community Democracy and Green Political Thought 19 35 Google Scholar

KITCHEN, T., WHITNEY, D. and LITTLEWOOD, S. (1997), ‘Local authority/academic collaboration and Local Agenda 21 policy processes’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 40, 645–59. Local authority/academic collaboration and Local Agenda 21 policy processes Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40 645 59 Google Scholar

LIVINGSTON, S. and LUNT, P. (1994), Talk on Television: Audience Participation and Public Debate, London, Routledge. Talk on Television: Audience Participation and Public Debate Google Scholar

LONG, N. and LONG, A. (eds), (1992), Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development, London, Routledge. Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development Google Scholar

LUKES, S. (1986), Power, Oxford, Black-well. Power Google Scholar

LUTON BOROUGH COUNCIL (1997), The Borough of Luton Local Plan, Luton, Luton Borough Council. Google Scholar

MACNAGHTON, P., GROVE-WHITE, R., JACOBS, M. and WYNNE, B. (1995), Public Perceptions and Sustainability in Lancashire: Indicators, Institutions and Participation, Lancaster, Centre for Study of Environmental Change. Public Perceptions and Sustainability in Lancashire: Indicators, Institutions and Participation Google Scholar

MACNAGHTON, P. and URRY, J. (1998), Contested Natures, London, Sage. Contested Natures Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1969), People and Planning: Report of the Committee on Public Participation in Planning, The Skeffington Report, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

MONBIOT, G. (2000), Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain, London, Macmillan. Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain Google Scholar

OWENS, S. (1994), ‘Land, limits and sustainability: a conceptual framework and some dilemmas for the planning system’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S., 19, 439–56. Land, limits and sustainability: a conceptual framework and some dilemmas for the planning system Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers N.S 19 439 56 Google Scholar

OWENS, S. (2000), ‘Commentary: engaging the publics: information and deliberation in environmental policy’, Environment and Planning A, 32, 1141–48. Commentary: engaging the publics: information and deliberation in environmental policy Environment and Planning A 32 1141 48 Google Scholar

PARKER, J. (1995), ‘Enabling morally reflective communities: towards a resolution of the democratic dilemma of environmental values in policy’, in Y. Guerrier, N. Alexander, J. Chase and M. O’Brien (eds), Values and the Environment: A Social Science Perspective, Chichester, Wiley, 33–49. Enabling morally reflective communities: towards a resolution of the democratic dilemma of environmental values in policy Values and the Environment: A Social Science Perspective 33 49 Google Scholar

RALLINGS, C. and THRASHER, M. (1996), Enhancing Local Electoral Turnout, London, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Enhancing Local Electoral Turnout Google Scholar

SOUTH BEDFORDSHIRE DISTRICT COUNCIL (1995), South Bedfordshire District Plan, Dunstable, South Bedfordshire District Council. Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. and ALLMENDINGER, P. (1998), ‘Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning’, Environment and Planning A, 30, 1975–89. Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning Environment and Planning A 30 1975 89 Google Scholar

THORNLEY, A. (1989), Urban Planning under Thatcherism: The Challenge of the Market, London, Routledge. Urban Planning under Thatcherism: The Challenge of the Market Google Scholar

TUXWORTH, B. (1996), ‘From environment to sustainability: surveys and analysis of LA 21 process development in UK local authorities’, Local Environment, 1, 277–97. From environment to sustainability: surveys and analysis of LA 21 process development in UK local authorities Local Environment 1 277 97 Google Scholar

UDY, J. M. (1996), A Value Basis for Urban and Regional Planning, Lewiston, NJ, Edwin Mellen Press. A Value Basis for Urban and Regional Planning Google Scholar

WALL, D (1999), Earth First! And the Anti-Roads Movement, London, Routledge. Earth First! And the Anti-Roads Movement Google Scholar

WILCOX, D. (1994), The Guide to Effective Participation, Brighton, Partnership Books. The Guide to Effective Participation Google Scholar

YEARLEY, S. (1992), ‘Green ambivalence about science: legal-rational authority and the scientific legitimation of a social movement’, British Journal of Sociology, 43, 511–31. Green ambivalence about science: legal-rational authority and the scientific legitimation of a social movement British Journal of Sociology 43 511 31 Google Scholar

YOUNG, I. M. (1990), ‘The ideal of community and the politics of difference’, in L. Nicholson (ed.), Feminism/Postmodernism, London, Routledge, 300–28. The ideal of community and the politics of difference Feminism/Postmodernism 300 28 Google Scholar

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Davies, Anna R.