Town Planning Review

How relevant is ‘planning by neighbourhoods’ today?

Town Planning Review (2001), 72, (2), 171–192.

Abstract

Half a century ago in this journal, Lewis Mumford argued in favour of the notion of ‘planning by neighbourhoods’. Despite many waves of criticism, this notion and the promotion of communities are back on the agenda of urban planners, designers, architects and social scientists alike. This paper sets out to find out the reasons for this recurrence and asks whether it is relevant today. It argues that the development of small-scale, distinctive urban areas has been embedded in political, economic and cultural frameworks of contemporary societies, portrayed as and/or playing the role of a means of urban management, a sustainable urban form, a vehicle of market operation, a means of differentiation, a refuge from the unknown and a framework for social integration. For these reasons planning by neighbourhoods keeps coming back to the urban agenda, despite its many shortcomings.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ARISTOTLE (1992), The Politics, London, Penguin. The Politics Google Scholar

BARTON, H. (1996), ‘Going green by design’, Urban Design, 57, 13–18. Going green by design Urban Design 57 13 18 Google Scholar

BATER, J. H. (1980), The Soviet City, London, Edward Arnold. The Soviet City Google Scholar

BERMAN, M. (1982), All That is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity, London, Verso. All That is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity Google Scholar

BOBBIO, N. (1990), Liberalism and Democracy, London, Verso. Liberalism and Democracy Google Scholar

BREHENY, M. (1992), ‘The contradictions of the compact city: a review’ in M. Breheny (ed.), Sustainable Development and Urban Form, London, Pion, 138–59. The contradictions of the compact city: a review Sustainable Development and Urban Form 138 59 Google Scholar

BREHENY, M., GENT, T., and LOCK, D. (1993), Alternative Development Patterns: New Settlements, London, HMSO. Alternative Development Patterns: New Settlements Google Scholar

BRIGGS, A. (1963), Victorian Cities, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Victorian Cities Google Scholar

CALTHORPE, P. (1994), ‘The region’ in Katz (ed.), xi-xvi. The region Google Scholar

CALTHORPE, P. (1996), ‘The pedestrian pocket’ in R. LeGates and F. Stout (eds.), The City Reader, London, Routledge, 468–74. The pedestrian pocket The City Reader 468 74 Google Scholar

CEC (COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES) (1990), Green Paper on the Urban Environment (EUR 12902), Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. Google Scholar

CEC (COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES) (1994), Europe 2000+ : Cooperation for European Territorial Development, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publication of the European Communities. Google Scholar

DAVIS, M. (1992), ‘Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space’ in M. Sorkin (ed.), Variations on a Theme Park, New York, Hill and Wang, 154–80. Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space Variations on a Theme Park 154 80 Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1997), Planning Policy Guidance Note 1 (Annex A), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DOE (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT) (1996), Sustainable Settlements and Shelter: The United Kingdom National Report (Habitat II), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

DUANY, A. and PLATER-ZYBERK, E. (1994), ‘The neighbourhood, the district, and the corridor’ in Katz (ed.), xvii-xx. The neighbourhood, the district, and the corridor Google Scholar

ENGELS, F. (1993) (Original 1845), The Condition of the Working Class in England (Edited by David McLellan) Oxford, Oxford University Press. The Condition of the Working Class in England Google Scholar

ENGLISH PARTNERSHIPS (1998), Greenwich Peninsula: Investing in the Twenty-First Century, London, Greenwich Peninsula Development Office. Google Scholar

ETZIONI, A. (1995), The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities and the Communitarian Agenda, London, Fontana Press. The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities and the Communitarian Agenda Google Scholar

FISHMAN, R. (1987), Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia, New York, Basic Books. Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia Google Scholar

GIBBERD, F. (1962), Town Design, London, Architectural Press. Town Design Google Scholar

GORMAN, V. (1995), ‘Aristotle’s Hippoda-mos’, Historia, 44, 385–95. Aristotle’s Hippoda-mos Historia 44 385 95 Google Scholar

GREED, C. (1993), Introducing Town Planning, Harlow, Longman. Introducing Town Planning Google Scholar

GUY, C. (1994), The Retail Development Process: Location, Property and Planning, London, Routledge. The Retail Development Process: Location, Property and Planning Google Scholar

HALL, P. (ed.) (1973), The Containment of Urban England (2 Vols), London, Allen and Unwin. The Containment of Urban England Google Scholar

HONNETH, A. (1995), The Fragmented World of the Social: Essays in Social and Political Philosophy, Albany, NY, State University of New York Press. The Fragmented World of the Social: Essays in Social and Political Philosophy Google Scholar

HOWARD, E. (1960), Garden Cities of Tomorrow, London, Faber & Faber. Garden Cities of Tomorrow Google Scholar

JACOBS, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Vintage Books. The Death and Life of Great American Cities Google Scholar

JAMESON, M. (1990), ‘Private space and the Greek city’ in O. Murray and S. Price (eds), The Greek City: From Homer to Alexander, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 171–95. Private space and the Greek city The Greek City: From Homer to Alexander 171 95 Google Scholar

JENKINS, R. (1996), Social Identity, London, Routledge. Social Identity Google Scholar

KATZ, P. (ed.) (1994), The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community, New York, McGraw Hill. The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community Google Scholar

KELLER, S. (1968), The Urban Neighbourhood: A Sociological Perspective, New York, Random House. The Urban Neighbourhood: A Sociological Perspective Google Scholar

KNOX, P. (1995), Urban Social Geography: An Introduction, Harlow, Longman. Urban Social Geography: An Introduction Google Scholar

LEFEBVRE, H. (1991), The Production of Space, Oxford, Blackwell. The Production of Space Google Scholar

LOGAN, J. (1993), ‘Cycles and trends in the globalization of real estate’ in P. Knox (ed.), The Restless Urban Landscape, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 33–54. Cycles and trends in the globalization of real estate The Restless Urban Landscape 33 54 Google Scholar

LOGAN, J. and MOLOTCH, H. (1987), Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place, Berkeley, University of California Press. Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place Google Scholar

LYNCH, K. (1960), The Image of the City, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The Image of the City Google Scholar

MADANIPOUR, A. (1996), Design of Urban Space: An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial Process, Chichester, John Wiley. Design of Urban Space: An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial Process Google Scholar

MADANIPOUR, A. (1999), ‘Why are the design and development of public spaces significant for cities?’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 26, 879–91. Why are the design and development of public spaces significant for cities? Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 26 879 91 Google Scholar

MADANIPOUR, A., CARS, G. and ALLEN, J. (eds) (1998), Social Exclusion in European Cities: Processes, Experiences, Responses, London, The Stationery Office. Social Exclusion in European Cities: Processes, Experiences, Responses Google Scholar

MADANIPOUR, A., HULL, A. and HEALEY, P. (eds) (2001), The Governance of Place: Space and Planning Processes, Aldershot, Ashgate. The Governance of Place: Space and Planning Processes Google Scholar

MAFFESOLI, M. (1996), The Times of the Tribes, London, Sage. The Times of the Tribes Google Scholar

MUMFORD, L. (1954), ‘The neighbourhood and the neighbourhood unit’, Town Planning Review, 24, 256–70. The neighbourhood and the neighbourhood unit Town Planning Review 24 256 70 Google Scholar

NARVESON, J. (1995), ‘Social philosophy’ in R. Audi (ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 747–48. Social philosophy The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy 747 48 Google Scholar

PRATT, A. and BALL, R. (1994), ‘Industrial property, policy and economic development: the research agenda’ in R. Ball and A. Pratt (eds), Industrial Property: Policy and Economic Development, London, Routledge, 1–19. Industrial property, policy and economic development: the research agenda Industrial Property: Policy and Economic Development 1 19 Google Scholar

QUARRIE, J. (ed.) (1992), Earth Summit 1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, London, The Regency Press. Earth Summit 1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Google Scholar

ROELOFS, J. (1999), ‘Building and designing with nature: urban design’ in D. Satter-thwaite (ed.), The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Cities, London, Earthscan, 234–50. Building and designing with nature: urban design The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Cities 234 50 Google Scholar

SELMAN, P. (1996), Local Sustainability, London, Paul Chapman. Local Sustainability Google Scholar

SEN, A. (1999), Development as Freedom, New York, Alfred Knopfi Development as Freedom Google Scholar

SOCIAL EXCLUSION UNIT (2001), A New Commitment to Neighbourhood Renewal: National Strategy Action Plan, London, Cabinet Office. Google Scholar

STATE OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (1997), Liveable Neighbourhoods: Community Design Code, Perth, WA, Western Australian Planning Commission. Google Scholar

TAYLOR, C. (1979), Hegel and Modern Society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Hegel and Modern Society Google Scholar

TAYLOR, N. (1973), The Village in the City, London, Temple Smith. The Village in the City Google Scholar

TIBBALDS/COLBOURNE/KARSKI/WILLIAMS (1990), City Centre Design Strategy: Birmingham Urban Design Studies, Stage 1, Birmingham, City of Birmingham. Google Scholar

TÖNNIES, F. (1957) (Original 1887), Community and Society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft) (translated and edited by Charles Loomis), New York, Harper & Row. Community and Society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft) Google Scholar

URBAN TASK FORCE (1999), Towards an Urban Renaissance, London, E&FN Spon. Google Scholar

URBAN VILLAGES FORUM (1998), http://www.urban-villages-forum.org.uk Google Scholar

VANCE, J. E. (1977), This Scene of Man, New York, Harper’s College Press. This Scene of Man Google Scholar

WHITE, R. (1994), Urban Environmental Management: Environmental Change and Urban Design, Chichester, John Wiley. Urban Environmental Management: Environmental Change and Urban Design Google Scholar

WHITEHAND, J. W. R. (1987), The Changing Face of Cities, Oxford, Blackwell. The Changing Face of Cities Google Scholar

WHITEHAND, J. W. R. (1992), The Making of the Urban Landscape, Oxford, Blackwell. The Making of the Urban Landscape Google Scholar

WILLETTS, D. (1998), ‘Tackling social exclusion’, Social Sciences, 40, 3. Tackling social exclusion Social Sciences 40 3 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Madanipour, Ali