The Indexer: The International Journal of Indexing

Where is the evidence? A review of the literature on the usability of book indexes

The Indexer: The International Journal of Indexing (2014), 32, (4), 161–168.

Abstract

Mary Coe reviews the literature in search of an evidence base for book indexing practice. She discovers that while research has been conducted on index characteristics and usability, it has been systems-focused, and that little is known about what readers expect from book indexes and how they use them. She suggests that user studies could contribute not only to development of better indexing practice but to greater knowledge of human information behaviour.

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Abdullah, N. (2008) ‘A study into usability of tools for searching and browsing e-books with particular reference to back-of-thebook index.’ Dissertation, University of Malaya. Professional women on their professions: indexing Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2007) ‘Students’ reactions towards e-books in an university library collection.’ International Journal of the Book 5(1), 63–72. International Journal of the Book 5 63 72 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008a) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 1.’ Library Review 57(8), 593–605. Library Review 57 593 605 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008b) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 2 – analysis of e-book usage.’ Library Review 57(9), 676–89. Library Review 57 676 89 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008c) ‘Using a task-based approach in evaluating the usability of BoBIs in an e-book environment’, pp. 246–57 in C. Macdonald et al. (eds), Advances in information retrieval: lecture notes in computer science. Springer. http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-540-78646-7/page/2 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2009) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 3 – search and browse tasks.’ Library Review 58(1), 17–27. Students’ attitudes towards e books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 3 – search and browse tasks International Journal of the Book 5 63 72 Google Scholar

Allen, B. L. (1991) ‘Cognitive research in information science’, pp. 3–37 in M. E. Williams (ed.), Annual review of information science and technology. Medford, N.J.: Learned Information. Cognitive research in information science Annual review of information science and technology 3 37 Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. (1993) ‘Indexing standards: Are they possible? What good are they? Why bother?’ Paper presented at Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Port Aransas, Tex. Indexing standards: Are they possible? What good are they? Why bother? Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. and Pérez-Carballo, J. (2005) Information retrieval and design. St Petersburg, Fla.: Ometeca Institute. Information retrieval and design Google Scholar

Babu, R. R. (1992) ‘User preferences for indexes in philosophical books: a survey.’ Library Review 4(1), 47–55. User preferences for indexes in philosophical books: a survey Library Review 4 47 55 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. (1990) ‘Towards a new international standard on indexing’ . The Indexer 17(2), 127–8. Towards a new international standard on indexing The Indexer 17 127 8 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. G. B. (1993) ‘Research in indexing: More needed?’ The Indexer 18(3), 147–51. Research in indexing: More needed? The Indexer 18 147 51 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. et al. (2000) Indexing children’s books, ed. Michèle Clarke. Occasional Papers on Indexing No. 5. Sheffield, UK: Society of Indexers. Indexing children’s books Google Scholar

Banwell, L. and Coulson, G. (2004) ‘Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project’, Information Research 9(2). www.informationr.net/ir/9-2/paper167.html Google Scholar

Barnum, C. M., Henderson, E., Hood, A. and Jordan, R. (2004) ‘Index versus full-text search: A usability study of user preference and performance.’ Technical Communication 51(2), 185–206. Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project Technical Communication 51 185 206 Google Scholar

Bell, H. K. (1993) ‘Vive la différence! The survival of the softest.’ The Indexer 18(4), 231–6. Vive la différence! The survival of the softest The Indexer 18 231 6 Google Scholar

Bell, H. K. (1996) ‘Whom should we aim to please?’ The Indexer 20(1), 3–5. Whom should we aim to please? The Indexer 20 3 5 Google Scholar

Berg, S. A., Hoffmann, K. and Dawson, D. (2010) ‘Not on the same page: undergraduates’ information retrieval in electronic and print books.’ Journal of Academic Librarianship 36(6), 518–25. Journal of Academic Librarianship 36 518 25 Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991a) ‘Index quality study, part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes’, pp. 15–51 in Indexing tradition and innovation. Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference of the American Society of Indexers. Wheat Ridge, Colo.: ASI. Index quality study, part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes 15 51 Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991b) ‘Index quality study, part II: Publishers’ survey and qualitative assessment’, pp. 53–79 in Indexing tradition and innovation. Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference of the American Society of Indexers. Wheat Ridge, Colo.: ASI. Indexing tradition and innovation. Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference of the American Society of Indexers 53 79 Google Scholar

Bosschieter, P. (2006) ‘Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today.’ The Indexer 25(2), 86–8. Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today The Indexer 25 86 8 Google Scholar

Browne, G. and Jermey, J. (2007) The indexing companion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The indexing companion Google Scholar

Calvert, D. (1996) ‘Deconstructing indexing standards’. The Indexer 20(2), 74–7. Deconstructing indexing standards The Indexer 20 74 7 Google Scholar

Case, D. O. (2012) Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior, 3rd edn. Bingley, UK: Emerald. Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior Google Scholar

Cevolini, A. (2014) ‘Indexing as preadaptive advance: a socioevolutionary perspective’. The Indexer 32(2), 50–7. Indexing as preadaptive advance: a socioevolutionary perspective The Indexer 32 50 7 Google Scholar

Cleveland, D. B. and Cleveland, A. D. (1990) Introduction to indexing and abstracting. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited. Introduction to indexing and abstracting Google Scholar

Cooper, H. (1998) Synthesizing research: a guide for literature reviews, 2nd edn. Sage. Synthesizing research: a guide for literature reviews Google Scholar

Diodato, V. (1994) ‘User preferences for features in back of book indexes.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(7), 529–36. User preferences for features in back of book indexes Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45 529 36 Google Scholar

Diodato, V. and Gandt, G. (1991) ‘Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42(5), 341–50. Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42 341 50 Google Scholar

Evans, R. T. (2002) ‘Usability test: Index vs. full-text search.’ Paper presented at Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, Ga., 10 January. Usability test: Index vs. full-text search Google Scholar

Fidel, R. (2008) ‘Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science.’ Library and Information Science Research, 30, 265–72. Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science Library and Information Science Research 265 72 Google Scholar

Flatoff, J. (2007) ‘Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users.’ Key Words 15(1), 19–30. Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users Key Words 15 19 30 Google Scholar

Gratch, B., Settel, B. and Atherton, P. (1978) ‘Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences.’ The Indexer 11(2), 14–23. Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences The Indexer 11 14 23 Google Scholar

Hanson, F. A. (2007) The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press. The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars Google Scholar

Harman, D. (2011) ‘Information retrieval evaluation’, in G. Marchionini (ed.), Synthesis lectures on information concepts, retrieval, and services. San Rafael, Calif.: Morgan & Claypool. Information retrieval evaluation Synthesis lectures on information concepts, retrieval, and services Google Scholar

Hert, C. A., Jacob, E. K. and Dawson, P. (2000) ‘A usability assessment of online indexing structures in the networked environment.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51(1), 971–88. A usability assessment of online indexing structures in the networked environment Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51 971 88 Google Scholar

Hjorland, B. (2011) ‘The importance of theories of knowledge: Indexing and information retrieval as an example.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62(1), 72–7. The importance of theories of knowledge: Indexing and information retrieval as an example Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62 72 7 Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008a) ‘Web 2.0 and users’ expectations of indexes.’ The Indexer 26(1), 18–24. The Indexer 26 18 24 Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008b) ‘Indexing by numbers: Is there scope for metrics in index evaluation?’ The Indexer 26(4), 158–62. Indexing by numbers: Is there scope for metrics in index evaluation? The Indexer 26 158 62 Google Scholar

Kingsley, I. (2008) ‘The usability of academic library website indexes: an investigation.’ The Indexer 26(2), 71–8. The usability of academic library website indexes: an investigation The Indexer 26 71 8 Google Scholar

Kleinberg, I. (1993) ‘Making the case for professional indexers: Where is the proof?’ pp. 139–46 in Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Making the case for professional indexers: Where is the proof? Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May 139 46 Google Scholar

Knight, G. N. (1979) Indexing, the art of. London: Allen & Unwin. Indexing, the art of Google Scholar

Landes, C. (2009) ‘Testing usability: “Experience an index usability test” at the ASI Conference (Portland, 2009).’ The Indexer 27(4), 152–63. Testing usability: “Experience an index usability test” at the ASI Conference (Portland, 2009) The Indexer 27 152 63 Google Scholar

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Liddy, E. D. and Jörgensen, C. L. (1996) ‘Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features.’ The Indexer 20(2), 64–8. Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features The Indexer 20 64 8 Google Scholar

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Morville, P. (2005) Ambient findability. Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly Media. Ambient findability Google Scholar

Mulvany, N. (1994) ‘Online help systems: A multimedia indexing opportunity’, In R. Fidel et al (eds), Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, N.J.: American Society for Information Science. Online help systems: A multimedia indexing opportunity Challenges in indexing electronic text and images Google Scholar

Mulvany, N. (2005) Indexing books, 2nd edn. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. Indexing books Google Scholar

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Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2007) ‘Students’ reactions towards e-books in an university library collection.’ International Journal of the Book 5(1), 63–72. International Journal of the Book 5 63 72 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008a) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 1.’ Library Review 57(8), 593–605. Library Review 57 593 605 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008b) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e-books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 2 – analysis of e-book usage.’ Library Review 57(9), 676–89. Library Review 57 676 89 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2008c) ‘Using a task-based approach in evaluating the usability of BoBIs in an e-book environment’, pp. 246–57 in C. Macdonald et al. (eds), Advances in information retrieval: lecture notes in computer science. Springer. http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-540-78646-7/page/2 Google Scholar

Abdullah, N. and Gibb, F. (2009) ‘Students’ attitudes towards e books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 3 – search and browse tasks.’ Library Review 58(1), 17–27. Students’ attitudes towards e books in a Scottish higher education institute: Part 3 – search and browse tasks International Journal of the Book 5 63 72 Google Scholar

Allen, B. L. (1991) ‘Cognitive research in information science’, pp. 3–37 in M. E. Williams (ed.), Annual review of information science and technology. Medford, N.J.: Learned Information. Cognitive research in information science Annual review of information science and technology 3 37 Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. (1993) ‘Indexing standards: Are they possible? What good are they? Why bother?’ Paper presented at Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Port Aransas, Tex. Indexing standards: Are they possible? What good are they? Why bother? Google Scholar

Anderson, J. D. and Pérez-Carballo, J. (2005) Information retrieval and design. St Petersburg, Fla.: Ometeca Institute. Information retrieval and design Google Scholar

Babu, R. R. (1992) ‘User preferences for indexes in philosophical books: a survey.’ Library Review 4(1), 47–55. User preferences for indexes in philosophical books: a survey Library Review 4 47 55 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. (1990) ‘Towards a new international standard on indexing’ . The Indexer 17(2), 127–8. Towards a new international standard on indexing The Indexer 17 127 8 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. G. B. (1993) ‘Research in indexing: More needed?’ The Indexer 18(3), 147–51. Research in indexing: More needed? The Indexer 18 147 51 Google Scholar

Bakewell, K. et al. (2000) Indexing children’s books, ed. Michèle Clarke. Occasional Papers on Indexing No. 5. Sheffield, UK: Society of Indexers. Indexing children’s books Google Scholar

Banwell, L. and Coulson, G. (2004) ‘Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project’, Information Research 9(2). www.informationr.net/ir/9-2/paper167.html Google Scholar

Barnum, C. M., Henderson, E., Hood, A. and Jordan, R. (2004) ‘Index versus full-text search: A usability study of user preference and performance.’ Technical Communication 51(2), 185–206. Users and user study methodology: the JUBILEE project Technical Communication 51 185 206 Google Scholar

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Bell, H. K. (1996) ‘Whom should we aim to please?’ The Indexer 20(1), 3–5. Whom should we aim to please? The Indexer 20 3 5 Google Scholar

Berg, S. A., Hoffmann, K. and Dawson, D. (2010) ‘Not on the same page: undergraduates’ information retrieval in electronic and print books.’ Journal of Academic Librarianship 36(6), 518–25. Journal of Academic Librarianship 36 518 25 Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991a) ‘Index quality study, part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes’, pp. 15–51 in Indexing tradition and innovation. Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference of the American Society of Indexers. Wheat Ridge, Colo.: ASI. Index quality study, part I: Quantitative description of back-of-book indexes 15 51 Google Scholar

Bishop, A. P., Liddy, E. D. and Settel, B. (1991b) ‘Index quality study, part II: Publishers’ survey and qualitative assessment’, pp. 53–79 in Indexing tradition and innovation. Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference of the American Society of Indexers. Wheat Ridge, Colo.: ASI. Indexing tradition and innovation. Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference of the American Society of Indexers 53 79 Google Scholar

Bosschieter, P. (2006) ‘Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today.’ The Indexer 25(2), 86–8. Back-of-the-book indexing in the Netherlands today The Indexer 25 86 8 Google Scholar

Browne, G. and Jermey, J. (2007) The indexing companion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The indexing companion Google Scholar

Calvert, D. (1996) ‘Deconstructing indexing standards’. The Indexer 20(2), 74–7. Deconstructing indexing standards The Indexer 20 74 7 Google Scholar

Case, D. O. (2012) Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior, 3rd edn. Bingley, UK: Emerald. Looking for information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior Google Scholar

Cevolini, A. (2014) ‘Indexing as preadaptive advance: a socioevolutionary perspective’. The Indexer 32(2), 50–7. Indexing as preadaptive advance: a socioevolutionary perspective The Indexer 32 50 7 Google Scholar

Cleveland, D. B. and Cleveland, A. D. (1990) Introduction to indexing and abstracting. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited. Introduction to indexing and abstracting Google Scholar

Cooper, H. (1998) Synthesizing research: a guide for literature reviews, 2nd edn. Sage. Synthesizing research: a guide for literature reviews Google Scholar

Diodato, V. (1994) ‘User preferences for features in back of book indexes.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(7), 529–36. User preferences for features in back of book indexes Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45 529 36 Google Scholar

Diodato, V. and Gandt, G. (1991) ‘Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42(5), 341–50. Back of book indexes and the characteristics of author and nonauthor indexing: report of an exploratory study Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42 341 50 Google Scholar

Evans, R. T. (2002) ‘Usability test: Index vs. full-text search.’ Paper presented at Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, Ga., 10 January. Usability test: Index vs. full-text search Google Scholar

Fidel, R. (2008) ‘Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science.’ Library and Information Science Research, 30, 265–72. Are we there yet? Mixed methods research in library and information science Library and Information Science Research 265 72 Google Scholar

Flatoff, J. (2007) ‘Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users.’ Key Words 15(1), 19–30. Do children use indexes differently than adults? Summary of an informal survey of index users Key Words 15 19 30 Google Scholar

Gratch, B., Settel, B. and Atherton, P. (1978) ‘Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences.’ The Indexer 11(2), 14–23. Characteristics of book indexes for subject retrieval in the humanities and social sciences The Indexer 11 14 23 Google Scholar

Hanson, F. A. (2007) The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press. The trouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars Google Scholar

Harman, D. (2011) ‘Information retrieval evaluation’, in G. Marchionini (ed.), Synthesis lectures on information concepts, retrieval, and services. San Rafael, Calif.: Morgan & Claypool. Information retrieval evaluation Synthesis lectures on information concepts, retrieval, and services Google Scholar

Hert, C. A., Jacob, E. K. and Dawson, P. (2000) ‘A usability assessment of online indexing structures in the networked environment.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51(1), 971–88. A usability assessment of online indexing structures in the networked environment Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51 971 88 Google Scholar

Hjorland, B. (2011) ‘The importance of theories of knowledge: Indexing and information retrieval as an example.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62(1), 72–7. The importance of theories of knowledge: Indexing and information retrieval as an example Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62 72 7 Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008a) ‘Web 2.0 and users’ expectations of indexes.’ The Indexer 26(1), 18–24. The Indexer 26 18 24 Google Scholar

Johncocks, B. (2008b) ‘Indexing by numbers: Is there scope for metrics in index evaluation?’ The Indexer 26(4), 158–62. Indexing by numbers: Is there scope for metrics in index evaluation? The Indexer 26 158 62 Google Scholar

Kingsley, I. (2008) ‘The usability of academic library website indexes: an investigation.’ The Indexer 26(2), 71–8. The usability of academic library website indexes: an investigation The Indexer 26 71 8 Google Scholar

Kleinberg, I. (1993) ‘Making the case for professional indexers: Where is the proof?’ pp. 139–46 in Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Making the case for professional indexers: Where is the proof? Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May 139 46 Google Scholar

Knight, G. N. (1979) Indexing, the art of. London: Allen & Unwin. Indexing, the art of Google Scholar

Landes, C. (2009) ‘Testing usability: “Experience an index usability test” at the ASI Conference (Portland, 2009).’ The Indexer 27(4), 152–63. Testing usability: “Experience an index usability test” at the ASI Conference (Portland, 2009) The Indexer 27 152 63 Google Scholar

Liddy, E. D. and Jörgensen, C. L. (1993) ‘Reality check! Book index characteristics that facilitate information access’, pp. 125–38 in Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25 th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Reality check! Book index characteristics that facilitate information access Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25 th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May 125 38 Google Scholar

Liddy, E. D. and Jörgensen, C. L. (1996) ‘Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features.’ The Indexer 20(2), 64–8. Information access or information anxiety? An exploratory evaluation of book index features The Indexer 20 64 8 Google Scholar

Lipetz, B.-A. (1989) ‘The usefulness of indexes.’ The Indexer 16(3), 173–6. The usefulness of indexes The Indexer 16 173 6 Google Scholar

Markey, K. (2007) ‘Twenty-five years of end-user searching, part 2: Future research directions.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58(8), 1123–30. Twenty-five years of end-user searching, part 2: Future research directions Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58 1123 30 Google Scholar

Ménard, E. (2011) ‘Chicken or egg theory: Do we truly know how they search?’ The Indexer 29(4), 150–6. Chicken or egg theory: Do we truly know how they search? The Indexer 29 150 6 Google Scholar

Milstead, J. L. (1994) ‘Needs for research in indexing.’ Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(8), 577–82. Needs for research in indexing Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45 577 82 Google Scholar

Montuori, A. (2005) ‘Literature review as a creative inquiry: reframing scholarship as a creative process.’ Journal of Transformative Education 3(4), 374–93. Literature review as a creative inquiry: reframing scholarship as a creative process Journal of Transformative Education 3 374 93 Google Scholar

Morville, P. (2005) Ambient findability. Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly Media. Ambient findability Google Scholar

Mulvany, N. (1994) ‘Online help systems: A multimedia indexing opportunity’, In R. Fidel et al (eds), Challenges in indexing electronic text and images. Medford, N.J.: American Society for Information Science. Online help systems: A multimedia indexing opportunity Challenges in indexing electronic text and images Google Scholar

Mulvany, N. (2005) Indexing books, 2nd edn. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. Indexing books Google Scholar

Noorhidawati, A. and Gibb, F. (2008) ‘How students use e-books – reading or referring?’ Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science 13(2), 1–14. How students use e-books – reading or referring? Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science 13 1 14 Google Scholar

Olason, S. C. (2000) ‘Let’s get usable! Usability studies for indexes.’ The Indexer 22(2), 91–5. The Indexer 22 91 5 Google Scholar

Regazzi, J. J. (1980) ‘Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield’ The Indexer 12(1), 14–21. Evaluating indexing systems: a review after Cranfield The Indexer 12 14 21 Google Scholar

Ryan, C. N. and Henselmeier, S. (2000) ‘Usability testing at Macmillan USA.’ Key Words 8(6), 198–202. Usability testing at Macmillan USA Key Words 8 198 202 Google Scholar

Shuter, J. (1993) ‘Standards for indexes: where do they come from and what use are they?’ pp. 79–86 in Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May. Standards for indexes: where do they come from and what use are they? Proceedings from the American Society of Indexers 25th Annual Meeting, Alexandria, Va., 20–22 May 79 86 Google Scholar

Solomon, P. (2002) ‘Discovering information in context.’ Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 36, 229–64. Discovering information in context Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 229 64 Google Scholar

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Coe, Mary