Town Planning Review

The affordable housing conundrum: shifting policy approaches in Australia

Town Planning Review (2015), 86, (6), 651–676.

Abstract

This article is set within the framework of the statutory planning mechanisms used to provide affordable housing in Australia, with specific focus on the State of New South Wales (NSW) as a case study. Revealed is a picture of ongoing ‘policy insecurity’ and stagnation – frequent readjustment and change that discloses ambivalence by government in acting on the need for affordable housing. Evident also is a perceptible shift over time in the public policy response to affordable housing, across a spectrum of potential government intervention approaches.

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APA (AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION) (2006), Inclusionary Housing, PAS QuickNotes No.7, Chicago, https://www.planning.org/pas/quicknotes/pdf/QN7.pdf (accessed December 2014). Google Scholar

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BEER, A., KEARINS, B. and PIETERS, H. (2007), ‘Housing affordability and planning in Australia’, Housing Studies, 22, 11–24. Housing affordability and planning in Australia Housing Studies 22 11 24 Google Scholar

BERKHOUT, V. and HILL, M. (1992), ‘Urban consolidation and housing affordability: a case for government intervention’, Australian Planner, 30, 20–24. Urban consolidation and housing affordability: a case for government intervention Australian Planner 30 20 24 Google Scholar

BETTER PLANNING NETWORK (2013), ‘Media Release: Amendments Won’t Fix Bad Planning Bills’, Sydney, Better Planning Network. Google Scholar

BETTER PLANNING NETWORK (2014), ‘Media Release: NSW Government defies Upper House Call for Papers’, Sydney, Better Planning Network. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (2012), ‘The unearned increment: property and the capture of betterment value in Britain and France’, in G. Ingram and Yu-Hung Hong (eds), Value Capture and Land Policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. The unearned increment: property and the capture of betterment value in Britain and France Value Capture and Land Policies Google Scholar

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CAMPBELL, G. (1993), ‘The Better Cities Program: a catalyst for urban reform’, in Freestone, R. (ed.), Spirited Cities, Sydney Federation Press. The Better Cities Program: a catalyst for urban reform Spirited Cities Google Scholar

CICH (COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO THE COST OF HOUSING) (1978), Report, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service. Google Scholar

CITY WEST HOUSING PTY LTD (2014), 2013 Annual Report – Our Path, Our People, Our Future, Pyrmont, NSW, http://citywesthousing.com.au/about-us/annual-reports (accessed December 2014). Google Scholar

DANIELS, T., DANIELS, R. and LAPPING, M. (1986), ‘The Vermont land gains tax: experience with it provides a useful lesson in the design of modern land policy’, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 45, 441–55. The Vermont land gains tax: experience with it provides a useful lesson in the design of modern land policy American Journal of Economics and Sociology 45 441 55 Google Scholar

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DAVISON, G., LEGACY, C., LIU, E., HAN, H., PHIBBS, P., VAN DEN NOUWELANT, R., DARCY, M. and PIRACHA, A. (2013), Understanding and Addressing Community Opposition to Affordable Housing Development, AHURI Final Report No. 211, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Understanding and Addressing Community Opposition to Affordable Housing Development Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING (2010), Affordable Rental Housing SEPP Review, December 2010, Sydney, Department of Planning. Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND INFRASTRUCTURE (2011a), Amendments to State Environmental Planning Policy (Affordable Rental Housing) 2009, Fact Sheet, Sydney, http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/Portals/0/plansforaction/affordablehousing/AHSEPP%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20Overview%20200511.pdf (accessed August 2014). Google Scholar

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FACS (NSW DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY SERVICES) (2013), National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS), Sydney, http://www.housing.nsw.gov.au/Centre+For+Affordable+Housing/For+developers+of+affordable+housing/National+Rental+Affordability+Scheme+(NRAS)/ (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

FAHCSIA (DEPARTMENT OF FAMILIES, HOUSING, COMMUNITY SERVICES AND INDIGENOUS AFFAIRS) (2012), Housing Support: Social Housing Initiative, Canberra, http://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/housing-support/programs-services/social-housing-initiative (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

FENSHAM, P. and GLEESON, B. (2003), ‘Capturing value for urban management: a new agenda for betterment’, Urban Policy and Research, 21, 93–112. Capturing value for urban management: a new agenda for betterment Urban Policy and Research 21 93 112 Google Scholar

GURRAN, N., MILLIGAN, V., BAKER, D. and BUGG, L. (2007), International Practice in Planning for Affordable Housing: Lessons for Australia, AHURI Positioning Paper, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. International Practice in Planning for Affordable Housing: Lessons for Australia Google Scholar

GURRAN, N. (2008), ‘Affordable housing: a dilemma for metropolitan planning?’, Urban Policy and Research, 26, 101–10. Affordable housing: a dilemma for metropolitan planning? Urban Policy and Research 26 101 10 Google Scholar

HAGMAN, D. and MISCZYNSKI, D. (1978), Windfalls for Wipeouts: Land Value Capture and Compensation, Chicago, American Society of Planning Officials. Windfalls for Wipeouts: Land Value Capture and Compensation Google Scholar

HALL, J. and BERRY, M. (2007), Public Housing: Shifting Client Profiles and Public Housing Revenues, AHURI Final Report No.108, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Public Housing: Shifting Client Profiles and Public Housing Revenues Google Scholar

HAYLEN, A. (2014), House Prices, Ownership and Affordability: Trends in New South Wales, Briefing Paper No. 1/2014, Sydney, NSW Parliamentary Research Service. House Prices, Ownership and Affordability: Trends in New South Wales Google Scholar

HAZZARD, B. (2013), ‘Media Release: Labor’s Planning Vandalism’, Sydney, NSW Government. ‘Media Release: Labor’s Planning Vandalism’ Google Scholar

HEALEY, P., PURDUE, M. and ENNIS, F. (1995), Negotiating Development: Rationales and Practice for Development Obligations and Planning Gain, London, E and FN Spon. Negotiating Development: Rationales and Practice for Development Obligations and Planning Gain Google Scholar

HOGWOOD, B. and GUNN, L. (1986), Policy Analysis for the Real World, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Policy Analysis for the Real World Google Scholar

HOUSING MINISTERS CONFERENCE (2009), A Progress Report to the Council of Australian Governments from Commonwealth, State and Territory Housing Ministers, Melbourne, Victorian Government Department of Human Services. Google Scholar

HULSE, K., BURKE, T., RALSTON, L. and STONE, W. (2010), ‘The benefits and risks of home ownership for low-moderate income households’, (AHURI Final Report No. 154), Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. The benefits and risks of home ownership for low-moderate income households Google Scholar

HULSE, K., BURKE, T., RALSTON, L. and STONE. W. (2012), ‘The Australian private rental sector: changes and challenges’, (AHURI Positioning Paper No. 149), Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. The Australian private rental sector: changes and challenges Google Scholar

JACOBS, K., ATKINSON, R., SPINNEY, A., COLIC-PEISKER, V., BERRY, M. and DALTON, T. (2010), ‘What future for public housing? A critical analysis’, AHURI Research Paper, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. What future for public housing? A critical analysis AHURI Research Paper Google Scholar

JOHNSON, C. (2014), ‘Capital-value uplift and affordable housing’, Shelter NSW Update, Version 3, 21 January 2014, Sydney, Shelter NSW. Capital-value uplift and affordable housing Shelter NSW Update Google Scholar

LGSA (LOCAL GOVERNMENT and SHIRES ASSOCIATIONS OF NSW) (2011), Affordable Rental Housing SEPP Review, Sydney, LGSA, http://www.lgnsw.org.au/files/imce-uploads/35/submission-affordable-rental-housing-sepp-review-march2011.pdf (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

MALLACH, A. (2010), ‘The global reach of inclusionary housing’, in Calavita, N. and Mallach, A. (eds), Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. The global reach of inclusionary housing Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective Google Scholar

MTFAH (MINISTERIAL TASK FORCE ON AFFORDABLE HOUSING) (1998), Affordable Housing in New South Wales: The Need for Action, Sydney, Minister for Urban Affairs and Planning and Minister for Housing. Google Scholar

MONK, S. (2010), ‘England: affordable housing through the planning system: the role of section 106’, in Calavita, N. and Mallach, A. (eds), Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. England: affordable housing through the planning system: the role of section 106 Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective Google Scholar

MONK, S. and BURGESS, G. (2012), Capturing Planning Gain: The Transition from Section 106 to the Community Infrastructure Levy, (RICS Research Report June 2012), London, RICS. Capturing Planning Gain: The Transition from Section 106 to the Community Infrastructure Levy Google Scholar

MORRISON, N. and BURGESS, G. (2014), ‘Inclusionary housing policy in England: the impact of the downturn on the delivery of affordable housing through section 106’, Housing and the Built Environment, 29, 423–38. Inclusionary housing policy in England: the impact of the downturn on the delivery of affordable housing through section 106 Housing and the Built Environment 29 423 38 Google Scholar

NHS (NATIONAL HOUSING STRATEGY) (1991), ‘The affordability of Australian housing’, Issues Paper no.2, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

PARLIAMENT OF AUSTRALIA (2001), The Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, Canberra, Parliament of Australia, http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/Publications_Archive/archive/StateHouseAgree (accessed February 2014). Google Scholar

PCA (PROPERTY COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA) (1999), Affordable Housing and the Development Industry: Position Paper, Sydney, Property Council of Australia. Google Scholar

SCRGSP (STEERING COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE PROVISION) (2009), ‘Report on Government Services 2009, Part G’, Housing, Canberra, Productivity Commission. Google Scholar

SCRGSP (STEERING COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE PROVISION) (2014), ‘Report on Government Services 2014, vol. G’, Housing and Homelessness, Canberra, Productivity Commission. Google Scholar

SSCHAA (SENATE SELECT COMMITTEE ON HOUSING AFFORDABILITY IN AUSTRALIA) (2008), A Good House is Hard to Find: Housing Affordability in Australia, Canberra, Commonwealth of Australia. Google Scholar

TAUB, T. (1990), ‘The future of affordable housing: committee on housing and community development’, Urban Lawyer, 22, 659–92. The future of affordable housing: committee on housing and community development Urban Lawyer 22 659 92 Google Scholar

WALTERS, L. (2012), ‘Are property-related taxes effective value capture instruments?’, in G. Ingram and Yu-Hung Hong (eds), Value Capture and Land Policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Are property-related taxes effective value capture instruments? Value Capture and Land Policies Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, P. (2000), ‘Inclusionary zoning and affordable housing in Sydney’, Urban Policy and Research, 18, 291–310. Inclusionary zoning and affordable housing in Sydney Urban Policy and Research 18 291 310 Google Scholar

YATES, J. (2011), ‘Housing in Australia in the 2000s: on the agenda too late?’, in H. Gerard and J. Kearns (eds), The Australian Economy in the 2000s, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proceedings of a conference held in Sydney, 15–16 August 2011. Housing in Australia in the 2000s: on the agenda too late? The Australian Economy in the 2000s Google Scholar

YATES, J. and MILLIGAN, V. (2007), ‘Housing Affordability: A 21st Century Problem, Final Report 109’, (National Research Venture 3 Housing Affordability for Lower Income Australians (NRV3)), Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Housing Affordability: A 21st Century Problem, Final Report 109 Google Scholar

APA (AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION) (2006), Inclusionary Housing, PAS QuickNotes No.7, Chicago, https://www.planning.org/pas/quicknotes/pdf/QN7.pdf (accessed December 2014). Google Scholar

ALTERMAN, R. (2012) ‘Land use regulations and property values: the “windfalls capture” idea revisited’, in N. Brooks, K. Donaghy and G. Knapp (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Land use regulations and property values: the “windfalls capture” idea revisited The Oxford Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning Google Scholar

BEER, A., KEARINS, B. and PIETERS, H. (2007), ‘Housing affordability and planning in Australia’, Housing Studies, 22, 11–24. Housing affordability and planning in Australia Housing Studies 22 11 24 Google Scholar

BERKHOUT, V. and HILL, M. (1992), ‘Urban consolidation and housing affordability: a case for government intervention’, Australian Planner, 30, 20–24. Urban consolidation and housing affordability: a case for government intervention Australian Planner 30 20 24 Google Scholar

BETTER PLANNING NETWORK (2013), ‘Media Release: Amendments Won’t Fix Bad Planning Bills’, Sydney, Better Planning Network. Google Scholar

BETTER PLANNING NETWORK (2014), ‘Media Release: NSW Government defies Upper House Call for Papers’, Sydney, Better Planning Network. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (2012), ‘The unearned increment: property and the capture of betterment value in Britain and France’, in G. Ingram and Yu-Hung Hong (eds), Value Capture and Land Policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. The unearned increment: property and the capture of betterment value in Britain and France Value Capture and Land Policies Google Scholar

BURGESS, G, MONK, S. and WHITEHEAD, C. (2011), ‘Delivering local infrastructure and affordable housing through the planning system: the future of planning obligations through Section 106’, People, Place and Policy, 5, 1–11. Delivering local infrastructure and affordable housing through the planning system: the future of planning obligations through Section 106 People, Place and Policy 5 1 11 Google Scholar

BURGESS, G. and MONK, S. (2014), ‘Mechanisms to increase housing land supply in England and Wales’, London, RICS http://www.rics.org/uk/knowledge/research/researchreports/mechanisms-to-increase-housing-land-supply-in-england-and-wales/ (accessed December 2014). Google Scholar

CALAVITA, N. and MALLACH, A. (2010), ‘An international perspective on inclusionary housing’, in N. Calavita and A. Mallach (eds), Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. An international perspective on inclusionary housing Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, G. (1993), ‘The Better Cities Program: a catalyst for urban reform’, in Freestone, R. (ed.), Spirited Cities, Sydney Federation Press. The Better Cities Program: a catalyst for urban reform Spirited Cities Google Scholar

CICH (COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO THE COST OF HOUSING) (1978), Report, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service. Google Scholar

CITY WEST HOUSING PTY LTD (2014), 2013 Annual Report – Our Path, Our People, Our Future, Pyrmont, NSW, http://citywesthousing.com.au/about-us/annual-reports (accessed December 2014). Google Scholar

DANIELS, T., DANIELS, R. and LAPPING, M. (1986), ‘The Vermont land gains tax: experience with it provides a useful lesson in the design of modern land policy’, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 45, 441–55. The Vermont land gains tax: experience with it provides a useful lesson in the design of modern land policy American Journal of Economics and Sociology 45 441 55 Google Scholar

DAVIS, G., WANNA, J., WARURST, J. and WELLER, P. (1988), Public Policy in Australia, Sydney, Allen and Unwin. Public Policy in Australia Google Scholar

DAVISON, G., LEGACY, C., LIU, E., HAN, H., PHIBBS, P., VAN DEN NOUWELANT, R., DARCY, M. and PIRACHA, A. (2013), Understanding and Addressing Community Opposition to Affordable Housing Development, AHURI Final Report No. 211, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Understanding and Addressing Community Opposition to Affordable Housing Development Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING (2010), Affordable Rental Housing SEPP Review, December 2010, Sydney, Department of Planning. Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND INFRASTRUCTURE (2011a), Amendments to State Environmental Planning Policy (Affordable Rental Housing) 2009, Fact Sheet, Sydney, http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/Portals/0/plansforaction/affordablehousing/AHSEPP%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20Overview%20200511.pdf (accessed August 2014). Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND INFRASTRUCTURE (2011b), Affordable Housing Taskforce – Terms of Reference, Sydney, http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/Portals/0/StrategicPlanning/AffordableHousing/Terms_of_Reference.pdf (accessed August 2011). Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES (2014a), National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS) – NRAS Incentive (Indexation), Canberra, http://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/03_2014/nras_incentive_indexation_factsheet_0.pdf (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES (2014b), National Rental Affordability Scheme, Canberra, http://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/housing-support/programs-services/national-rentalaffordability-scheme (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES (2014c), National Rental Affordability Scheme Monthly Performance Report June 2013, Canberra, http://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/housingsupport/nras/NRAS_Performance_Report_June_2013.pdf (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

FACS (NSW DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY SERVICES) (2013), National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS), Sydney, http://www.housing.nsw.gov.au/Centre+For+Affordable+Housing/For+developers+of+affordable+housing/National+Rental+Affordability+Scheme+(NRAS)/ (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

FAHCSIA (DEPARTMENT OF FAMILIES, HOUSING, COMMUNITY SERVICES AND INDIGENOUS AFFAIRS) (2012), Housing Support: Social Housing Initiative, Canberra, http://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/housing-support/programs-services/social-housing-initiative (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

FENSHAM, P. and GLEESON, B. (2003), ‘Capturing value for urban management: a new agenda for betterment’, Urban Policy and Research, 21, 93–112. Capturing value for urban management: a new agenda for betterment Urban Policy and Research 21 93 112 Google Scholar

GURRAN, N., MILLIGAN, V., BAKER, D. and BUGG, L. (2007), International Practice in Planning for Affordable Housing: Lessons for Australia, AHURI Positioning Paper, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. International Practice in Planning for Affordable Housing: Lessons for Australia Google Scholar

GURRAN, N. (2008), ‘Affordable housing: a dilemma for metropolitan planning?’, Urban Policy and Research, 26, 101–10. Affordable housing: a dilemma for metropolitan planning? Urban Policy and Research 26 101 10 Google Scholar

HAGMAN, D. and MISCZYNSKI, D. (1978), Windfalls for Wipeouts: Land Value Capture and Compensation, Chicago, American Society of Planning Officials. Windfalls for Wipeouts: Land Value Capture and Compensation Google Scholar

HALL, J. and BERRY, M. (2007), Public Housing: Shifting Client Profiles and Public Housing Revenues, AHURI Final Report No.108, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Public Housing: Shifting Client Profiles and Public Housing Revenues Google Scholar

HAYLEN, A. (2014), House Prices, Ownership and Affordability: Trends in New South Wales, Briefing Paper No. 1/2014, Sydney, NSW Parliamentary Research Service. House Prices, Ownership and Affordability: Trends in New South Wales Google Scholar

HAZZARD, B. (2013), ‘Media Release: Labor’s Planning Vandalism’, Sydney, NSW Government. ‘Media Release: Labor’s Planning Vandalism’ Google Scholar

HEALEY, P., PURDUE, M. and ENNIS, F. (1995), Negotiating Development: Rationales and Practice for Development Obligations and Planning Gain, London, E and FN Spon. Negotiating Development: Rationales and Practice for Development Obligations and Planning Gain Google Scholar

HOGWOOD, B. and GUNN, L. (1986), Policy Analysis for the Real World, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Policy Analysis for the Real World Google Scholar

HOUSING MINISTERS CONFERENCE (2009), A Progress Report to the Council of Australian Governments from Commonwealth, State and Territory Housing Ministers, Melbourne, Victorian Government Department of Human Services. Google Scholar

HULSE, K., BURKE, T., RALSTON, L. and STONE, W. (2010), ‘The benefits and risks of home ownership for low-moderate income households’, (AHURI Final Report No. 154), Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. The benefits and risks of home ownership for low-moderate income households Google Scholar

HULSE, K., BURKE, T., RALSTON, L. and STONE. W. (2012), ‘The Australian private rental sector: changes and challenges’, (AHURI Positioning Paper No. 149), Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. The Australian private rental sector: changes and challenges Google Scholar

JACOBS, K., ATKINSON, R., SPINNEY, A., COLIC-PEISKER, V., BERRY, M. and DALTON, T. (2010), ‘What future for public housing? A critical analysis’, AHURI Research Paper, Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. What future for public housing? A critical analysis AHURI Research Paper Google Scholar

JOHNSON, C. (2014), ‘Capital-value uplift and affordable housing’, Shelter NSW Update, Version 3, 21 January 2014, Sydney, Shelter NSW. Capital-value uplift and affordable housing Shelter NSW Update Google Scholar

LGSA (LOCAL GOVERNMENT and SHIRES ASSOCIATIONS OF NSW) (2011), Affordable Rental Housing SEPP Review, Sydney, LGSA, http://www.lgnsw.org.au/files/imce-uploads/35/submission-affordable-rental-housing-sepp-review-march2011.pdf (accessed March 2014). Google Scholar

MALLACH, A. (2010), ‘The global reach of inclusionary housing’, in Calavita, N. and Mallach, A. (eds), Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. The global reach of inclusionary housing Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective Google Scholar

MTFAH (MINISTERIAL TASK FORCE ON AFFORDABLE HOUSING) (1998), Affordable Housing in New South Wales: The Need for Action, Sydney, Minister for Urban Affairs and Planning and Minister for Housing. Google Scholar

MONK, S. (2010), ‘England: affordable housing through the planning system: the role of section 106’, in Calavita, N. and Mallach, A. (eds), Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. England: affordable housing through the planning system: the role of section 106 Inclusionary Housing in International Perspective Google Scholar

MONK, S. and BURGESS, G. (2012), Capturing Planning Gain: The Transition from Section 106 to the Community Infrastructure Levy, (RICS Research Report June 2012), London, RICS. Capturing Planning Gain: The Transition from Section 106 to the Community Infrastructure Levy Google Scholar

MORRISON, N. and BURGESS, G. (2014), ‘Inclusionary housing policy in England: the impact of the downturn on the delivery of affordable housing through section 106’, Housing and the Built Environment, 29, 423–38. Inclusionary housing policy in England: the impact of the downturn on the delivery of affordable housing through section 106 Housing and the Built Environment 29 423 38 Google Scholar

NHS (NATIONAL HOUSING STRATEGY) (1991), ‘The affordability of Australian housing’, Issues Paper no.2, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

PARLIAMENT OF AUSTRALIA (2001), The Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, Canberra, Parliament of Australia, http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/Publications_Archive/archive/StateHouseAgree (accessed February 2014). Google Scholar

PCA (PROPERTY COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA) (1999), Affordable Housing and the Development Industry: Position Paper, Sydney, Property Council of Australia. Google Scholar

SCRGSP (STEERING COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE PROVISION) (2009), ‘Report on Government Services 2009, Part G’, Housing, Canberra, Productivity Commission. Google Scholar

SCRGSP (STEERING COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE PROVISION) (2014), ‘Report on Government Services 2014, vol. G’, Housing and Homelessness, Canberra, Productivity Commission. Google Scholar

SSCHAA (SENATE SELECT COMMITTEE ON HOUSING AFFORDABILITY IN AUSTRALIA) (2008), A Good House is Hard to Find: Housing Affordability in Australia, Canberra, Commonwealth of Australia. Google Scholar

TAUB, T. (1990), ‘The future of affordable housing: committee on housing and community development’, Urban Lawyer, 22, 659–92. The future of affordable housing: committee on housing and community development Urban Lawyer 22 659 92 Google Scholar

WALTERS, L. (2012), ‘Are property-related taxes effective value capture instruments?’, in G. Ingram and Yu-Hung Hong (eds), Value Capture and Land Policies, Cambridge, MA, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Are property-related taxes effective value capture instruments? Value Capture and Land Policies Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, P. (2000), ‘Inclusionary zoning and affordable housing in Sydney’, Urban Policy and Research, 18, 291–310. Inclusionary zoning and affordable housing in Sydney Urban Policy and Research 18 291 310 Google Scholar

YATES, J. (2011), ‘Housing in Australia in the 2000s: on the agenda too late?’, in H. Gerard and J. Kearns (eds), The Australian Economy in the 2000s, Reserve Bank of Australia, Proceedings of a conference held in Sydney, 15–16 August 2011. Housing in Australia in the 2000s: on the agenda too late? The Australian Economy in the 2000s Google Scholar

YATES, J. and MILLIGAN, V. (2007), ‘Housing Affordability: A 21st Century Problem, Final Report 109’, (National Research Venture 3 Housing Affordability for Lower Income Australians (NRV3)), Melbourne, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Housing Affordability: A 21st Century Problem, Final Report 109 Google Scholar

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Williams, Peter