Town Planning Review

Identifying and conceptualising context-specific barriers to transit-oriented development strategies: the case of the Netherlands

Town Planning Review (2014), 85, (5), 639–663.

Abstract

Transit-oriented development strategies (TODS) are widely embraced. However, their implementation remains challenging. Institutional barriers play a key role here, and the literature provides an overview of the most important ones and ways of overcoming them. Yet, application of such insights remains elusive, due to the context-specific nature of barriers. As a first and necessary step to cope with the implementation challenge of TODS, this paper proposes an approach to identify barriers within a given context. The approach is applied to a hypothesis-generating case, the Netherlands. The findings indicate a vicious cycle of mutually reinforcing formal and informal barriers hampering implementation. The approach could be useful for cities elsewhere that face similar implementation difficulties.

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JANSSEN-JANSEN, L. and SMIT, N. (2013), ‘Visie versus vraag: over de TOD-maakbaarheidsutopie’, in W. Tan, H. Koster and M. Hoogerbrugge (eds), Knooppuntontwikkeling in Nederland, Den Haag, Platform31, 43-54. Knooppuntontwikkeling in Nederland 31 Google Scholar

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JORRITSMA, P., BAKKER, P., BERVELING, J., DERRIKS, H., FRANCKE, J., GORDIJN, H., GROOT, W., HOEN, A., KANSEN, M., KORTEWEG, J. A., VAN DER LOOP, H., SAVELBERG, F. and WOUTERS, P. (2010), Mobiliteitsbalans 2010, 1-140, Den Haag, Minsterie van Verkeer en Waterstaat. Mobiliteitsbalans 2010 1 140 Google Scholar

KORTEWEG, J. A. (2007), Dutch Mobility Policy Document in a European Context, Den Haag: Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis (KiM). Dutch Mobility Policy Document in a European Context Google Scholar

LIJPHART, A. (1971), ‘Comparative politics and the comparative method’, American Political Science Review, 65, 682-93. ‘Comparative politics and the comparative method’ American Political Science Review 65 682 93 Google Scholar

MADANIPOUR, A. (2001), ‘How relevant is "planning by neighbourhoods" today?’, The Town Planning Review, 72, 171-91. ‘How relevant is "planning by neighbourhoods" today?’ The Town Planning Review 72 171 91 Google Scholar

MAJOOR, S. (2008), Disconnected Innovations: New Urbanity in Large-Scale Development Projects: Zuidas Amsterdam, Ørestad Copenhagen and Forum Barcelona, Delft, Eburon. Disconnected Innovations: New Urbanity in Large-Scale Development Projects: Zuidas Amsterdam, Ørestad Copenhagen and Forum Barcelona Google Scholar

MARSDEN, G. and STEAD, D. (2011), ‘Policy transfer and learning in the field of transport: a review of concepts and evidence’, Transport Policy, 18, 492-500. ‘Policy transfer and learning in the field of transport: a review of concepts and evidence’ Transport Policy 18 492 500 Google Scholar

MARSDEN, G., FRICK, K. T., MAY, A. D. and DEAKIN, E. (2011), ‘How do cities approach policy innovation and policy learning? A study of 30 policies in northern Europe and North America’, Transport Policy, 18, 501-12. ‘How do cities approach policy innovation and policy learning? A study of 30 policies in northern Europe and North America’ Transport Policy 18 501 12 Google Scholar

MAY, A. D. (2013), Urban transport and sustainability: the key challenges’, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 7, 170-85. Urban transport and sustainability: the key challenges’ International Journal of Sustainable Transportation 7 170 85 Google Scholar

NÆSS, P., STRAND, A., NÆSS, T. and NICOLAISEN, M. (2011), ‘On their road to sustainability?: the challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development in two Scandinavian capital regions’, Town Planning Review, 82, 285-316. ‘On their road to sustainability?: the challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development in two Scandinavian capital regions’ Town Planning Review 82 285 316 Google Scholar

NEEDHAM, B. (2005), ‘The new Dutch spatial planning act: continuity and change in the way in which the Dutch regulate the practice of spatial planning’, Planning Practice and Research, 20, 327-40. ‘The new Dutch spatial planning act: continuity and change in the way in which the Dutch regulate the practice of spatial planning’ Planning Practice and Research 20 327 40 Google Scholar

NORTH, D. C. (1991), ‘Institutions’, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5, 97-112. ‘Institutions’ The Journal of Economic Perspectives 5 97 112 Google Scholar

OECD (ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT) (2007), Randstad Holland, Netherlands, Paris, OECD. Google Scholar

OSTROM, E., SCHROEDER, L. and WYNNE, S. (1993), Institutional Incentives and Sustainable Development: Infrastructure Policies in Perspective, Boulder, CO, Westview Press. Institutional Incentives and Sustainable Development: Infrastructure Policies in Perspective Google Scholar

PAULLEY, N. and PEDLER, A. (2000), ‘TRANSLAND: Integration of Transport and Land Use Planning’, Transland Deliverable 4, London, Transport Research Laboratory. ‘TRANSLAND: Integration of Transport and Land Use Planning’ Google Scholar

PEEK, G. J. (2006), Locatiesynergie: Een Participatieve Start van de Herontwikkeling van Binnenstedelijke Stationslocaties, Delft, Eburon. Locatiesynergie: Een Participatieve Start van de Herontwikkeling van Binnenstedelijke Stationslocaties Google Scholar

PFLIEGER, G., KAUFMANN, V., PATTARONI, L. and JEMELIN, C. (2009), ‘How does urban public transport change cities? Correlations between past and present transport and urban planning policies’, Urban Studies, 46, 1421-37. ‘How does urban public transport change cities? Correlations between past and present transport and urban planning policies’ Urban Studies 46 1421 37 Google Scholar

PRESSMAN, J. L. and WILDAVSKY, A. (1974), Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington are Dashed in Oakland, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press. Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington are Dashed in Oakland Google Scholar

PROGRAMMABUREAU STEDENBAANPLUS (2010), Stedenbaan Monitor 2010, den Haag, Programmabureau StedenbaanPlus. Google Scholar

PROVINCIE NOORD-HOLLAND and GOUDAPPEL COFFENG (2010), Knooppunten Ontwikkelen: Denken in Corridors, 1-54, Haarlem, Provincie Noord-Holland and Goudappel Coffeng. Google Scholar

RENNE, J. (2008), ‘Smart growth and transit-oriented development at the state level: lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia’, Journal of Public Transportation, 11, 77-108. ‘Smart growth and transit-oriented development at the state level: lessons from California, New Jersey, and Western Australia’ Journal of Public Transportation 11 77 108 Google Scholar

RIETVELD, P. (2004), ‘Urban Transport Policies: The Dutch Struggle with Market Failures and Policy Failures’ (Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper No. 126), Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam. ‘Urban Transport Policies: The Dutch Struggle with Market Failures and Policy Failures’ Google Scholar

RIETVELD, P. and STOUGH, R. (2004), Barriers to Sustainable Transport: Institutions, Regulation and Sustainability, Oxford, Taylor & Francis. Barriers to Sustainable Transport: Institutions, Regulation and Sustainability Google Scholar

SCHWANEN, T., DIJST, M. and DIELEMAN, F. M. (2004), ‘Policies for urban form and their impact on travel: the Netherlands experience’, Urban Studies, 41, 579-603. ‘Policies for urban form and their impact on travel: the Netherlands experience’ Urban Studies 41 579 603 Google Scholar

STADSREGIO ARNHEM NIJMEGEN (2011), Knooppunten! Bereikbaarheid en Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling op Knooppunten van Openbaar Vervoer, Arnhem, Stadsregio Arnhem Nijmegen. Google Scholar

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Author details

Tan, Wendy

Bertolini, Luca

Janssen-Jansen, Leonie

Tan, Wendy

Bertolini, Luca

Janssen-Jansen, Leonie