Town Planning Review

Sectoral integration and meta-governance: lessons beyond the ‘spatial planning’ agenda in England

Town Planning Review (2014), 85, (5), 617–637.

Abstract

This paper examines how integration across policy sectors was achieved under the spatial planning agenda in England, focusing on the case of delivering growth in a subregion in the east of England. The findings highlight the importance of both ‘hands-on’ and ‘hands-off’ meta-governance - in other words, high-level steering by central government - in enhancing sectoral integration. This has significant implications for the ongoing debate on planning in England, where the language of spatial planning is no longer in fashion, but where the need for effective integration continues to exist.

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ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2007), ‘The fluid scales and scope of UK spatial planning’, Environment and Planning A, 39, 1478-96. ‘The fluid scales and scope of UK spatial planning’ Environment and Planning A 39 1478 96 Google Scholar

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BACHE, I. (2000), ‘Government within governance: network steering in Yorkshire and the Humber’, Public Administration, 78, 575-92. ‘Government within governance: network steering in Yorkshire and the Humber’ Public Administration 78 575 92 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

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BELL, S. and HINDMOOR, A. (2009), Rethinking Governance: The Centrality of the State in Modern Society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Rethinking Governance: The Centrality of the State in Modern Society Google Scholar

BROWNILL, S. and CARPENTER, J. (2009), ‘Governance and "integrated" planning: the case of sustainable communities in the Thames Gateway, England’, Urban Studies, 46, 251-74. ‘Governance and "integrated" planning: the case of sustainable communities in the Thames Gateway, England’ Urban Studies 46 251 74 Google Scholar

CAMBRIDGESHIRE HORIZONS (2011), Minutes of the Joint Strategic Growth Implementation Committee: February 2011, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire Horizons. Google Scholar

CHAPMAN, T. (2010), ‘Health and the urban planner’, Planning Theory & Practice, 11, 101-5. ‘Health and the urban planner’ Planning Theory & Practice 11 101 5 Google Scholar

CLG (COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2007), Programme of Development Guidance, London, Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D. and HAUGHTON, G. (2006), ‘Advancing together in Yorkshire and Humberside?’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation, London, Routledge, 106-23. Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation 106 23 Google Scholar

COWELL, R. and MARTIN, S. (2003), ‘The joy of joining up: modes of integrating the local government modernisation agenda’, Environment and Planning C, 21, 159-80. ‘The joy of joining up: modes of integrating the local government modernisation agenda’ Environment and Planning C 21 159 80 Google Scholar

DFT (DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT) (2007), Circular 02/07: Planning and the Strategic Road Network, London, Department for Transport. Google Scholar

EC (EUROPEAN COMMISSION) (1999), European Spatial Development Perspective, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Google Scholar

HARRIS, N. and HOOPER, A. (2004), ‘Rediscovering the "Spatial" in public policy and planning: an examination of the spatial content of sectoral policy documents’, Planning Theory & Practice, 5, 147-69. ‘Rediscovering the "Spatial" in public policy and planning: an examination of the spatial content of sectoral policy documents’ Planning Theory & Practice 5 147 69 Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G. and ALLMENDINGER, P. (2011), ‘Moving on - from spatial planning to localism and beyond’, Town & Country Planning, 80, 184-87. ‘Moving on - from spatial planning to localism and beyond’ Town & Country Planning 80 184 87 Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G., ALLMENDINGER, P., COUNSELL, D. and VIGAR, G. (2009), The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries, Abingdon, Routledge. The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006), ‘Territory, integration and spatial planning’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation, London, Routledge, 64-81. Territory Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation 64 81 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times Google Scholar

HEALEY, P., MCNAMARA, P., ELSON, M. and DOAK, A. (1988), Land Use Planning and the Mediation of Urban Change: The British Planning System in Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Land Use Planning and the Mediation of Urban Change: The British Planning System in Practice Google Scholar

HIGGINS, M. (2010), ‘Health inequalities and place’, Planning Theory & Practice, 11, 106-9. ‘Health inequalities and place’ Planning Theory & Practice 11 106 9 Google Scholar

INCH, A. (2012), ‘Deconstructing spatial planning: re-interpreting the articulation of a new ethos for English local planning’, European Planning Studies, 20, 1039-57. ‘Deconstructing spatial planning: re-interpreting the articulation of a new ethos for English local planning’ European Planning Studies 20 1039 57 Google Scholar

JESSOP, B. (1998), ‘The rise of governance and the risks of failure: the case of economic development’, International Social Science Journal, 50, 29-45. ‘The rise of governance and the risks of failure: the case of economic development’ International Social Science Journal 50 29 45 Google Scholar

KELLY, J. (2006), ‘Central regulation of English local authorities: an example of meta-governance?’, Public Administration, 84, 603-21. ‘Central regulation of English local authorities: an example of meta-governance?’ Public Administration 84 603 21 Google Scholar

KIDD, S. (2007), ‘Towards a framework of integration in spatial planning: an exploration from a health perspective’, Planning Theory & Practice, 8, 161-81. ‘Towards a framework of integration in spatial planning: an exploration from a health perspective’ Planning Theory & Practice 8 161 81 Google Scholar

KOOIMAN, J. (1993), ‘Social-political governance: introduction’, in J. Kooiman (ed.), Modern Governance: New Government-Society Interactions, London, Sage, 1-9. Modern Governance: New Government-Society Interactions 1 9 Google Scholar

KOOIMAN, J. and JENTOFT, S. (2009), ‘Meta-governance: values, norms and principles, and the making of hard choices’, Public Administration, 87, 818-36. ‘Meta-governance: values, norms and principles, and the making of hard choices’ Public Administration 87 818 36 Google Scholar

KUNZMANN, K. R. (2009), ‘Planning and new labour: a view from abroad’, Planning Practice and Research, 24, 139-44. ‘Planning and new labour: a view from abroad’ Planning Practice and Research 24 139 44 Google Scholar

MEULEMAN, L. (2008), Public Management and the Metagovernance of Hierarchies, Networks and Markets: The Feasibility of Designing and Managing Governance Style Combinations, Heidelberg, Springer. Public Management and the Metagovernance of Hierarchies, Networks and Markets: The Feasibility of Designing and Managing Governance Style Combinations Google Scholar

MEULEMAN, L. (2010), ‘The cultural dimension of metagovernance: why governance doctrines may fail’, Public Organization Review, 10, 49-70. ‘The cultural dimension of metagovernance: why governance doctrines may fail’ Public Organization Review 10 49 70 Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2009), ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’, Town Planning Review, 80, 393-414. ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’ Town Planning Review 80 393 414 Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2013), How Europe Shapes British Public Policy, Bristol, The Policy Press. How Europe Shapes British Public Policy Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2006), The Role and Scope of Spatial Planning: Literature Review - Spatial Plans in Practice: Supporting the Reform of Spatial Planning, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. The Role and Scope of Spatial Planning: Literature Review - Spatial Plans in Practice: Supporting the Reform of Spatial Planning Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007), ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’, Planning Practice and Research, 22, 43-62. ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’ Planning Practice and Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005), Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. and BAKER, M. (2004), ‘Sub-regional planning in England: neglected opportunity or unwanted complexity?’, Town Planning Review, 75, 265-86. ‘Sub-regional planning in England: neglected opportunity or unwanted complexity?’ Town Planning Review 75 265 86 Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2011), The Purpose of Planning: Creating Sustainable Towns and Cities, Bristol, Policy Press. The Purpose of Planning: Creating Sustainable Towns and Cities Google Scholar

SCDC (SOUTH CAMBRIDGESHIRE DISTRICT COUNCIL) (2006), Joint Position Statement Regarding Highway Implications of Development at Northstowe, Cambridge, South Cambridgeshire District Council. Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2007), ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice and Research, 22, 63-78. ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice and Research 22 63 78 Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. (2006), ‘Metagovernance: the changing role of politicians in processes of democratic governance’, The American Review of Public Administration, 36, 98-114. ‘Metagovernance: the changing role of politicians in processes of democratic governance’ The American Review of Public Administration 36 98 114 Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. and TORFING, J. (2009), ‘Making governance networks effective and democratic through metagovernance’, Public Administration, 87, 234-58. ‘Making governance networks effective and democratic through metagovernance’ Public Administration 87 234 58 Google Scholar

STEAD, D. and MEIJERS, E. (2009), ‘Spatial planning and policy integration: concepts, facilitators and inhibitors’, Planning Theory & Practice, 10, 317-32. ‘Spatial planning and policy integration: concepts, facilitators and inhibitors’ Planning Theory & Practice 10 317 32 Google Scholar

STEAD, D., GEERLINGS, H. and MEIJERS, E. (2004), Policy Integration in Practice: The Integration of Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making in Denmark, England and Germany, Delft, DUP Science. Policy Integration in Practice: The Integration of Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making in Denmark, England and Germany Google Scholar

STOKER, G. (2000), ‘Urban political science and the challenge of urban governance’, in J. Pierre (ed.), Debating Governance, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 91-110. Debating Governance 91 110 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2012), Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M., GALLENT, N. and MORPHET, J. (2010), ‘An anatomy of spatial planning: coming to terms with the spatial element in UK planning’, European Planning Studies, 18, 239-57. ‘An anatomy of spatial planning: coming to terms with the spatial element in UK planning’ European Planning Studies 18 239 57 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2009), ‘Towards an integrated spatial planning?’, European Planning Studies, 17, 1571-90. ‘Towards an integrated spatial planning?’ European Planning Studies 17 1571 90 Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, M. (2003), ‘"In the shadow of hierarchy": meta-governance, policy reform and urban regeneration in the West Midlands’, Area, 35, 6-14. ‘"In the shadow of hierarchy": meta-governance, policy reform and urban regeneration in the West Midlands’ Area 35 6 14 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2007), ‘The fluid scales and scope of UK spatial planning’, Environment and Planning A, 39, 1478-96. ‘The fluid scales and scope of UK spatial planning’ Environment and Planning A 39 1478 96 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2009), ‘Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries, and metagovernance: the new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway’, Environment and Planning A, 41, 617-33. ‘Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries, and metagovernance: the new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway’ Environment and Planning A 41 617 33 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2010a), ‘The future of spatial planning: why less may be more’, Town & Country Planning, 79, 322-24. ‘The future of spatial planning: why less may be more’ Town & Country Planning 79 322 24 Google Scholar

ALLMENDINGER, P. and HAUGHTON, G. (2010b), ‘Spatial planning, devolution, and new planning spaces’, Environment and Planning C, 28, 803-18. ‘Spatial planning, devolution, and new planning spaces’ Environment and Planning C 28 803 18 Google Scholar

BACHE, I. (2000), ‘Government within governance: network steering in Yorkshire and the Humber’, Public Administration, 78, 575-92. ‘Government within governance: network steering in Yorkshire and the Humber’ Public Administration 78 575 92 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BARTON, H. (2010), ‘Strengthening the roots of planning’, Planning Theory & Practice, 11, 95-101. ‘Strengthening the roots of planning’ Planning Theory & Practice 11 95 101 Google Scholar

BELL, S. and HINDMOOR, A. (2009), Rethinking Governance: The Centrality of the State in Modern Society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Rethinking Governance: The Centrality of the State in Modern Society Google Scholar

BROWNILL, S. and CARPENTER, J. (2009), ‘Governance and "integrated" planning: the case of sustainable communities in the Thames Gateway, England’, Urban Studies, 46, 251-74. ‘Governance and "integrated" planning: the case of sustainable communities in the Thames Gateway, England’ Urban Studies 46 251 74 Google Scholar

CAMBRIDGESHIRE HORIZONS (2011), Minutes of the Joint Strategic Growth Implementation Committee: February 2011, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire Horizons. Google Scholar

CHAPMAN, T. (2010), ‘Health and the urban planner’, Planning Theory & Practice, 11, 101-5. ‘Health and the urban planner’ Planning Theory & Practice 11 101 5 Google Scholar

CLG (COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2007), Programme of Development Guidance, London, Communities and Local Government. Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D. and HAUGHTON, G. (2006), ‘Advancing together in Yorkshire and Humberside?’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation, London, Routledge, 106-23. Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation 106 23 Google Scholar

COWELL, R. and MARTIN, S. (2003), ‘The joy of joining up: modes of integrating the local government modernisation agenda’, Environment and Planning C, 21, 159-80. ‘The joy of joining up: modes of integrating the local government modernisation agenda’ Environment and Planning C 21 159 80 Google Scholar

DFT (DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT) (2007), Circular 02/07: Planning and the Strategic Road Network, London, Department for Transport. Google Scholar

EC (EUROPEAN COMMISSION) (1999), European Spatial Development Perspective, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Google Scholar

HARRIS, N. and HOOPER, A. (2004), ‘Rediscovering the "Spatial" in public policy and planning: an examination of the spatial content of sectoral policy documents’, Planning Theory & Practice, 5, 147-69. ‘Rediscovering the "Spatial" in public policy and planning: an examination of the spatial content of sectoral policy documents’ Planning Theory & Practice 5 147 69 Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G. and ALLMENDINGER, P. (2011), ‘Moving on - from spatial planning to localism and beyond’, Town & Country Planning, 80, 184-87. ‘Moving on - from spatial planning to localism and beyond’ Town & Country Planning 80 184 87 Google Scholar

HAUGHTON, G., ALLMENDINGER, P., COUNSELL, D. and VIGAR, G. (2009), The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries, Abingdon, Routledge. The New Spatial Planning: Territorial Management with Soft Spaces and Fuzzy Boundaries Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2006), ‘Territory, integration and spatial planning’, in M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger (eds), Territory Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation, London, Routledge, 64-81. Territory Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation 64 81 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times Google Scholar

HEALEY, P., MCNAMARA, P., ELSON, M. and DOAK, A. (1988), Land Use Planning and the Mediation of Urban Change: The British Planning System in Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Land Use Planning and the Mediation of Urban Change: The British Planning System in Practice Google Scholar

HIGGINS, M. (2010), ‘Health inequalities and place’, Planning Theory & Practice, 11, 106-9. ‘Health inequalities and place’ Planning Theory & Practice 11 106 9 Google Scholar

INCH, A. (2012), ‘Deconstructing spatial planning: re-interpreting the articulation of a new ethos for English local planning’, European Planning Studies, 20, 1039-57. ‘Deconstructing spatial planning: re-interpreting the articulation of a new ethos for English local planning’ European Planning Studies 20 1039 57 Google Scholar

JESSOP, B. (1998), ‘The rise of governance and the risks of failure: the case of economic development’, International Social Science Journal, 50, 29-45. ‘The rise of governance and the risks of failure: the case of economic development’ International Social Science Journal 50 29 45 Google Scholar

KELLY, J. (2006), ‘Central regulation of English local authorities: an example of meta-governance?’, Public Administration, 84, 603-21. ‘Central regulation of English local authorities: an example of meta-governance?’ Public Administration 84 603 21 Google Scholar

KIDD, S. (2007), ‘Towards a framework of integration in spatial planning: an exploration from a health perspective’, Planning Theory & Practice, 8, 161-81. ‘Towards a framework of integration in spatial planning: an exploration from a health perspective’ Planning Theory & Practice 8 161 81 Google Scholar

KOOIMAN, J. (1993), ‘Social-political governance: introduction’, in J. Kooiman (ed.), Modern Governance: New Government-Society Interactions, London, Sage, 1-9. Modern Governance: New Government-Society Interactions 1 9 Google Scholar

KOOIMAN, J. and JENTOFT, S. (2009), ‘Meta-governance: values, norms and principles, and the making of hard choices’, Public Administration, 87, 818-36. ‘Meta-governance: values, norms and principles, and the making of hard choices’ Public Administration 87 818 36 Google Scholar

KUNZMANN, K. R. (2009), ‘Planning and new labour: a view from abroad’, Planning Practice and Research, 24, 139-44. ‘Planning and new labour: a view from abroad’ Planning Practice and Research 24 139 44 Google Scholar

MEULEMAN, L. (2008), Public Management and the Metagovernance of Hierarchies, Networks and Markets: The Feasibility of Designing and Managing Governance Style Combinations, Heidelberg, Springer. Public Management and the Metagovernance of Hierarchies, Networks and Markets: The Feasibility of Designing and Managing Governance Style Combinations Google Scholar

MEULEMAN, L. (2010), ‘The cultural dimension of metagovernance: why governance doctrines may fail’, Public Organization Review, 10, 49-70. ‘The cultural dimension of metagovernance: why governance doctrines may fail’ Public Organization Review 10 49 70 Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2009), ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’, Town Planning Review, 80, 393-414. ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’ Town Planning Review 80 393 414 Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2013), How Europe Shapes British Public Policy, Bristol, The Policy Press. How Europe Shapes British Public Policy Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2006), The Role and Scope of Spatial Planning: Literature Review - Spatial Plans in Practice: Supporting the Reform of Spatial Planning, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. The Role and Scope of Spatial Planning: Literature Review - Spatial Plans in Practice: Supporting the Reform of Spatial Planning Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007), ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’, Planning Practice and Research, 22, 43-62. ‘The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England’ Planning Practice and Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005), Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development, London, ODPM. Google Scholar

ROBERTS, P. and BAKER, M. (2004), ‘Sub-regional planning in England: neglected opportunity or unwanted complexity?’, Town Planning Review, 75, 265-86. ‘Sub-regional planning in England: neglected opportunity or unwanted complexity?’ Town Planning Review 75 265 86 Google Scholar

RYDIN, Y. (2011), The Purpose of Planning: Creating Sustainable Towns and Cities, Bristol, Policy Press. The Purpose of Planning: Creating Sustainable Towns and Cities Google Scholar

SCDC (SOUTH CAMBRIDGESHIRE DISTRICT COUNCIL) (2006), Joint Position Statement Regarding Highway Implications of Development at Northstowe, Cambridge, South Cambridgeshire District Council. Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2007), ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’, Planning Practice and Research, 22, 63-78. ‘The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England’ Planning Practice and Research 22 63 78 Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. (2006), ‘Metagovernance: the changing role of politicians in processes of democratic governance’, The American Review of Public Administration, 36, 98-114. ‘Metagovernance: the changing role of politicians in processes of democratic governance’ The American Review of Public Administration 36 98 114 Google Scholar

SØRENSEN, E. and TORFING, J. (2009), ‘Making governance networks effective and democratic through metagovernance’, Public Administration, 87, 234-58. ‘Making governance networks effective and democratic through metagovernance’ Public Administration 87 234 58 Google Scholar

STEAD, D. and MEIJERS, E. (2009), ‘Spatial planning and policy integration: concepts, facilitators and inhibitors’, Planning Theory & Practice, 10, 317-32. ‘Spatial planning and policy integration: concepts, facilitators and inhibitors’ Planning Theory & Practice 10 317 32 Google Scholar

STEAD, D., GEERLINGS, H. and MEIJERS, E. (2004), Policy Integration in Practice: The Integration of Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making in Denmark, England and Germany, Delft, DUP Science. Policy Integration in Practice: The Integration of Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making in Denmark, England and Germany Google Scholar

STOKER, G. (2000), ‘Urban political science and the challenge of urban governance’, in J. Pierre (ed.), Debating Governance, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 91-110. Debating Governance 91 110 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2012), Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Spatial Planning and Governance: Understanding UK Planning Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M., GALLENT, N. and MORPHET, J. (2010), ‘An anatomy of spatial planning: coming to terms with the spatial element in UK planning’, European Planning Studies, 18, 239-57. ‘An anatomy of spatial planning: coming to terms with the spatial element in UK planning’ European Planning Studies 18 239 57 Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2009), ‘Towards an integrated spatial planning?’, European Planning Studies, 17, 1571-90. ‘Towards an integrated spatial planning?’ European Planning Studies 17 1571 90 Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, M. (2003), ‘"In the shadow of hierarchy": meta-governance, policy reform and urban regeneration in the West Midlands’, Area, 35, 6-14. ‘"In the shadow of hierarchy": meta-governance, policy reform and urban regeneration in the West Midlands’ Area 35 6 14 Google Scholar

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Lau, Mandy