Labour History

Mt Lesueur as a ‘Space of Engagement’: A Rural-Urban, Cross-Class Conservation Campaign

Labour History (2010), 99, (1), 37–54.

Abstract

In 1989, the mining giant Conzinc Riotinto of Australia (CRA) announced its intention to establish a coal mine and a privately owned power station near Mt Lesueur in Western Australia (WA). Local farmers initiated a campaign against the proposal, with other residents, unions, environmental movement organisations, artists and scientists being crucial to strategy formation and implementation. Campaigners faced the reality that although the Mt Lesueur area had enormous conservation significance, it was not a pristine wilderness and was not well known, so its importance needed to be communicated to broader publics. Campaigners exploited chinks in the political opportunity structure by means of a collaborative campaign that relied on a carefully developed and well-coordinated campaigning network, with participants respecting others’ very disparate identities, contributions and strengths. Unusual features of the campaign included the involvement of the union movement in the form of Perth-based artworker activists, rather than construction workers or coal miners. Conzinc Riotinto of Australia withdrew its plans in 1990, and the WA government subsequently gazetted the Lesueur National Park in 1992. The campaign illustrates the point that in order to understand alliances against the owners of big capital we must stretch the definition of ‘worker’ and, crucially, pay careful attention to socio-spatial issues if we are to understand how cross-class, rural-urban alliances develop in working landscapes.

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Endnotes

2.N. Myers,R. Mittermeier,C. Mittermeier,G. da Fonseca, andJ. Kent, ‘Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities’, Nature, 2000, vol.403, pp.853-58. Google Scholar

4.K. Cox, ‘Spaces of dependence, spaces of engagement and the politics of scale, or: looking for local politics’, Political Geography, vol.17, no.1, 1998, pp.1-23. Google Scholar

6.Q. Beresford,H. Bekle,H. Phillips andJ. Mulcock, The Salinity Crisis: Landscapes, Communities and Politics,UWA Press,, 2001, p.43. Google Scholar

7.Beresfordet al., The Salinity Crisis, pp.68-69. Google Scholar

8.Jim andMargaret King interview, November2006.Judy Browne,Don andJoy Williams, andSara andMike Kenny interviews, allApril2006. Google Scholar

9.Beresfordet al., The Salinity Crisis, p.99. Google Scholar

11.W. Jenkins, ‘Scheming against the environment’, The West Australian, 12June1989. The Australian Academy of Science recommended the area be declared a national park as early as 1958. Google Scholar

12.‘Jurien on the brink of huge development’, Coastal Districts Gazette, 2November1988. Two and one-half million tonnes of coal were expected to be mined per annum from an estimated total supply of 450 million tonnes, and the power station would generate 600 megawatts. The ‘Hill River Project’ was a misnomer, named after a much less significant local feature, perhaps intended to give the impression the project was not at Mt Lesueur. Google Scholar

13.I. Howard andM. Beyer, ‘Comalco to buy Gladstone power station for $5000m’, Australian Financial Review, 14September1989. Google Scholar

14.‘WA Inc.’ involved the creation of new government-business enterprises, the rescue of various financial institutions, government share purchases in business enterprises, and a shift of power to extra-parliamentary organisations and particularly to business. Variants of WA Inc. were played out in other states although not quite so spectacularly as in WA, and in other countries, culminating in the worldwide 1987 stockmarket crash. SeeA. Peachment, ‘WA Inc: failure of the system or crime of the employee?’, inA. Peachment(ed.), Westminster Inc: A Survey of Three States in the 1980s,Federation Press,, 1995, pp.81-109;B. Oliver, Unity is Strength: A History of the Australian Labor Party and the Trades and Labor Council in Western Australia, 1899-1999,API Network,, 2003. Google Scholar

15.Beresfordet al., The Salinity Crisis, 2001, p.43. Google Scholar

16.G. Gallop, ‘Western Australia’, inB. Galligan(ed.), Australian State Politics,Longman Cheshire,, 1986, pp.74-97. Google Scholar

17.D. Black, ‘Liberals triumphant: the politics of development 1947-1980’, inC.T. Stannage(ed.), A New History of Western Australia,UWA Press,, 1981, pp.441-70. Google Scholar

18.D. Cahill andS. Beder, ‘Regulating the power shift: the state, capital and electricity privatisation in Australia, Journal of Australian Political Economy, vol.55, 2005, p.22. Google Scholar

19.For instance,J. Wainwright, ‘Coal-fired power station for Jurien’, The Sunday Times, 29January1989;J. McIlwraith, ‘WA Govt to consider private power station’, Australian Business, 8March1989. Google Scholar

20.There was also a separate, internal ALP committee, reporting to ALP State Executive;F. Harman, ‘Gas, coal and politics: making decisions about power stations’, IPA Backgrounder,Institute of Public Affairs,, 1992, p.3. Google Scholar

21.The Department of Resource Development (DRD), the Energy Policy and Planning Bureau (EPPB) and influential staff in SECWA (B. Nicholson, ‘Lesueur power looks doomed’, The West Australian, 23May1990. Google Scholar

22.‘Wilderness fight begins’, The Sunday Times, 14May1989. Google Scholar

23.CRA’s unitarism was to intensify from the early 1990s when a change to a conservative Liberal-National Party government in WA brought in individual contracts under WA’s industrial relations system. SeeB. Hearn Mackinnon, ‘CRA/Rio Tinto in the 1990s: a decade of deunionisation’, Labour History, no.97, 2009, pp.75-96; and Ellem’s extensive work on unionism in the Pilbara; for example,B. Ellem, ‘Contested communities: geo-histories of unionism’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol.21, no.4, 2008, pp.433-50. Google Scholar

24.E. Papadakis andS. Rainbow, ‘Labour and green politics: contrasting strategies for environmental reform’, inF. Castles,R. Gerritsen andJ. Vowles(eds), The Great Experiment: Labour Parties and Public Policy Transformation in Australia and New Zealand,University Press,, 1996, pp.116-27. Google Scholar

25.K. Frawley, ‘Evolving visions: environmental management and nature conservation in Australia’, inS. Dovers(ed.), Australian Environmental History: Essays and Cases,Oxford University Press,, 1994, p.71. Google Scholar

26.T. Doyle, Green Power: The Environment Movement in Australia,UNSW Press,, 2000, p.xxiii. Google Scholar

27.D. Della Porta andM. Diani, Social Movements: An Introduction,Blackwell,, 1999;D. Hutton andL. Connors, A History of the Australian Environment Movement,Cambridge University Press,, 1999, p.167;C. Rootes, ‘Environmental movements’, inD. Snow,S. Soule andH. Kriesi(eds), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements,Blackwell,, 2004, p.611. Google Scholar

28.Hutton andConnors, A History of the Australian Environment Movement, p.194. Google Scholar

30.Dames andMoore, The Hill River Project Environmental Review and Management Programme: Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Report prepared for Canning Resources and Hill River Power Development Co, May1990. Google Scholar

33.WithJim King as President andPat Plozza as Secretary. The activities of this group centred on newsletter production (five are on record, betweenJanuary1990and late1991), local campaigning and gaining signatures on a petition, and submissions to the Environmental Protection Authority. Google Scholar

36.Jim King was elected President. FOLA held 14 formal, minuted meetings betweenJune1989andApril1991. Google Scholar

38.Jim King was described as ‘a prime minister, he handed us out all our portfolios and we were not allowed to side-step’ and ‘the only person I know who has Hansard in his toilet’,Judy Browne interview. Google Scholar

39.Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Workers Union (CFMEU) president Bill Ethell had earlier claimed that the power station would ‘not go ahead’ if its purpose was ‘to change the pricing structure and work practices at Collie’ (B. Nicholson, ‘Power plan leak alarms unions’, The West Australian, 23August1989). The unions also reacted in more predictable ways; for example, threatening to ban construction and the import of equipment and materials (S. Menegola, ‘TLC to block power plant work’, The West Australian, 19January1990). Google Scholar

40.The Geraldton branch of The WA Wildflower Society had earlier organised its own meeting, which other groups attended (‘Opposition to power station grows’, Geraldton Gazette, 25July1989). Google Scholar

41.R. Markey andA. Tootell, The Professional and Industrial Representation of Visual Artists and Craftspersons,University of Wollongong, Report for Australia Council for the Arts, 1994. (This article’s author was the OPDU’s advocate in the WA Industrial Commission case for the award.) The OPDU used innovative strategies to organise this group, such as exhibitions in inner-city hotels and creation of an ‘artworker forum’, a regular meeting group which sought to identify issues on the ground and organise around them. (Note that the OPDU was later to become a casualty of building union amalgamation; it was absorbed into the CFMEU.) Google Scholar

43.ArtistsSarah McNamara,Michelle Elliott andPam Kleeman. Google Scholar

44.ArtistsGeoff Vivian andCathy Taylor. Google Scholar

47.R. McCracken, ‘Have we watched the final wedgetail fly the slopes of Mt Lesueur? … No!’, Artlink, vol.11no.4, 1990, p.43; see also Catalogue, Lesueur Art Award, 1990. Google Scholar

48.Dames andMoore, The Hill River Project Environmental Review and Management Programme/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, 1990. Google Scholar

49.See, for example,Tim Treadgold, ‘Australia cannot live by flowers alone’, The West Australian, 21March1989. Google Scholar

50.PrincipallyBrendan Nicholson inThe West AustralianandJanet Wainwright inThe Sunday Times, although other journalists reported on the campaign. Google Scholar

51.Perhaps unwisely, CRA’s environment manager allowed himself to be photographed with a rareBanksia tricuspisplant, with the image undercutting the message in the story about CRA’s environmental credentials. SeeN. Dowling, ‘Rare plants spark power struggle’, The Sunday Times, 24September1989. Google Scholar

53. The Sunday Times, 14May1989. Google Scholar

54.C. Manly, ‘World’s top greenie sounds alert to WA’, Sunday Times, 1April1990. Google Scholar

56.‘Group seeks Mt Lesueur mining ban’, The Geraldton Guardian, 1November1989. Google Scholar

58.G. Meffe, ‘The context of conservation biology’, Conservation Biology, vol.15, 2001, p.815. Google Scholar

59.T. Wallington,R. Hobbs andS. Moore, ‘Implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation: a review of the salient issues’, Ecology and Society, vol.10, no.1, 2005,http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/articles/1256.html. Google Scholar

60.D. Robertson andR. Hull, ‘Beyond biology: toward a more public ecology for conservation’, Conservation Biology, vol.15, no.4, 2001, pp.970-79. Google Scholar

61.D. Ludwig,M. Mangel andB. Haddad, ‘Ecology, conservation and public policy’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.32, 2001, pp.481-517, citingH. Rittel andM. Webber, ‘Dilemmas in a general theory of planning’, Policy Sciences, no.4, 1973, pp.155-69. Google Scholar

65.A. Burbidge,S. Hopper andS. van Leeuwen(eds), Nature Conservation, Landscape and Recreation values of the Lesueur Area, Bulletin 424,Environmental Protection Authority,, 1990. Google Scholar

66.Lesueur Forum letter to all members, 14February1992. Various employer bodies lobbied, unsuccessfully in the end, for the CRA coal leases to be excised from the proposed Park (Lesueur Forum letter to all MLAs and MLCs, c. February1991). Google Scholar

72.K. Cox, ‘Spaces of dependence’, p.2. Google Scholar

73.Ibid, pp.2-3. Google Scholar

74.H. Leitner,E. Shepherd andK. Sziarto, ‘The spatialities of contentious politics’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, vol.22, no.2, 2008, p.169. Google Scholar

75.SeeA. Herod,S. McGrath-Champ andA. Rainnie, ‘Foundations’, inS. McGrath-Champ,A. Herod andA. Rainnie(eds), Handbook of Employment and Society: Working Space,Edward Elgar,, 2010, pp.1-16. Google Scholar

76.Drawing on the debates, by no means settled, about the nature of geographical scale; see, for example,A. Herod andM. Wright, ‘Placing scale: an introduction’, inA. Herod andM. Wright(eds), Geographies of Power: Placing Scale,Basil Blackwell,, 2003, pp.1-14;S. Marston,J. Jones,J. and K. Woodward, ‘Human geography without scale’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 30, 2005, pp.416-32; andHerod,McGrath-Champ andRainnie, ‘Foundations’, pp.10-13. Google Scholar

78.R. Liepins, ‘Exploring rurality through “community” discourses, practices and spaces shaping Australian and New Zealand rural “communities”’, Journal of Rural Studies, vol.16, 2000, pp.325-41. Google Scholar

79.SeeB. Eisenhauer,R. Krannich andD. Blahna, ‘Attachment to special places on public lands: an analysis of activities, reasons for attachments, and community connections’, Society and Natural Resources, vol.13, 2000, pp.421-41, for a description of the phenomenon of ‘place attachment’. Google Scholar

80.As argued inT. Greider andL. Garkovich, ‘Landscapes: the social construction of nature and the environment’, Rural Sociology, vol.59, no.1, 1994, pp.1-24. Google Scholar

81.J. Carrier, ‘Introduction’, inJ. Carrier(ed.), Confronting Environments: Local Understanding in a Globalizing World,Rowman and Littlefield,, 1994, pp.1-30. Google Scholar

82.For an analysis of the art and working life movement, seeG. Hawkins, ‘Reading community arts policy: from Nimbin to the Gay Mardi Gras’, inV. Binns, Community and the Arts: History, Theory, Practice,Pluto Press,, 1998, pp.45-54. Google Scholar

85.K. Milton, ‘A changing sense of place: direct action and environmental protest in the UK’, inJ. Carrier(ed.), Confronting Environments: Local Understanding in a Globalizing World,Rowman and Littlefield,, 2004, pp.165-81. Google Scholar

91.See, for example,T. Marsden andR. Sonnino, ‘Rural development and the regional state: denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK’, Journal of Rural Studies, vol.24, no.4, 2008, pp.422-31. Google Scholar

92.Hopkins andHopper, ‘Mt Lesueur: Jurien jewel’. Google Scholar

93.Steve Hopper, quoted inT. Wiltshire, ‘An all-embracing approach to life on earth’, Uniview Magazine, Summer, 2006, p.8. Google Scholar

94.Della Porta andDiani, Social Movements: An Introduction, p.214. Google Scholar

97.R. Stoecker, ‘Community, movement, organization: the problem of identity convergence in collective action’, The Sociological Quarterly, vol.36, no.1, 1995, pp.111-30. Google Scholar

98.A. Haebich, ‘Clearing the wheat belt: erasing the indigenous presence in the southwest of Western Australia’, inA. Dirk Moses(ed.), Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History,Berghahn Books,, 2004, pp.267-89. Google Scholar

99.Beresfordet al., The Salinity Crisis, 2001, pp.30-31, citing Indigenous CALM employee Noel Nannup. Google Scholar

100.C. Cocklin,J. Dibden andJ. Mautner, ‘From market to multifunctionality? Land stewardship in Australia’, The Geographical Journal, vol.172, no.3, 2006, pp.197-205. Google Scholar

101.See, for example,M. Paolisso andR. Maloney, ‘Recognizing farmer environmentalism: nutrient runoff and toxic dinoflagellate blooms in the Chesapeake Bay Region’, Human Organization, vol.59, no.2, 2000, pp.209-21. Google Scholar

102.Hutton andConnors, A History of the Australian Environment Movement, pp.145-64. Google Scholar

2.N. Myers,R. Mittermeier,C. Mittermeier,G. da Fonseca, andJ. Kent, ‘Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities’, Nature, 2000, vol.403, pp.853-58. Google Scholar

4.K. Cox, ‘Spaces of dependence, spaces of engagement and the politics of scale, or: looking for local politics’, Political Geography, vol.17, no.1, 1998, pp.1-23. Google Scholar

6.Q. Beresford,H. Bekle,H. Phillips andJ. Mulcock, The Salinity Crisis: Landscapes, Communities and Politics,UWA Press,, 2001, p.43. Google Scholar

7.Beresfordet al., The Salinity Crisis, pp.68-69. Google Scholar

8.Jim andMargaret King interview, November2006.Judy Browne,Don andJoy Williams, andSara andMike Kenny interviews, allApril2006. Google Scholar

9.Beresfordet al., The Salinity Crisis, p.99. Google Scholar

11.W. Jenkins, ‘Scheming against the environment’, The West Australian, 12June1989. The Australian Academy of Science recommended the area be declared a national park as early as 1958. Google Scholar

12.‘Jurien on the brink of huge development’, Coastal Districts Gazette, 2November1988. Two and one-half million tonnes of coal were expected to be mined per annum from an estimated total supply of 450 million tonnes, and the power station would generate 600 megawatts. The ‘Hill River Project’ was a misnomer, named after a much less significant local feature, perhaps intended to give the impression the project was not at Mt Lesueur. Google Scholar

13.I. Howard andM. Beyer, ‘Comalco to buy Gladstone power station for $5000m’, Australian Financial Review, 14September1989. Google Scholar

14.‘WA Inc.’ involved the creation of new government-business enterprises, the rescue of various financial institutions, government share purchases in business enterprises, and a shift of power to extra-parliamentary organisations and particularly to business. Variants of WA Inc. were played out in other states although not quite so spectacularly as in WA, and in other countries, culminating in the worldwide 1987 stockmarket crash. SeeA. Peachment, ‘WA Inc: failure of the system or crime of the employee?’, inA. Peachment(ed.), Westminster Inc: A Survey of Three States in the 1980s,Federation Press,, 1995, pp.81-109;B. Oliver, Unity is Strength: A History of the Australian Labor Party and the Trades and Labor Council in Western Australia, 1899-1999,API Network,, 2003. Google Scholar

15.Beresfordet al., The Salinity Crisis, 2001, p.43. Google Scholar

16.G. Gallop, ‘Western Australia’, inB. Galligan(ed.), Australian State Politics,Longman Cheshire,, 1986, pp.74-97. Google Scholar

17.D. Black, ‘Liberals triumphant: the politics of development 1947-1980’, inC.T. Stannage(ed.), A New History of Western Australia,UWA Press,, 1981, pp.441-70. Google Scholar

18.D. Cahill andS. Beder, ‘Regulating the power shift: the state, capital and electricity privatisation in Australia, Journal of Australian Political Economy, vol.55, 2005, p.22. Google Scholar

19.For instance,J. Wainwright, ‘Coal-fired power station for Jurien’, The Sunday Times, 29January1989;J. McIlwraith, ‘WA Govt to consider private power station’, Australian Business, 8March1989. Google Scholar

20.There was also a separate, internal ALP committee, reporting to ALP State Executive;F. Harman, ‘Gas, coal and politics: making decisions about power stations’, IPA Backgrounder,Institute of Public Affairs,, 1992, p.3. Google Scholar

21.The Department of Resource Development (DRD), the Energy Policy and Planning Bureau (EPPB) and influential staff in SECWA (B. Nicholson, ‘Lesueur power looks doomed’, The West Australian, 23May1990. Google Scholar

22.‘Wilderness fight begins’, The Sunday Times, 14May1989. Google Scholar

23.CRA’s unitarism was to intensify from the early 1990s when a change to a conservative Liberal-National Party government in WA brought in individual contracts under WA’s industrial relations system. SeeB. Hearn Mackinnon, ‘CRA/Rio Tinto in the 1990s: a decade of deunionisation’, Labour History, no.97, 2009, pp.75-96; and Ellem’s extensive work on unionism in the Pilbara; for example,B. Ellem, ‘Contested communities: geo-histories of unionism’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol.21, no.4, 2008, pp.433-50. Google Scholar

24.E. Papadakis andS. Rainbow, ‘Labour and green politics: contrasting strategies for environmental reform’, inF. Castles,R. Gerritsen andJ. Vowles(eds), The Great Experiment: Labour Parties and Public Policy Transformation in Australia and New Zealand,University Press,, 1996, pp.116-27. Google Scholar

25.K. Frawley, ‘Evolving visions: environmental management and nature conservation in Australia’, inS. Dovers(ed.), Australian Environmental History: Essays and Cases,Oxford University Press,, 1994, p.71. Google Scholar

26.T. Doyle, Green Power: The Environment Movement in Australia,UNSW Press,, 2000, p.xxiii. Google Scholar

27.D. Della Porta andM. Diani, Social Movements: An Introduction,Blackwell,, 1999;D. Hutton andL. Connors, A History of the Australian Environment Movement,Cambridge University Press,, 1999, p.167;C. Rootes, ‘Environmental movements’, inD. Snow,S. Soule andH. Kriesi(eds), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements,Blackwell,, 2004, p.611. Google Scholar

28.Hutton andConnors, A History of the Australian Environment Movement, p.194. Google Scholar

30.Dames andMoore, The Hill River Project Environmental Review and Management Programme: Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Report prepared for Canning Resources and Hill River Power Development Co, May1990. Google Scholar

33.WithJim King as President andPat Plozza as Secretary. The activities of this group centred on newsletter production (five are on record, betweenJanuary1990and late1991), local campaigning and gaining signatures on a petition, and submissions to the Environmental Protection Authority. Google Scholar

36.Jim King was elected President. FOLA held 14 formal, minuted meetings betweenJune1989andApril1991. Google Scholar

38.Jim King was described as ‘a prime minister, he handed us out all our portfolios and we were not allowed to side-step’ and ‘the only person I know who has Hansard in his toilet’,Judy Browne interview. Google Scholar

39.Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Workers Union (CFMEU) president Bill Ethell had earlier claimed that the power station would ‘not go ahead’ if its purpose was ‘to change the pricing structure and work practices at Collie’ (B. Nicholson, ‘Power plan leak alarms unions’, The West Australian, 23August1989). The unions also reacted in more predictable ways; for example, threatening to ban construction and the import of equipment and materials (S. Menegola, ‘TLC to block power plant work’, The West Australian, 19January1990). Google Scholar

40.The Geraldton branch of The WA Wildflower Society had earlier organised its own meeting, which other groups attended (‘Opposition to power station grows’, Geraldton Gazette, 25July1989). Google Scholar

41.R. Markey andA. Tootell, The Professional and Industrial Representation of Visual Artists and Craftspersons,University of Wollongong, Report for Australia Council for the Arts, 1994. (This article’s author was the OPDU’s advocate in the WA Industrial Commission case for the award.) The OPDU used innovative strategies to organise this group, such as exhibitions in inner-city hotels and creation of an ‘artworker forum’, a regular meeting group which sought to identify issues on the ground and organise around them. (Note that the OPDU was later to become a casualty of building union amalgamation; it was absorbed into the CFMEU.) Google Scholar

43.ArtistsSarah McNamara,Michelle Elliott andPam Kleeman. Google Scholar

44.ArtistsGeoff Vivian andCathy Taylor. Google Scholar

47.R. McCracken, ‘Have we watched the final wedgetail fly the slopes of Mt Lesueur? … No!’, Artlink, vol.11no.4, 1990, p.43; see also Catalogue, Lesueur Art Award, 1990. Google Scholar

48.Dames andMoore, The Hill River Project Environmental Review and Management Programme/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, 1990. Google Scholar

49.See, for example,Tim Treadgold, ‘Australia cannot live by flowers alone’, The West Australian, 21March1989. Google Scholar

50.PrincipallyBrendan Nicholson inThe West AustralianandJanet Wainwright inThe Sunday Times, although other journalists reported on the campaign. Google Scholar

51.Perhaps unwisely, CRA’s environment manager allowed himself to be photographed with a rareBanksia tricuspisplant, with the image undercutting the message in the story about CRA’s environmental credentials. SeeN. Dowling, ‘Rare plants spark power struggle’, The Sunday Times, 24September1989. Google Scholar

53. The Sunday Times, 14May1989. Google Scholar

54.C. Manly, ‘World’s top greenie sounds alert to WA’, Sunday Times, 1April1990. Google Scholar

56.‘Group seeks Mt Lesueur mining ban’, The Geraldton Guardian, 1November1989. Google Scholar

58.G. Meffe, ‘The context of conservation biology’, Conservation Biology, vol.15, 2001, p.815. Google Scholar

59.T. Wallington,R. Hobbs andS. Moore, ‘Implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation: a review of the salient issues’, Ecology and Society, vol.10, no.1, 2005,http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/articles/1256.html. Google Scholar

60.D. Robertson andR. Hull, ‘Beyond biology: toward a more public ecology for conservation’, Conservation Biology, vol.15, no.4, 2001, pp.970-79. Google Scholar

61.D. Ludwig,M. Mangel andB. Haddad, ‘Ecology, conservation and public policy’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.32, 2001, pp.481-517, citingH. Rittel andM. Webber, ‘Dilemmas in a general theory of planning’, Policy Sciences, no.4, 1973, pp.155-69. Google Scholar

65.A. Burbidge,S. Hopper andS. van Leeuwen(eds), Nature Conservation, Landscape and Recreation values of the Lesueur Area, Bulletin 424,Environmental Protection Authority,, 1990. Google Scholar

66.Lesueur Forum letter to all members, 14February1992. Various employer bodies lobbied, unsuccessfully in the end, for the CRA coal leases to be excised from the proposed Park (Lesueur Forum letter to all MLAs and MLCs, c. February1991). Google Scholar

72.K. Cox, ‘Spaces of dependence’, p.2. Google Scholar

73.Ibid, pp.2-3. Google Scholar

74.H. Leitner,E. Shepherd andK. Sziarto, ‘The spatialities of contentious politics’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, vol.22, no.2, 2008, p.169. Google Scholar

75.SeeA. Herod,S. McGrath-Champ andA. Rainnie, ‘Foundations’, inS. McGrath-Champ,A. Herod andA. Rainnie(eds), Handbook of Employment and Society: Working Space,Edward Elgar,, 2010, pp.1-16. Google Scholar

76.Drawing on the debates, by no means settled, about the nature of geographical scale; see, for example,A. Herod andM. Wright, ‘Placing scale: an introduction’, inA. Herod andM. Wright(eds), Geographies of Power: Placing Scale,Basil Blackwell,, 2003, pp.1-14;S. Marston,J. Jones,J. and K. Woodward, ‘Human geography without scale’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 30, 2005, pp.416-32; andHerod,McGrath-Champ andRainnie, ‘Foundations’, pp.10-13. Google Scholar

78.R. Liepins, ‘Exploring rurality through “community” discourses, practices and spaces shaping Australian and New Zealand rural “communities”’, Journal of Rural Studies, vol.16, 2000, pp.325-41. Google Scholar

79.SeeB. Eisenhauer,R. Krannich andD. Blahna, ‘Attachment to special places on public lands: an analysis of activities, reasons for attachments, and community connections’, Society and Natural Resources, vol.13, 2000, pp.421-41, for a description of the phenomenon of ‘place attachment’. Google Scholar

80.As argued inT. Greider andL. Garkovich, ‘Landscapes: the social construction of nature and the environment’, Rural Sociology, vol.59, no.1, 1994, pp.1-24. Google Scholar

81.J. Carrier, ‘Introduction’, inJ. Carrier(ed.), Confronting Environments: Local Understanding in a Globalizing World,Rowman and Littlefield,, 1994, pp.1-30. Google Scholar

82.For an analysis of the art and working life movement, seeG. Hawkins, ‘Reading community arts policy: from Nimbin to the Gay Mardi Gras’, inV. Binns, Community and the Arts: History, Theory, Practice,Pluto Press,, 1998, pp.45-54. Google Scholar

85.K. Milton, ‘A changing sense of place: direct action and environmental protest in the UK’, inJ. Carrier(ed.), Confronting Environments: Local Understanding in a Globalizing World,Rowman and Littlefield,, 2004, pp.165-81. Google Scholar

91.See, for example,T. Marsden andR. Sonnino, ‘Rural development and the regional state: denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK’, Journal of Rural Studies, vol.24, no.4, 2008, pp.422-31. Google Scholar

92.Hopkins andHopper, ‘Mt Lesueur: Jurien jewel’. Google Scholar

93.Steve Hopper, quoted inT. Wiltshire, ‘An all-embracing approach to life on earth’, Uniview Magazine, Summer, 2006, p.8. Google Scholar

94.Della Porta andDiani, Social Movements: An Introduction, p.214. Google Scholar

97.R. Stoecker, ‘Community, movement, organization: the problem of identity convergence in collective action’, The Sociological Quarterly, vol.36, no.1, 1995, pp.111-30. Google Scholar

98.A. Haebich, ‘Clearing the wheat belt: erasing the indigenous presence in the southwest of Western Australia’, inA. Dirk Moses(ed.), Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History,Berghahn Books,, 2004, pp.267-89. Google Scholar

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Bailey, Janis