Town Planning Review

Rethinking planning culture: a new institutionalist approach

Town Planning Review (2013), 84, (6), 683–702.

Abstract

Scholars of planning have long grappled with the dilemma of how to explain variation among places' traditions, modes or styles of planning practice and the legal and institutional frameworks that govern spatial development and implement planning policies. In a related effort, historians have explored the international diffusion of planning ideas and practices, the study of which has gained contemporary relevance in the context of European integration and globalisation. At the core of these enterprises is an attempt to understand change - to specify how and why planning practices are changing and why distinct patterns of planning practice have evolved in different places and at different times. Recent work has embraced the concept of ‘planning culture’ as the basis for explanation, yet this work has lacked focus. This article argues that historical institutionalism as developed in the social sciences provides a more precise explanatory framework for comparative planning research.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C. (2000), ‘The capital of good planning: metropolitan Portland since 1970’, in R. Fishman (ed.), The American Planning Tradition: Culture and Policy, Washington, DC, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 241-62. The American Planning Tradition: Culture and Policy 241 62 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C. and ABBOTT, M. P. (1991), Historical Development of the Metropolitan Service District, Portland, OR, Metropolitan Service District. Historical Development of the Metropolitan Service District Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C. and HOWE, D. A. (1993), ‘The politics of land use law in Oregon: senate bill 100 twenty years after’, Oregon Historical Quarterly, 94, 5-39. ‘The politics of land use law in Oregon: senate bill 100 twenty years after’ Oregon Historical Quarterly 94 5 39 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C., HOWE, D. A. and ADLER, S. (eds) (1994), Planning the Oregon Way: A Twenty-Year Evaluation, Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University Press. Planning the Oregon Way: A Twenty-Year Evaluation Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L., ALDEN, J. and DE ROSA PIRES, A. (eds) (2001), The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate. The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E. R. (1992), ‘A transaction cost theory of planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 58, 190-200. ‘A transaction cost theory of planning’ Journal of the American Planning Association 58 190 200 Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E. R. (2005), ‘Institutional transformation and planning: from institutionalization theory to institutional design’, Planning Theory, 4, 209-23. ‘Institutional transformation and planning: from institutionalization theory to institutional design’ Planning Theory 4 209 23 Google Scholar

ALMOND, G. A. and POWELL, G. B. (1966), Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach, The Little, Brown Series in Comparative Politics. An Analytic Study, Boston, MA, Little, Brown, & Company. Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach, The Little, Brown Series in Comparative Politics. An Analytic Study Google Scholar

ALMOND, G. A. and VERBA, S. (1963), The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations, Boston, MA, Little, Brown, & Company. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations Google Scholar

AMABLE, B. (2000), ‘Institutional complementarity and diversity of social systems of innovation and production’, Review of International Political Economy, 7, 645-87. ‘Institutional complementarity and diversity of social systems of innovation and production’ Review of International Political Economy 7 645 87 Google Scholar

ARTIBISE, A., CAMERON, K. and SEELIG, J. (2004), ‘Metropolitan organization in greater Vancouver: "do it yourself " regional government’, in D. Phares (eds), Metropolitan Governance without Metropolitan Government?, Aldershot, Ashgate, 195-211 Metropolitan Governance without Metropolitan Government? 195 211 Google Scholar

BEAUREGARD, R. A. (2005), ‘Introduction: institutional transformations’, Planning Theory, 4, 203-7. ‘Introduction: institutional transformations’ Planning Theory 4 203 7 Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (1993), ‘The cultural dimension in comparative research: making sense of development control in France’, European Planning Studies, 1, 217-29. ‘The cultural dimension in comparative research: making sense of development control in France’ European Planning Studies 1 217 29 Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (2011), ‘Culture, planning and path dependence: some reflections on the problems of comparison’, Town Planning Review, 82, 13-28. ‘Culture, planning and path dependence: some reflections on the problems of comparison’ Town Planning Review 82 13 28 Google Scholar

BOOTH, P., BREUILLARD, M., FRASER, C. and PARIS, D. (eds) (2007), Spatial Planning Systems of Britain and France, London, Routledge. Spatial Planning Systems of Britain and France Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, A., CONVERSE, P., MILLER, W. and STOKES, D. (1960), The American Voter, New York, NY, Wiley/University of Michigan Survey Research Center. The American Voter Google Scholar

CHADWICK, N. (2002), Regional Planning in British Columbia: 50 Years of Vision, Process and Practice, Vancouver, School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia. Regional Planning in British Columbia: 50 Years of Vision, Process and Practice Google Scholar

CLEMENS, E. S. (2006), ‘Lineages of the Rube Goldberg state: building and blurring public programs, 1900-1940’, in I. Shapiro, S. Skowronek and D. Galvin (eds), Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State, New York, NY, New York University Press, 380-443. Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State 380 443 Google Scholar

COASE, R. H. (1998), ‘The new institutional economics’, American Economic Review, 88, 72-74. ‘The new institutional economics’ American Economic Review 88 72 74 Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1987), Urban and Regional Planning in Canada, Oxford, Transaction Press. Urban and Regional Planning in Canada Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1993), The Political Culture of Planning: American Land Use Planning in Comparative Perspective, New York, NY, Routledge. The Political Culture of Planning: American Land Use Planning in Comparative Perspective Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1994), ‘Alternate planning systems: is there anything to learn from abroad?’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 60, 162-72. ‘Alternate planning systems: is there anything to learn from abroad?’ Journal of the American Planning Association 60 162 72 Google Scholar

DAHL, R. (1961), Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City Google Scholar

DENG, F., GORDON, P. and RICHARDSON, H. W. (2007), ‘Private communities, market institutions, and planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and Planning, Oxford, Elsevier, 187-205. Institutions and Planning 187 205 Google Scholar

EDWARDS, M. (2000), ‘Sacred cow or sacrificial lamb? Will London's Green Belt have to go?’, City, 4, 106-12. ‘Sacred cow or sacrificial lamb? Will London's Green Belt have to go?’ City 4 106 12 Google Scholar

ELSON, M. (1986), Green Belts: Conflict Mediation in the Urban Fringe, London, Heinemann. Green Belts: Conflict Mediation in the Urban Fringe Google Scholar

ESPING-ANDERSEN, G. (1990), The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Cambridge, MA, Polity Press. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism Google Scholar

FALUDI, A. (2004), ‘Spatial planning traditions in Europe: their role in the ESDP process’, International Planning Studies, 9, 155-72. ‘Spatial planning traditions in Europe: their role in the ESDP process’ International Planning Studies 9 155 72 Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1967), ‘The institutional context’, in B. M. Gross (ed.), Action under Planning: The Guidance of Economic Development, New York, NY, McGraw Hill, 31-67. Action under Planning: The Guidance of Economic Development 31 67 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1973), Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning, Garden City, NY, Anchor Press/Doubleday. Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1987), Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2005a), ‘Globalization and the emerging culture of planning’, Progress in Planning, 64, 183-234. ‘Globalization and the emerging culture of planning’ Progress in Planning 64 183 234 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2005b), ‘Planning cultures in transition’, in B. Sanyal (ed.), Comparative Planning Cultures, New York, NY, Routledge, 29-44. Comparative Planning Cultures 29 44 Google Scholar

GILMAN, N. (2007), Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America, Baltimore, NJ, Johns Hopkins University Press. Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America Google Scholar

GURRAN, N. (2011), Australian Urban Land Use Planning: Principles, Systems and Practice (2nd edn), Sydney, Sydney University Press. Australian Urban Land Use Planning: Principles, Systems and Practice Google Scholar

HAAS, P. M. (1992), ‘Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination’, International Organization, 46, 1-35. ‘Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination’ International Organization 46 1 35 Google Scholar

HACKER, J. (2004), ‘Privatizing risk without privatizing the welfare state: the hidden politics of social policy retrenchment in the United States’, American Political Science Review, 98, 243-60. ‘Privatizing risk without privatizing the welfare state: the hidden politics of social policy retrenchment in the United States’ American Political Science Review 98 243 60 Google Scholar

HALL, P. G. (2002), Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in Twentieth Century (3rd edn), Oxford, Blackwell. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in Twentieth Century Google Scholar

HALL, P. V. and SOSKICE, D. (eds) (2001), Varieties of Capitalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Varieties of Capitalism Google Scholar

HALL, P. V. and TAYLOR, R. (1996), ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’, Political Studies, 44, 936-57. ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’ Political Studies 44 936 57 Google Scholar

HANNA, K. S. and WEBBER, S. M. (2010), ‘Incremental planning and land-use conflict in the Toronto region's Oak Ridges Moraine’, Local Environment, 15, 169-83. ‘Incremental planning and land-use conflict in the Toronto region's Oak Ridges Moraine’ Local Environment 15 169 83 Google Scholar

HAY, C. (2008), ‘Constructivist institutionalism’, in R. A. W. Rhodes, S. A. Binder and B. A. Rockman (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 56-74. The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions 56 74 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Vancouver, UBC Press. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2010), ‘Introduction: the transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field’, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, London, Routledge, 1-26. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices 1 26 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and UPTON, R. (2010), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, Rtpi Library Series, London, Routledge. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, Rtpi Library Series Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and WILLIAMS, R. (1993), ‘European urban planning systems: diversity and convergence’, Urban Studies, 30, 701-20. ‘European urban planning systems: diversity and convergence’ Urban Studies 30 701 20 Google Scholar

HOME, R. K. (1997), Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities (1st edn), Studies in History, Planning, and the Environment, London, Spon. Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities (1st edn), Studies in History, Planning, and the Environment Google Scholar

KELLER, D. A., KOCH, M. and SELLE, K. (1996), ‘"Either/or" and "and": first impressions of a journey into the planning cultures of four countries’, Planning Perspectives, 11, 41-54. ‘"Either/or" and "and": first impressions of a journey into the planning cultures of four countries’ Planning Perspectives 11 41 54 Google Scholar

KEOHANE, R. and MILNER, H. (eds) (1996), Internationalization and Domestic Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Internationalization and Domestic Politics Google Scholar

KITSCHELT, H. (1999), Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism Google Scholar

KNIELING, J. and OTHENGRAFEN, F. (eds) (2009), Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate. Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning Google Scholar

KRASNER, S. (1984), ‘Review article: approaches to the state: alternative conceptions and historical dynamics’, Comparative Politics, 16, 223-46. ‘Review article: approaches to the state: alternative conceptions and historical dynamics’ Comparative Politics 16 223 46 Google Scholar

LARSSON, G. (2006), Spatial Planning Systems in Western Europe: An Overview, Amsterdam, IOS Press. Spatial Planning Systems in Western Europe: An Overview Google Scholar

LOGAN, T. H. (1976), ‘The Americanization of German zoning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 42, 377-85. ‘The Americanization of German zoning’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 42 377 85 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MAHONEY, J. and THELEN, K. (eds) (2010b), Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power Google Scholar

MARCH, J. G. and OLSEN, J. P. (1984), ‘The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life’, American Political Science Review, 78, 734-49. ‘The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life’ American Political Science Review 78 734 49 Google Scholar

MARSH, D. and RHODES, R. A. W. (eds) (1992), Policy Networks in British Government, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Policy Networks in British Government Google Scholar

MASSER, I. (1984), ‘Cross national comparative planning studies: a review’, Town Planning Review, 55, 137-49. ‘Cross national comparative planning studies: a review’ Town Planning Review 55 137 49 Google Scholar

MASSER, I. and WILLIAMS, R. H. (1986), Learning from Other Countries: The Cross-National Dimension in Urban Policy-Making, Norwich, Geo Books. Learning from Other Countries: The Cross-National Dimension in Urban Policy-Making Google Scholar

MOORE, P. W. (1979), ‘Zoning and planning: the Toronto experience, 1904-1970’, in A. F. J. Artibise and G. A. Stelter (eds), The Usable Urban Past: Planning and Politics in the Modern Canadian City, Toronto, Macmillan, 316-41. The Usable Urban Past: Planning and Politics in the Modern Canadian City 316 41 Google Scholar

NASR, J. and VOLAIT, M. (eds) (2003), Urbanism Imported or Exported? Native Aspirations and Foreign Plans, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. Urbanism Imported or Exported? Native Aspirations and Foreign Plans Google Scholar

NELSON, R. H. (1980), Zoning and Property Rights: An Analysis of the American System of Land Use Regulation, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Zoning and Property Rights: An Analysis of the American System of Land Use Regulation Google Scholar

NEWMAN, P. and THORNLEY, A. (1996), Urban Planning in Europe: International Competition, National Systems, and Planning Projects, London, Routledge. Urban Planning in Europe: International Competition, National Systems, and Planning Projects Google Scholar

NORDLINGER, E. A. (1988), ‘The return to the state: critiques’, American Political Science Review, 82, 875-901. ‘The return to the state: critiques’ American Political Science Review 82 875 901 Google Scholar

NORTH, D. C. (1990), Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, New York, NY, Cambridge. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance Google Scholar

OBERLANDER, H. P. and SMITH, P. J. (1993), ‘Governing metropolitan Vancouver: regional intergovernmental relations in British Columbia’, in D. N. Rothblatt and A. Sancton (eds), Metropolitan Governance: American/Canadian Intergovernmental Perspectives, Berkeley, CA, Institute of Governmental Studies Press, University of California, 329-73. Metropolitan Governance: American/Canadian Intergovernmental Perspectives 329 73 Google Scholar

ORREN, K. and SKOWRONEK, S. (2004), The Search for American Political Development, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Search for American Political Development Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (1990), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action Google Scholar

PARSONS, T. and SMELSER, N. J. (1956), Economy and Society: A Study in the Integration of Economic and Social Theory, Glencoe, IL, Free Press. Economy and Society: A Study in the Integration of Economic and Social Theory Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2000a), ‘Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics’, American Political Science Review, 94, 251-67. ‘Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics’ American Political Science Review 94 251 67 Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2000b), ‘Not just what, but when: timing and sequence in political processes’, Studies in American Political Development, 14, 72-92. ‘Not just what, but when: timing and sequence in political processes’ Studies in American Political Development 14 72 92 Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2004), Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2006), ‘Public policies as institutions’, in I. Shapiro, S. Skowronek and D. Galvin (eds), Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State, New York, NY, New York University Press, 114-31. Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State 114 31 Google Scholar

PONTUSSON, J. (1995), ‘Putting political institutions in their place and taking interests seriously’, Comparative Political Studies, 28, 117-48. ‘Putting political institutions in their place and taking interests seriously’ Comparative Political Studies 28 117 48 Google Scholar

PONTUSSON, J. (2005), Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe vs. Liberal America, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe vs. Liberal America Google Scholar

PYE, L. W. and VERBA, S. (eds) (1965), Political Culture and Political Development, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Political Culture and Political Development Google Scholar

RHODES, R. A. W. (2008), ‘Policy network analysis’, in M. Moran, M. Rein and R. E. Goodin (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 425-47. The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy 425 47 Google Scholar

SALET, W. G. M., THORNLEY, A. and KREUKELS, A. (eds) (2003), Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning: Comparative Case Studies of European City-Regions, London, Spon. Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning: Comparative Case Studies of European City-Regions Google Scholar

SANYAL, B. (ed.) (2005), Comparative Planning Cultures, New York, NY, Routledge. Comparative Planning Cultures Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (1995), ‘The new world order, incorporated: the rise of business and the decline of the nation-state’, Daedalus, 124, 75-106. ‘The new world order, incorporated: the rise of business and the decline of the nation-state’ Daedalus 124 75 106 Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2008), ‘Discursive institutionalism: the explanatory power of ideas and discourse’, Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 303-26. ‘Discursive institutionalism: the explanatory power of ideas and discourse’ Annual Review of Political Science 11 303 26 Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2010), ‘Taking ideas and discourse seriously: explaining change through discursive institutionalism as the fourth "New Institutionalism"’, European Political Science Review, 2, 1-25. ‘Taking ideas and discourse seriously: explaining change through discursive institutionalism as the fourth "New Institutionalism"’ European Political Science Review 2 1 25 Google Scholar

SKOCPOL, T. (1985), ‘Bringing the state back in: strategies of analysis in current research’, in P. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer and T. Skocpol (eds), Bringing the State Back In, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 3-37. Bringing the State Back In 3 37 Google Scholar

SMITH, R. M. (2006), ‘Which came first, the ideas or the institutions?’, in I. Shapiro, S. Skowronek and D. Galvin (eds), Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State, New York, NY, New York University Press, 91-113. Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State 91 113 Google Scholar

STEAD, D. and NADIN, V. (2009), ‘Planning cultures between models of society and planning systems’, in J. Knieling and F. Othengrafen (eds), Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate, 283-300. Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning 283 300 Google Scholar

STREECK, W. and THELEN, K. (2005), ‘Introduction: institutional change in advanced political economies’, in W. Streeck and K. Thelen (eds), Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies, New York, Oxford University Press, 1-39. Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies 1 39 Google Scholar

TEITZ, M. (2007), ‘Planning and the new institutionalisms’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and Planning, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 17-35. Institutions and Planning 17 35 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. and WILLIAMS, R. H. (2001), The European Dimension of British Planning, New York, NY, Spon Press. The European Dimension of British Planning Google Scholar

THELEN, K. (1999), ‘Historical institutionalism in comparative politics’, Annual Review of Political Science, 2, 369-404. ‘Historical institutionalism in comparative politics’ Annual Review of Political Science 2 369 404 Google Scholar

THELEN, K. (2003), ‘How institutions evolve: insights from comparative historical analysis’, in J. Mahoney and D. Rueschemeyer (eds), Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 208-40. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences 208 40 Google Scholar

THELEN, K. (2004), How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan Google Scholar

TSEBELIS, G. (2002), Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (1999), ‘The international diffusion of planning: a review and a Canadian case study’, International Planning Studies, 4, 53-77. ‘The international diffusion of planning: a review and a Canadian case study’ International Planning Studies 4 53 77 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (2000), ‘Re-examining the international diffusion of planning’, in R. Freestone (ed.), Urban Planning in a Changing World: The Twentieth Century Experience, London, Routledge, 40-60. Urban Planning in a Changing World: The Twentieth Century Experience 40 60 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (2002), Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World, New York, NY, Wiley. Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (ed.) (1992), The Garden City: Past, Present and Future, Oxford, Taylor & Francis. The Garden City: Past, Present and Future Google Scholar

WATERHOUSE, A. (1979), ‘The advent of localism in two planning cultures: Munich and Toronto’, Town Planning Review, 50, 313-24. ‘The advent of localism in two planning cultures: Munich and Toronto’ Town Planning Review 50 313 24 Google Scholar

WENGER, E. (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity Google Scholar

WHEELER, S. M. (2004), Planning for Sustainability Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities, New York, NY, Routledge. Planning for Sustainability Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities Google Scholar

WILLIAMSON, O. E. (1975), Markets and Hierarchies, Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization, New York, NY, Free Press. Markets and Hierarchies, Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C. (2000), ‘The capital of good planning: metropolitan Portland since 1970’, in R. Fishman (ed.), The American Planning Tradition: Culture and Policy, Washington, DC, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 241-62. The American Planning Tradition: Culture and Policy 241 62 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C. and ABBOTT, M. P. (1991), Historical Development of the Metropolitan Service District, Portland, OR, Metropolitan Service District. Historical Development of the Metropolitan Service District Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C. and HOWE, D. A. (1993), ‘The politics of land use law in Oregon: senate bill 100 twenty years after’, Oregon Historical Quarterly, 94, 5-39. ‘The politics of land use law in Oregon: senate bill 100 twenty years after’ Oregon Historical Quarterly 94 5 39 Google Scholar

ABBOTT, C., HOWE, D. A. and ADLER, S. (eds) (1994), Planning the Oregon Way: A Twenty-Year Evaluation, Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University Press. Planning the Oregon Way: A Twenty-Year Evaluation Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L., ALDEN, J. and DE ROSA PIRES, A. (eds) (2001), The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate. The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E. R. (1992), ‘A transaction cost theory of planning’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 58, 190-200. ‘A transaction cost theory of planning’ Journal of the American Planning Association 58 190 200 Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, E. R. (2005), ‘Institutional transformation and planning: from institutionalization theory to institutional design’, Planning Theory, 4, 209-23. ‘Institutional transformation and planning: from institutionalization theory to institutional design’ Planning Theory 4 209 23 Google Scholar

ALMOND, G. A. and POWELL, G. B. (1966), Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach, The Little, Brown Series in Comparative Politics. An Analytic Study, Boston, MA, Little, Brown, & Company. Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach, The Little, Brown Series in Comparative Politics. An Analytic Study Google Scholar

ALMOND, G. A. and VERBA, S. (1963), The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations, Boston, MA, Little, Brown, & Company. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations Google Scholar

AMABLE, B. (2000), ‘Institutional complementarity and diversity of social systems of innovation and production’, Review of International Political Economy, 7, 645-87. ‘Institutional complementarity and diversity of social systems of innovation and production’ Review of International Political Economy 7 645 87 Google Scholar

ARTIBISE, A., CAMERON, K. and SEELIG, J. (2004), ‘Metropolitan organization in greater Vancouver: "do it yourself " regional government’, in D. Phares (eds), Metropolitan Governance without Metropolitan Government?, Aldershot, Ashgate, 195-211 Metropolitan Governance without Metropolitan Government? 195 211 Google Scholar

BEAUREGARD, R. A. (2005), ‘Introduction: institutional transformations’, Planning Theory, 4, 203-7. ‘Introduction: institutional transformations’ Planning Theory 4 203 7 Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (1993), ‘The cultural dimension in comparative research: making sense of development control in France’, European Planning Studies, 1, 217-29. ‘The cultural dimension in comparative research: making sense of development control in France’ European Planning Studies 1 217 29 Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (2011), ‘Culture, planning and path dependence: some reflections on the problems of comparison’, Town Planning Review, 82, 13-28. ‘Culture, planning and path dependence: some reflections on the problems of comparison’ Town Planning Review 82 13 28 Google Scholar

BOOTH, P., BREUILLARD, M., FRASER, C. and PARIS, D. (eds) (2007), Spatial Planning Systems of Britain and France, London, Routledge. Spatial Planning Systems of Britain and France Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, A., CONVERSE, P., MILLER, W. and STOKES, D. (1960), The American Voter, New York, NY, Wiley/University of Michigan Survey Research Center. The American Voter Google Scholar

CHADWICK, N. (2002), Regional Planning in British Columbia: 50 Years of Vision, Process and Practice, Vancouver, School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia. Regional Planning in British Columbia: 50 Years of Vision, Process and Practice Google Scholar

CLEMENS, E. S. (2006), ‘Lineages of the Rube Goldberg state: building and blurring public programs, 1900-1940’, in I. Shapiro, S. Skowronek and D. Galvin (eds), Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State, New York, NY, New York University Press, 380-443. Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State 380 443 Google Scholar

COASE, R. H. (1998), ‘The new institutional economics’, American Economic Review, 88, 72-74. ‘The new institutional economics’ American Economic Review 88 72 74 Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1987), Urban and Regional Planning in Canada, Oxford, Transaction Press. Urban and Regional Planning in Canada Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1993), The Political Culture of Planning: American Land Use Planning in Comparative Perspective, New York, NY, Routledge. The Political Culture of Planning: American Land Use Planning in Comparative Perspective Google Scholar

CULLINGWORTH, J. B. (1994), ‘Alternate planning systems: is there anything to learn from abroad?’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 60, 162-72. ‘Alternate planning systems: is there anything to learn from abroad?’ Journal of the American Planning Association 60 162 72 Google Scholar

DAHL, R. (1961), Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City Google Scholar

DENG, F., GORDON, P. and RICHARDSON, H. W. (2007), ‘Private communities, market institutions, and planning’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and Planning, Oxford, Elsevier, 187-205. Institutions and Planning 187 205 Google Scholar

EDWARDS, M. (2000), ‘Sacred cow or sacrificial lamb? Will London's Green Belt have to go?’, City, 4, 106-12. ‘Sacred cow or sacrificial lamb? Will London's Green Belt have to go?’ City 4 106 12 Google Scholar

ELSON, M. (1986), Green Belts: Conflict Mediation in the Urban Fringe, London, Heinemann. Green Belts: Conflict Mediation in the Urban Fringe Google Scholar

ESPING-ANDERSEN, G. (1990), The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Cambridge, MA, Polity Press. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism Google Scholar

FALUDI, A. (2004), ‘Spatial planning traditions in Europe: their role in the ESDP process’, International Planning Studies, 9, 155-72. ‘Spatial planning traditions in Europe: their role in the ESDP process’ International Planning Studies 9 155 72 Google Scholar

FORESTER, J. (1989), Planning in the Face of Power, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press. Planning in the Face of Power Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1967), ‘The institutional context’, in B. M. Gross (ed.), Action under Planning: The Guidance of Economic Development, New York, NY, McGraw Hill, 31-67. Action under Planning: The Guidance of Economic Development 31 67 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1973), Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning, Garden City, NY, Anchor Press/Doubleday. Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (1987), Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2005a), ‘Globalization and the emerging culture of planning’, Progress in Planning, 64, 183-234. ‘Globalization and the emerging culture of planning’ Progress in Planning 64 183 234 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2005b), ‘Planning cultures in transition’, in B. Sanyal (ed.), Comparative Planning Cultures, New York, NY, Routledge, 29-44. Comparative Planning Cultures 29 44 Google Scholar

GILMAN, N. (2007), Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America, Baltimore, NJ, Johns Hopkins University Press. Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America Google Scholar

GURRAN, N. (2011), Australian Urban Land Use Planning: Principles, Systems and Practice (2nd edn), Sydney, Sydney University Press. Australian Urban Land Use Planning: Principles, Systems and Practice Google Scholar

HAAS, P. M. (1992), ‘Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination’, International Organization, 46, 1-35. ‘Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination’ International Organization 46 1 35 Google Scholar

HACKER, J. (2004), ‘Privatizing risk without privatizing the welfare state: the hidden politics of social policy retrenchment in the United States’, American Political Science Review, 98, 243-60. ‘Privatizing risk without privatizing the welfare state: the hidden politics of social policy retrenchment in the United States’ American Political Science Review 98 243 60 Google Scholar

HALL, P. G. (2002), Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in Twentieth Century (3rd edn), Oxford, Blackwell. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in Twentieth Century Google Scholar

HALL, P. V. and SOSKICE, D. (eds) (2001), Varieties of Capitalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Varieties of Capitalism Google Scholar

HALL, P. V. and TAYLOR, R. (1996), ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’, Political Studies, 44, 936-57. ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’ Political Studies 44 936 57 Google Scholar

HANNA, K. S. and WEBBER, S. M. (2010), ‘Incremental planning and land-use conflict in the Toronto region's Oak Ridges Moraine’, Local Environment, 15, 169-83. ‘Incremental planning and land-use conflict in the Toronto region's Oak Ridges Moraine’ Local Environment 15 169 83 Google Scholar

HAY, C. (2008), ‘Constructivist institutionalism’, in R. A. W. Rhodes, S. A. Binder and B. A. Rockman (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 56-74. The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions 56 74 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1997), Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, Vancouver, UBC Press. Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2010), ‘Introduction: the transnational flow of knowledge and expertise in the planning field’, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, London, Routledge, 1-26. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices 1 26 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and UPTON, R. (2010), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, Rtpi Library Series, London, Routledge. Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, Rtpi Library Series Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and WILLIAMS, R. (1993), ‘European urban planning systems: diversity and convergence’, Urban Studies, 30, 701-20. ‘European urban planning systems: diversity and convergence’ Urban Studies 30 701 20 Google Scholar

HOME, R. K. (1997), Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities (1st edn), Studies in History, Planning, and the Environment, London, Spon. Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities (1st edn), Studies in History, Planning, and the Environment Google Scholar

KELLER, D. A., KOCH, M. and SELLE, K. (1996), ‘"Either/or" and "and": first impressions of a journey into the planning cultures of four countries’, Planning Perspectives, 11, 41-54. ‘"Either/or" and "and": first impressions of a journey into the planning cultures of four countries’ Planning Perspectives 11 41 54 Google Scholar

KEOHANE, R. and MILNER, H. (eds) (1996), Internationalization and Domestic Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Internationalization and Domestic Politics Google Scholar

KITSCHELT, H. (1999), Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism Google Scholar

KNIELING, J. and OTHENGRAFEN, F. (eds) (2009), Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate. Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning Google Scholar

KRASNER, S. (1984), ‘Review article: approaches to the state: alternative conceptions and historical dynamics’, Comparative Politics, 16, 223-46. ‘Review article: approaches to the state: alternative conceptions and historical dynamics’ Comparative Politics 16 223 46 Google Scholar

LARSSON, G. (2006), Spatial Planning Systems in Western Europe: An Overview, Amsterdam, IOS Press. Spatial Planning Systems in Western Europe: An Overview Google Scholar

LOGAN, T. H. (1976), ‘The Americanization of German zoning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 42, 377-85. ‘The Americanization of German zoning’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 42 377 85 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MAHONEY, J. and THELEN, K. (eds) (2010b), Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power Google Scholar

MARCH, J. G. and OLSEN, J. P. (1984), ‘The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life’, American Political Science Review, 78, 734-49. ‘The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life’ American Political Science Review 78 734 49 Google Scholar

MARSH, D. and RHODES, R. A. W. (eds) (1992), Policy Networks in British Government, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Policy Networks in British Government Google Scholar

MASSER, I. (1984), ‘Cross national comparative planning studies: a review’, Town Planning Review, 55, 137-49. ‘Cross national comparative planning studies: a review’ Town Planning Review 55 137 49 Google Scholar

MASSER, I. and WILLIAMS, R. H. (1986), Learning from Other Countries: The Cross-National Dimension in Urban Policy-Making, Norwich, Geo Books. Learning from Other Countries: The Cross-National Dimension in Urban Policy-Making Google Scholar

MOORE, P. W. (1979), ‘Zoning and planning: the Toronto experience, 1904-1970’, in A. F. J. Artibise and G. A. Stelter (eds), The Usable Urban Past: Planning and Politics in the Modern Canadian City, Toronto, Macmillan, 316-41. The Usable Urban Past: Planning and Politics in the Modern Canadian City 316 41 Google Scholar

NASR, J. and VOLAIT, M. (eds) (2003), Urbanism Imported or Exported? Native Aspirations and Foreign Plans, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. Urbanism Imported or Exported? Native Aspirations and Foreign Plans Google Scholar

NELSON, R. H. (1980), Zoning and Property Rights: An Analysis of the American System of Land Use Regulation, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Zoning and Property Rights: An Analysis of the American System of Land Use Regulation Google Scholar

NEWMAN, P. and THORNLEY, A. (1996), Urban Planning in Europe: International Competition, National Systems, and Planning Projects, London, Routledge. Urban Planning in Europe: International Competition, National Systems, and Planning Projects Google Scholar

NORDLINGER, E. A. (1988), ‘The return to the state: critiques’, American Political Science Review, 82, 875-901. ‘The return to the state: critiques’ American Political Science Review 82 875 901 Google Scholar

NORTH, D. C. (1990), Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, New York, NY, Cambridge. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance Google Scholar

OBERLANDER, H. P. and SMITH, P. J. (1993), ‘Governing metropolitan Vancouver: regional intergovernmental relations in British Columbia’, in D. N. Rothblatt and A. Sancton (eds), Metropolitan Governance: American/Canadian Intergovernmental Perspectives, Berkeley, CA, Institute of Governmental Studies Press, University of California, 329-73. Metropolitan Governance: American/Canadian Intergovernmental Perspectives 329 73 Google Scholar

ORREN, K. and SKOWRONEK, S. (2004), The Search for American Political Development, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Search for American Political Development Google Scholar

OSTROM, E. (1990), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action Google Scholar

PARSONS, T. and SMELSER, N. J. (1956), Economy and Society: A Study in the Integration of Economic and Social Theory, Glencoe, IL, Free Press. Economy and Society: A Study in the Integration of Economic and Social Theory Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2000a), ‘Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics’, American Political Science Review, 94, 251-67. ‘Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics’ American Political Science Review 94 251 67 Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2000b), ‘Not just what, but when: timing and sequence in political processes’, Studies in American Political Development, 14, 72-92. ‘Not just what, but when: timing and sequence in political processes’ Studies in American Political Development 14 72 92 Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2004), Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis Google Scholar

PIERSON, P. (2006), ‘Public policies as institutions’, in I. Shapiro, S. Skowronek and D. Galvin (eds), Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State, New York, NY, New York University Press, 114-31. Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State 114 31 Google Scholar

PONTUSSON, J. (1995), ‘Putting political institutions in their place and taking interests seriously’, Comparative Political Studies, 28, 117-48. ‘Putting political institutions in their place and taking interests seriously’ Comparative Political Studies 28 117 48 Google Scholar

PONTUSSON, J. (2005), Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe vs. Liberal America, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe vs. Liberal America Google Scholar

PYE, L. W. and VERBA, S. (eds) (1965), Political Culture and Political Development, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Political Culture and Political Development Google Scholar

RHODES, R. A. W. (2008), ‘Policy network analysis’, in M. Moran, M. Rein and R. E. Goodin (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 425-47. The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy 425 47 Google Scholar

SALET, W. G. M., THORNLEY, A. and KREUKELS, A. (eds) (2003), Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning: Comparative Case Studies of European City-Regions, London, Spon. Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning: Comparative Case Studies of European City-Regions Google Scholar

SANYAL, B. (ed.) (2005), Comparative Planning Cultures, New York, NY, Routledge. Comparative Planning Cultures Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (1995), ‘The new world order, incorporated: the rise of business and the decline of the nation-state’, Daedalus, 124, 75-106. ‘The new world order, incorporated: the rise of business and the decline of the nation-state’ Daedalus 124 75 106 Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2008), ‘Discursive institutionalism: the explanatory power of ideas and discourse’, Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 303-26. ‘Discursive institutionalism: the explanatory power of ideas and discourse’ Annual Review of Political Science 11 303 26 Google Scholar

SCHMIDT, V. A. (2010), ‘Taking ideas and discourse seriously: explaining change through discursive institutionalism as the fourth "New Institutionalism"’, European Political Science Review, 2, 1-25. ‘Taking ideas and discourse seriously: explaining change through discursive institutionalism as the fourth "New Institutionalism"’ European Political Science Review 2 1 25 Google Scholar

SKOCPOL, T. (1985), ‘Bringing the state back in: strategies of analysis in current research’, in P. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer and T. Skocpol (eds), Bringing the State Back In, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 3-37. Bringing the State Back In 3 37 Google Scholar

SMITH, R. M. (2006), ‘Which came first, the ideas or the institutions?’, in I. Shapiro, S. Skowronek and D. Galvin (eds), Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State, New York, NY, New York University Press, 91-113. Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State 91 113 Google Scholar

STEAD, D. and NADIN, V. (2009), ‘Planning cultures between models of society and planning systems’, in J. Knieling and F. Othengrafen (eds), Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning, Aldershot, Ashgate, 283-300. Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning 283 300 Google Scholar

STREECK, W. and THELEN, K. (2005), ‘Introduction: institutional change in advanced political economies’, in W. Streeck and K. Thelen (eds), Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies, New York, Oxford University Press, 1-39. Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies 1 39 Google Scholar

TEITZ, M. (2007), ‘Planning and the new institutionalisms’, in N. Verma (ed.), Institutions and Planning, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 17-35. Institutions and Planning 17 35 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. and WILLIAMS, R. H. (2001), The European Dimension of British Planning, New York, NY, Spon Press. The European Dimension of British Planning Google Scholar

THELEN, K. (1999), ‘Historical institutionalism in comparative politics’, Annual Review of Political Science, 2, 369-404. ‘Historical institutionalism in comparative politics’ Annual Review of Political Science 2 369 404 Google Scholar

THELEN, K. (2003), ‘How institutions evolve: insights from comparative historical analysis’, in J. Mahoney and D. Rueschemeyer (eds), Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 208-40. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences 208 40 Google Scholar

THELEN, K. (2004), How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan Google Scholar

TSEBELIS, G. (2002), Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (1999), ‘The international diffusion of planning: a review and a Canadian case study’, International Planning Studies, 4, 53-77. ‘The international diffusion of planning: a review and a Canadian case study’ International Planning Studies 4 53 77 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (2000), ‘Re-examining the international diffusion of planning’, in R. Freestone (ed.), Urban Planning in a Changing World: The Twentieth Century Experience, London, Routledge, 40-60. Urban Planning in a Changing World: The Twentieth Century Experience 40 60 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (2002), Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World, New York, NY, Wiley. Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (ed.) (1992), The Garden City: Past, Present and Future, Oxford, Taylor & Francis. The Garden City: Past, Present and Future Google Scholar

WATERHOUSE, A. (1979), ‘The advent of localism in two planning cultures: Munich and Toronto’, Town Planning Review, 50, 313-24. ‘The advent of localism in two planning cultures: Munich and Toronto’ Town Planning Review 50 313 24 Google Scholar

WENGER, E. (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity Google Scholar

WHEELER, S. M. (2004), Planning for Sustainability Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities, New York, NY, Routledge. Planning for Sustainability Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities Google Scholar

WILLIAMSON, O. E. (1975), Markets and Hierarchies, Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization, New York, NY, Free Press. Markets and Hierarchies, Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Taylor, Zack